36 Multiple choice questions
from the belief that both the individual's and society's higher
interests are best served by unfettered reason and encourages one to
arrive at their own conclusions through their own powers of rational
thinking. The opposite of Intellectual distrust of reason.
of oneself without adhering to the standards of rationality. Reasoning
through issues on one's own rather than uncritically accepting others'
viewpoints, relying on one's own reasoning when deciding what to or what
not to believe, and accepting other's views only so far as they are
reasonable in light of the evidence. The opposite of intellectual
by contradictions and inconsistencies of which one is unconscious,
hiding one's own hypocrisy, and regarding oneself as fair even when
expecting others to follow much more rigorous standards. The opposite of
that does not consider counter viewpoints, that lacks fair-mindedness,
and that uses critical thinking skills simply to defend current beliefs.
- Thinking which is deep and highly insightful.
- The tendency to view everything in relationship to oneself and to regard one's own opinions, values, or interests as important.
- Thinking, feeling, and wanting.
centered on one's self that deters understanding of others' thoughts,
feelings, and emotions. Does not permit consideration of problems or
issues from another viewpoint. The opposite of intellectual empathy.
the meanings created by thinking, evaluates the degree to which life's
events are either positive or negative given the meaning we assign to
them, and continually informs us how we should respond emotionally to
what is happening in our lives.
- Flaws or errors in reasoning which, when found in the premise of an argument, invalidate its conclusion.
the perspectives of others in order to genuinely understand them.
Requires the ability to reconstruct other's viewpoints and reasoning,
reason from ideas not one's own, concede when one is wrong despite
strong conviction of being right, and imagine being similarly mistaken
in a current situation. The opposite of intellectual self-centeredness.
energy into action and does so consistent with how we define what is
desirable and possible. Continually tells us what is or is not worth
seeking or getting.
ideas, viewpoints, or beliefs with fairness, examining fairly beliefs
which one has strong negative feelings and toward which one has
previously been dismissive, and challenging popular belief. The opposite
of intellectual cowardice.
one's way through intellectual complexities despite frustrations
inherent in doing so, reasoning through issues carefully and
methodically, and following rational principles instead of initial
impressions and simplistic answers. The opposite of intellectual
- Improving one's own thinking -- reconstructing it to make it better.
- The commitment to consider all relevant opinions equally without regard to one's own sentiments or selfish interests.
of one's own knowledge and no insight into self-deception or the
limitations of one's viewpoint. The opposite of intellectual humility.
wasted time, handle one problem per day, internalize intellectual
standards, keep an intellectual journal, practice intellectual
strategies, reshape your character, redefine the way you see things, get
in touch with your emotions, and analyze group influences on your life.
oneself to the same rigorous intellectual standard that one expects
others to meet, admitting flaws in one's own thinking, and identifying
weaknesses in one's own thinking. The opposite of intellectual
of confidence in reason. Inclines one to assert the truth through one's
own beliefs regardless of flaws. The opposite of confidence in reason.
term for critical thinking. It is ordinary thinking that is consciously
realized (i.e., analyzed, assessed, and improved) (Paul and Elder
- A fixed or oversimplified conception of person, group, or idea.
dependence. Generally perpetuated by the status quo while providing
scant incentive for true intellectual autonomy. The opposite of
- Evaluating one's own critical thinking -- identifying its weaknesses while recognizing its strengths.
- The ability to win an argument regardless of flaws in its reasoning.
- Analyzing one's own thinking -- breaking it down into its component parts.
that uses critical thinking skills to evaluate all beliefs, especially
one's own, and that pursues what is intellectually fair and just.
of ideas that do not conform to one's own, dismisses ideas, beliefs, or
viewpoints perceived as dangerous, and threatened ideas conflicting
with one's own self-identity. The opposite of intellectual courage.
- Analyzing, evaluating, and improving one's own critical thinking.
meaning, sorts events in our lives into categories, finds patterns in
the world around us, and informs us what is going on.
no responsibility to represent disagreeing viewpoints with fairness or
accuracy, always sees itself as just and right, and often involves
up quickly when confronted with a tough intellectual challenge and
reflecting low tolerance for mental struggle or frustration. The
opposite of intellectual perseverance.
to discovering the extent of one's own ignorance, that one does not and
cannot know everything, awareness of one's biases and prejudices and
viewpoint limitations, recognition that one should only claim what one
actually knows, and awareness that egocentrism is often self-deceiving.
The opposite of intellectual arrogance.
- Not something you add onto everything else, but rather, the way you approach everything you do.
- The assumption that one's own social group is inherently superior to all others.
- Ordinary thinking (Paul and Elder term).