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  1. false
  2. central claim
  3. provincialism
  4. deductive and inductive
  5. concept map
  6. prudence
  7. euphemism
  8. delusion
  9. preventing conflicting viewpoints from being expressed
  10. deductively invalid
  11. limit your claim
  12. tone
  13. questionable uses of statistics
  14. 42.3% of Samsung A670 users reported problems with their cell phones within the first 30 days of use.
  15. enumerative
  16. proportion
  17. tactic that provides a large source of media information
  18. universal negative
  19. ad hominem
  20. modus tollens
  21. quibbling
  22. contingent
  23. unrepresentative sample
  24. form
  25. analogy
  26. day-to-day occurences
  27. save money
  28. Statistical Induction
  29. concatenated
  30. Begging the Question
  31. induction by enumeration
  32. the use of language to convince
  33. hasty conclusion
  34. equivocation
  35. small sample
  36. partisan mind-set
  37. tokenism
  38. scapegoats
  39. obfuscation
  40. psuedoscience
  41. causal claims
  42. cogent
  43. fallacy
  44. Universal Affirmative
  45. emotive
  46. fallacy of hasty generalization
  47. questionable premise
  48. advertisers
  49. manipulate
  50. conclusion
  51. precision
  52. Inconsistency
  53. contestable claim
  54. categorical proposition
  55. false dilemma
  56. difference
  57. it must contain exposition
  58. government official
  59. representative
  60. deductively valid
  61. false charge of fallacy
  62. inductive reasoning
  63. advertisements pound home slogans
  64. begging the question
  65. False Dilemma
  66. self-deception
  67. questionable analogy
  68. Private consumers do not buy many laptops at the same time.
  69. slippery
  70. reasoning
  71. Ruby returned after 1:45.
  72. probability
  73. fