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214 True/False questions

  1. day-to-day occurences_____ is comforting and upbeat concerning our own welfare and the satisfaction of our deepest desires.

          

  2. more persuasiveYour text argues that acknowledging limitations makes your writing ______. Fill in the blank:

          

  3. Straw ManWhen we misrepresent an opponent's position or a competitor's product, or go after a weaker opponent or competitor while ignoring a stronger one.

          

  4. questionable premisewhen we label something as the cause of something else on the basis of insufficient or unrepresentative evidence, or when doing so contradicts well-established, high-level theories.

          

  5. euphemismsWords such as "because, since, for" usually indicate that what follows is a ___ of an argument

          

  6. pseudoscience_____ is comforting and upbeat concerning our own welfare and the satisfaction of our deepest desires.

          

  7. partisan mind-setThe tendency to perceive evidence and to judge arguments via an "us against them" or a "my right view against your wrong view" attitude.

          

  8. self-deception_______ ______- believing what we want to believe, no matter what the evidence- or from its variant, called self-deception- consciously believing what, at some deeper level, we know to be dubious.

          

  9. inconsistencyWe commit the fallacy of ______ when we are persuaded to accept the conclusion of an argument that contains self-contradictory statements or statements that contradict each other.

          

  10. save moneyNews-gathering methods are designed to do which of the following, according to your text?

          

  11. pseudoscientific beliefsMore representative samples yield higher probabilities than those that are less _________.

          

  12. clichesTrue or False: Qualitative research grew, in part, out of Freudian psychological theories of the unconscious mind.

          

  13. narrative toneStyle of writing characterized by stories and anecdotes.

          

  14. separate fact from fictionOften the press can report political spin without analyzing it to do which of the following?

          

  15. precisionOveruse of ambiguous and abstract words such as "a great deal, many, often, a high probability," and so on are indicative of-

          

  16. Ruby returned after 1:45.1. If A then B.
    2. Not A.
    3. Not B.

          

  17. Anticipate and counter-argue readers' objections.Most claims in business, and in persuasive writing more generally, tend to be contestable claims. This requires the author of the argument to do which of the following "destructive testing" on their ideas?

          

  18. None but that it is said.Any argument that doesn't have a deductively valid form.

          

  19. tokenismanother word for "good" in reasoning

          

  20. particular negative"No S are P."

          

  21. questionable causeemploying statistics that are questionable without further support. Example: Accepting government statistics on short-term business trends as completely accurate rather than just educated approximations. Extreme example: Employing unknowable statistics about how many wars have been fought in the past 5,000 years and how many casualties there have been.

          

  22. fine-print disclaimersAccording to your text, those who have the most important say as to what sort of news stories are presented in the media are:

          

  23. superstitionsThe fallacy of ______ ("salesman's fallacy") or "the consumer's fallacy, is committed when someone assumes that a particular item must have a certain property because all of its parts have that property.

          

  24. three types of rival causeserroneously accusing others of fallacious reasoning.

          

  25. concept mapThe claim in the argument is also called, "the thesis." Another term for the claim in an argument is:

          

  26. Appeal to AuthorityAccepting the word of an authority, alleged or genuine, when we shouldn't.

          

  27. FalseTrue or False: Tone informs or states a fact about things, events or properties of one kind or another.

          

  28. modus ponensNews-gathering methods are designed to do which of the following, according to your text?

          

  29. categorical propositionHaving found that 490 of the first 1,000 observed tosses of a given coin land face up, we can conclude that 49 percent of all of the tosses with that coin will land face up.
    The above claim is an example of which kind of induction?

          

  30. proportionWords such as "because, since, for" usually indicate that what follows is a ___ of an argument

          

  31. rationalization_______ often supports procrastination- putting off until tomorrow what ought to be done today.

          

  32. modus tollensWhich of the following are deductively valid argument forms?

          

  33. anxiety, stressself-deception frequently aids in the reduction of _____ and _____, both of which can be harmful to health.

          

  34. Alfalfa Diner, Luigi's, and Hotdog Hut are other restaurants.we commit this when we accept the testimony of someone who has no expertise in the relevant area.

          

  35. manipulatePseudosciences also gain widespread acceptance because charlatans have learned how to _____ us in our ungaurded or weak moments. (ex- Hitler)

          

  36. falseGood statistics will necessarily result in good reasoning about those statistics.

          

  37. syllogisman argument containing three categorical propositions, two of them premises, one a conclusion.

          

  38. Reverse causationWhen two factors, A and B, are correlated, it may be that A is causing B, but it is also possible that B is causing A.

          

  39. deductively invalidaffirming the consequent and denying the antecedent are examples of _______ argument forms

          

  40. straw mancommitted when we misrepresent an opponent's position, or a competitor's product, or go after a weaker opponent or competitor while ignoring a stronger one.

          

  41. ConcatenatedWhat kind of reasoning is used if one joins together inductions and deductions in the discovery of a pattern that fits what has been observed or previously reasoned to?

          

  42. ad hominemWords such as "because, since, for" usually indicate that what follows is a ___ of an argument

          

  43. InconsistencyWhen we are persuaded to accept the conclusion of an argument that contains self-contradictory statements or statements that contradict each other.

          

  44. cogentanother word for "good" in reasoning

          

  45. Appeal to IgnoranceTaking the absence of evidence, and thus the absence of refutation, as justification for believing that a claim is true.

          

  46. universal negative"No S are P."

          

  47. evading the issueOne effective way to beg the question at issue is simply to avoid it entirely. Doing this makes one guilty of the fallacy of ________.

          

  48. Induction by EnumerationIf I conclude from surveying 700 people that, because all 700 people I interviewed believed that Pepsi tasted better than Diet Pepsi, all people believe that Pepsi tastes better than Diet Pepsi, what kind of induction am I using?

          

  49. validIf a statementit has modens or syllagism in the name, it is-

          

  50. sexist languageWhich of the following is NOT an example of a weasel word?

          

  51. Statistical InductionHaving found that 490 of the first 1,000 observed tosses of a given coin land face up, we can conclude that 49 percent of all of the tosses with that coin will land face up.
    The above claim is an example of which kind of induction?

          

  52. questionable analogyWe aren't always justified in reasoning by analogy. When we do so anyway, we are guilty of the fallacy of ________, sometimes referred to as faulty comparison.

          

  53. biased statistics____ _____ use the emotive side of language to mask cognitive meaning by whipping up emotions so that reason is overlooked and to dull the force of language so as to make acceptable what otherwise might not be. The latter purpose often is accomplished by means of euphemisms (less offensive or dullar expressions used in place of more offensive of emotively charged locutions.)

          

  54. Concede that your claim is false.Which of the following is NOT a way to limit your claim that your text discusses?

          

  55. modus ponens1. If A then B.
    2. A.
    3. B.

          

  56. scapegoatsprejudice against others often is conjoined with an overtolerance of the defects and foibles of one's own group and its members, and it may be reinforced by the need to find _____- others who can be blamed for our own troubles and mistakes.

          

  57. probabilityconcerns the nature of the connection between the premises and conclusion of an argument, not the truth or believability of its premises.

          

  58. suppressionOveruse of ambiguous and abstract words such as "a great deal, many, often, a high probability," and so on are indicative of-

          

  59. falseemploying the right ____ can be used to mask lack of cogent reasoning or content or to sway audiences via emotional appeals.

          

  60. uncontested claims1. claims consistent with our experiences. 2. claims independent of interpretation. 3. areas in which there is agreement among experts. 4. technical or mathematical claims.

          

  61. Hypothetical SyllogismIf we successfully market silly bands, then lots of people will buy silly bands.
    If lots of people buy silly bands, then our company will make a profit.
    Therefore, if we successfully market silly bands then our company will make a profit.
    The previous argument is an example of which type of deductively valid argument form?

          

  62. obfuscationAccepting an argument that is invalid because we are fooled by an equivocal use of language.

          

  63. government officialclaims that are not commonly accepted knowledge.

          

  64. statistical inductionHaving found that a certain percentage of the As examined have the property in question, we can conclude that the same percentage of the total population of As have that property.

          

  65. denying the antecedent1. If A then B.
    2. Not A.
    3. Not B.

          

  66. expositoryA passage that is purely ______ gives us no reason to accept any "facts" it may contain (other than the implied authority of the writer or speaker."

          

  67. hypothetical syllogism1. A or B.
    2. Not A.
    3. B.

          

  68. hasty conclusioncommitted when we draw a conclusion from relevant but insufficient evidence.

          

  69. affirming the consequentWhat kind of evidence is offered in valid induction?

          

  70. guilt by associationAccepting an argument on the basis of relevant but insufficient information.

          

  71. irrelevant reasonused to refer to reasons or premises that are irrelevant to a conclusion when the error doesn't fit a narrower fallacy category such as ad hominem argument or two wrongs make a right.

          

  72. false charge of fallacywe reason from the similarity of two things in several relevant respects to their similarity in another.

          

  73. formDilemma _____:
    Either P or Q.
    If P then R.
    If Q then S.
    Therefore, either R or S.

          

  74. contradiction"Jim sold more cars than Sally and Sally sold more cars than Jim," is an example of which of the following statements?

          

  75. inconsistentThe statement, "Jerry ate all of the pizza" is an example of which kind of statement?

          

  76. self deceptionConsciously believing what at a deeper level we know to be dubious.

          

  77. contingenta combination of the claim and the evidence for it. (because, as a result, in the first place, in the second place, for example, in addition, given that, studies show, etc.)

          

  78. differenceSlanting is also referred to by which of the following terms?

          

  79. equivocationAccepting an argument that is invalid because we are fooled by an equivocal use of language.

          

  80. disjunctive syllogismIf we successfully market silly bands, then lots of people will buy silly bands.
    If lots of people buy silly bands, then our company will make a profit.
    Therefore, if we successfully market silly bands then our company will make a profit.
    The previous argument is an example of which type of deductively valid argument form?

          

  81. false dilemmaan argument that presents two alternatives, both claimed to be bad for someone, or some position.

          

  82. hasty conclusionAccepting an argument on the basis of relevant but insufficient information.

          

  83. trueTrue or False: Slanting is a form of misrepresentation.

          

  84. higher-levelMore general, ___________ inductions can be used to evaluate those that are less general.

          

  85. prudencepromise advertisements promise to satisfy desires.

          

  86. unrepresentative sample"No S are P."

          

  87. rationalization, suppression, and denial.Three other important ways to cut the wishful thinking pie are _____, _____, and _____.

          

  88. advertisements pound home slogansYour text uses the "Chevrolet. Like A Rock," slogan as an example of which of the following techniques?

          

  89. goodCogent reasoning is reasoning that is:

          

  90. questionable statisticsemploying statistics that are questionable without further support. Example: Accepting government statistics on short-term business trends as completely accurate rather than just educated approximations. Extreme example: Employing unknowable statistics about how many wars have been fought in the past 5,000 years and how many casualties there have been.

          

  91. fallacy of hasty generalization_______ often supports procrastination- putting off until tomorrow what ought to be done today.

          

  92. slipperycommon rhetorical devices often are used in a _____ manner. Ex- slanting words and expressions ("all this proves is that...") weasel words, fine-print disclaimers, obfuscation.

          

  93. deductively invalidmodus ponens, modus tollens, hypothetical syllogism, and disjunctive syllogism are all examples of _______ ______ argument forms.

          

  94. ad hominemLocutions from which as much negative emotive content as possible has been removed.

          

  95. demand by patients_______ ______- believing what we want to believe, no matter what the evidence- or from its variant, called self-deception- consciously believing what, at some deeper level, we know to be dubious.

          

  96. tokenismMistaking a token gesture for the real thing, or accepting a token gesture in lieu of something more concrete.

          

  97. con artists____ _____ use the emotive side of language to mask cognitive meaning by whipping up emotions so that reason is overlooked and to dull the force of language so as to make acceptable what otherwise might not be. The latter purpose often is accomplished by means of euphemisms (less offensive or dullar expressions used in place of more offensive of emotively charged locutions.)

          

  98. contradictiona statement that is necessarily false (because it contradicts itself.) "Barry Bonds did take steroids, and he didn't take them."

          

  99. premiseWords such as "because, since, for" usually indicate that what follows is a ___ of an argument

          

  100. the use of language to convinceWhat does the word "Rhetoric" mean?

          

  101. Affirming the consequentIf Chris quits her job then she will be broke.
    Chris is broke.
    Therefore Chris quit her job.
    Therefore Chris quit her job.
    The previous argument is an example of which type of deductively invalid argument form?

          

  102. reality assumptionsour beliefs about what events have taken place, what exists or how things work in the world.

          

  103. more information mattersAccepting an argument that is invalid because we are fooled by an equivocal use of language.

          

  104. organizational inconsistencythinking of a large organization as a kind of artificial person; have one representative speak out of one side of the mouth while the other speaks from the other side.

          

  105. falseTrue or False: Qualitative research grew, in part, out of Freudian psychological theories of the unconscious mind.

          

  106. Private consumers do not buy many laptops at the same time.Which of the statements below is an example of a reality assumption for the following claim:
    "It is not a good marketing strategy to sell laptops in ten-pack units if you are only selling to private consumers."

          

  107. TrueTrue or False: To obfuscate means to make so confused or opaque as to be difficult to perceive or understand, to render indistinct or dim.

          

  108. validityconcerns the nature of the connection between the premises and conclusion of an argument, not the truth or believability of its premises.

          

  109. reasoningthe essential ingredient in problem solving.

          

  110. it must contain expositionWhich of the following is NOT a criterion of cogent reasoning?

          

  111. inductive reasoningOne definite counterexample shoots down an _________ induction.

          

  112. truepromise advertisements promise to satisfy desires.

          

  113. the consumerAccording to your text, those who have the most important say as to what sort of news stories are presented in the media are:

          

  114. learning from experienceWhat kind of evidence is offered in valid induction?

          

  115. trueThere is no such thing as a "Poll Fallacy".

          

  116. provincialismOveruse of ambiguous and abstract words such as "a great deal, many, often, a high probability," and so on are indicative of-

          

  117. Present the negative evidence in order to show that you have given it consideration.If I conclude from surveying 700 people that, because all 700 people I interviewed believed that Pepsi tasted better than Diet Pepsi, all people believe that Pepsi tastes better than Diet Pepsi, what kind of induction am I using?

          

  118. Trueemploying the right ____ can be used to mask lack of cogent reasoning or content or to sway audiences via emotional appeals.

          

  119. compositionThe fallacy of ______ ("salesman's fallacy") or "the consumer's fallacy, is committed when someone assumes that a particular item must have a certain property because all of its parts have that property.

          

  120. appeal to ignoranceOveruse of ambiguous and abstract words such as "a great deal, many, often, a high probability," and so on are indicative of-

          

  121. toneemploying the right ____ can be used to mask lack of cogent reasoning or content or to sway audiences via emotional appeals.

          

  122. reasoning by analogywe reason from the similarity of two things in several relevant respects to their similarity in another.

          

  123. euphemismLocutions from which as much negative emotive content as possible has been removed.

          

  124. Universal Affirmative"No S are P."

          

  125. falseTrue or false: With Induction, more representative samples yield lower probabilities than those that are less representative.

          

  126. traditional wisdomA psychological ploy that we use to ignore or deny unpleasant evidence so as to feel justified in doing what we want to do or in belieiving what we find comfortable to believe.

          

  127. falseIf a statementit has modens or syllagism in the name, it is-

          

  128. falseTrue or false: It is the case that if an argument is inductively correct then the conclusion is factually correct as well.

          

  129. prejudiceWords such as "because, since, for" usually indicate that what follows is a ___ of an argument

          

  130. fallacy of false appeal to authoritywe commit this when we accept the testimony of someone who has no expertise in the relevant area.

          

  131. procrastination"Jim sold more cars than Sally and Sally sold more cars than Jim," is an example of which of the following statements?

          

  132. pollsDilemma _____:
    Either P or Q.
    If P then R.
    If Q then S.
    Therefore, either R or S.

          

  133. rationalizationA psychological ploy that we use to ignore or deny unpleasant evidence so as to feel justified in doing what we want to do or in belieiving what we find comfortable to believe.

          

  134. Nitpicking every detail in an argument where certain assumptions can be reasonably made."The tooth fairy turned out not to be real. The Easter Bunny turned out not to be real. So I'm beginning to wonder about Santa." An example of:______

          

  135. psuedoscienceTheories put forth by "scientists" that continue to be accepted by a significant number of people in spite of the fact that they produce no postive results whatsoever.

          

  136. coverage of events will be automaticWhat does the word "Rhetoric" mean?

          

  137. A subject-predicate proposition that asserts or denies a relationship between a subject class and a predicate.A categorical proposition is which of the following types of arguments?

          

  138. common practicecommitted when a wrong is justified on the grounds not that one other person or group, but rather lots of, or most, or even all others do the same sort of thing.

          

  139. suppressed evidenceneglecting relevant evidence makes us guilty of the fallacy______

          

  140. emotivemost words have _____ meanings (in addition to cognitive meanings). Words like oppression, kike, and bitch have more or less negative (con) overtones; words like spring, free, and satisfaction have positive (pro) overtones; and words like socialism, marijuana, and God have mixed overtones.

          

  141. falseTrue or False: Qualitative Research gathers information by observation, experimentation and surveys.

          

  142. falseTrue or False: For business writing, it is always best to present the most analytical, matter-of-fact writing in order to be convincing.

          

  143. partisan mind-setWords such as "because, since, for" usually indicate that what follows is a ___ of an argument

          

  144. questionable analogyDrawing an analogical conclusion when the cases compared are not relevantly alike.

          

  145. because they workWhat reason does your book offer for why negative campaign ads continue despite voter outcry against them?

          

  146. concatenatedOthers (often minorities within a larger culture) we can blame for the ills of the world when in fact we ourselves may bear a large measure of responsibility.

          

  147. fallaciousWe reason by ______ when we conclude from the observed similarity of two or more items in some respects to their similarity in another.

          

  148. Inductively_________ valid arguments have conclusions that go beyond what is contained in their premises, projecting patterns stated in the premises onto additional cases. (experience)

          

  149. questionable uses of statisticsPerfectly good statistics also sometimes are a problem-- for two reasons. The first is the inability of so many people to understand the significance of this statistic or that, made worse by the natural tendency in all of us to see statistics as favoring conclusions we already have drawn. The second is the ability of charlatans to bamboozle the rest of us via cleverly employed statistics. Ex: Accepting evidence that the murder rate in states that have adopted a death penalty for serious crimes is higher than in states that have not done so as proof the the death penalty does not deter crime, without further evidence that this statistical evidence has a causal foundation

          

  150. patteringWe can think of induction as a kind of ______.

          

  151. 42.3% of Samsung A670 users reported problems with their cell phones within the first 30 days of use.Perfectly good statistics also sometimes are a problem-- for two reasons. The first is the inability of so many people to understand the significance of this statistic or that, made worse by the natural tendency in all of us to see statistics as favoring conclusions we already have drawn. The second is the ability of charlatans to bamboozle the rest of us via cleverly employed statistics. Ex: Accepting evidence that the murder rate in states that have adopted a death penalty for serious crimes is higher than in states that have not done so as proof the the death penalty does not deter crime, without further evidence that this statistical evidence has a causal foundation

          

  152. tautologyA type of reasoning where we reason from the similarity of two things in several relevant respects to their similarity in another.

          

  153. advertisersThe media is not only beholden to the people but also to which of the following?

          

  154. deductive and inductivetwo kinds of valid reasoning.

          

  155. trueemploying the right ____ can be used to mask lack of cogent reasoning or content or to sway audiences via emotional appeals.

          

  156. central claimanother word for thesis.

          

  157. induction by enumerationIf we reason from the fact that all As observed so far are Bs to the conclusion that all As whatsoever are Bs, which kind of induction would we be utilizing?

          

  158. particular NegativeA psychological ploy that we use to ignore or deny unpleasant evidence so as to feel justified in doing what we want to do or in belieiving what we find comfortable to believe.

          

  159. Begging the QuestionAn extreme example of self-deception where the individual persists in deceiving themselves despite mounting evidence.

          

  160. GEAs an example of Corporate Image Whitewashing, your text references the "eco imagination" campaign. Which company launched that campaign?

          

  161. weasel wordsOthers (often minorities within a larger culture) we can blame for the ills of the world when in fact we ourselves may bear a large measure of responsibility.

          

  162. deductively validmodus ponens, modus tollens, hypothetical syllogism, and disjunctive syllogism are all examples of _______ ______ argument forms.

          

  163. unrepresentative sample____ often are supported by a small amount of evidence. What makes them this is what we believe them on the basis of insufficient and, frequently, biased samples from which all negative evidence has been eliminated.

          

  164. false charge of fallacyErroneously accusing others of fallacious reasoning.

          

  165. indirect proofThe media is not only beholden to the people but also to which of the following?

          

  166. FalseTrue or false: Higher-level inductions can be overruled by low-level inductions because low-level inductions are more general.

          

  167. prisoner of warThe tendency to perceive evidence and to judge arguments via an "us against them" or a "my right view against your wrong view" attitude.

          

  168. small sampleDrawing conclusions about a population on the basis of a sample that is too small to be a reliable measure of that population.

          

  169. dilemmaTrue or False: Quantitative research gathers thoughts and feelings on an unconscious motivation level.

          

  170. questionableaccepting premises that we should doubt makes us guilty of the fallacy of ______.

          

  171. contestable claim"Jim sold more cars than Sally and Sally sold more cars than Jim," is an example of which of the following statements?

          

  172. representativeWords such as "because, since, for" usually indicate that what follows is a ___ of an argument

          

  173. two wrongs make a rightThose who try to justify a wrong by pointing to a similar wrong perpetrated by others often are guilty of the fallacy of _____.

          

  174. Disjunctive SyllogismTom will buy a car or Tom will buy a house.
    Tom will not buy a car.
    Therefore, Tom will buy a house.
    The previous argument is an example of which type of deductively valid argument form?

          

  175. vague wordsOthers (often minorities within a larger culture) we can blame for the ills of the world when in fact we ourselves may bear a large measure of responsibility.

          

  176. tactic that provides a large source of media informationour reasoning sometimes is skewed from the truth because of _________, which inclines us to see our own society and its beliefs in a more favorable light that the evidence may warrant, because of _______, which narrows our interests and knowledge of what goes on in a world, and because of the _____ _____, which makes it easy and natural for us to believe what most others in our society believe.

          

  177. value assumptionConsciously believing what at a deeper level we know to be dubious.

          

  178. delusionAn extreme example of self-deception where the individual persists in deceiving themselves despite mounting evidence.

          

  179. Universal AffirmativeStyle of writing characterized by stories and anecdotes.

          

  180. tautologyWhich of the following is NOT an example of a weasel word?

          

  181. limit your claimclaims that are not commonly accepted knowledge.

          

  182. culture lagWe can think of induction as a kind of ______.

          

  183. False DilemmaTrue or false: It is the case that if an argument is inductively correct then the conclusion is factually correct as well.

          

  184. preventing conflicting viewpoints from being expressedIf Chris quits her job then she will be broke.
    Chris is broke.
    Therefore Chris quit her job.
    Therefore Chris quit her job.
    The previous argument is an example of which type of deductively invalid argument form?

          

  185. Being strict about the rules it sets up and the licenses it requiresWhich of the statements below is an example of a reality assumption for the following claim:
    "It is not a good marketing strategy to sell laptops in ten-pack units if you are only selling to private consumers."

          

  186. either-or-fallacysometimes called the black-or-white fallacy) is very similar to that of false dilemma. We're guilty of this fallacy when we mistakenly reason from two alternatives, one claimed to be bad (that is, to be avoided) so that we ought to choose the other alternative.

          

  187. enumerativeOne definite counterexample shoots down an _________ induction.

          

  188. Particular affirmative"Some S are P."

          

  189. argumentTrue or False: Advertisers will sometimes appeal to people's sense of patriotism to sell a product.

          

  190. analogyTrue or False: For business writing, it is always best to present the most analytical, matter-of-fact writing in order to be convincing.

          

  191. causal claimscertain events or factors are responsible for bringing about other events or situations.

          

  192. appeal to ignoranceWhen good reasons are lacking, the rational conclusion to draw is that we just don't know. But when we greatly desire to believe something, it's tempting to take the absence of evidence, and thus absence of refutation, as justification for believing that it is true.

          

  193. Innuendoa combination of the claim and the evidence for it. (because, as a result, in the first place, in the second place, for example, in addition, given that, studies show, etc.)

          

  194. loyalty, provincialism, herd instinctStemming from the natural tendency to identify with the ideas, interests, and kinds of behavior favored by those in groups with which we identify, this impediment causes us to tend to see things from the point of view of and interests of our primary culture.

          

  195. modus tollensIf it's the holidays, then stores will have sales.
    It is the holidays.
    Therefore, stores will have sales.
    The previous argument is an example of which deductively valid form?

          

  196. conclusionAccepting an argument on the basis of relevant but insufficient information.

          

  197. begging the questionwhen we assume as a premise some form of a very point that is at issue- the very conclusion we intended to prove-- we are guilty of the fallacy of _____.

          

  198. either-or-fallacy formanother word for thesis.

          

  199. scapegoatsNews-gathering methods are designed to do which of the following, according to your text?

          

  200. deductivelymost words have _____ meanings (in addition to cognitive meanings). Words like oppression, kike, and bitch have more or less negative (con) overtones; words like spring, free, and satisfaction have positive (pro) overtones; and words like socialism, marijuana, and God have mixed overtones.

          

  201. trueTrue or False: Advertisers will sometimes appeal to people's sense of patriotism to sell a product.

          

  202. analogyWe reason by ______ when we conclude from the observed similarity of two or more items in some respects to their similarity in another.

          

  203. trueIn an argument such as the one below, if the premises are true, the conclusion must necessarily be which of the following? :
    If A then B.
    If B then C
    If A then C

          

  204. falseTrue or False: Quantitative research gathers thoughts and feelings on an unconscious motivation level.

          

  205. induction by enumerationAny argument that doesn't have a deductively valid form.

          

  206. trueCogent reasoning is reasoning that is:

          

  207. falseIf a statementit has modens or syllagism in the name, it is-

          

  208. exactlyWhich of the following is NOT an example of a weasel word?

          

  209. fallacyan erroneous but frequently persuasive way of being led from a reason or circumstance to a conclusion."

          

  210. slippery slope argument"No S are P."

          

  211. trueTrue or False: Technical jargon used by people in the same field can be an acceptable use of language.

          

  212. traditional wisdomStemming from the natural tendency to identify with the ideas, interests, and kinds of behavior favored by those in groups with which we identify, this impediment causes us to tend to see things from the point of view of and interests of our primary culture.

          

  213. quibblinggreater sample size yields greater _______

          

  214. small sampleTrue or False: Qualitative Research gathers information by observation, experimentation and surveys.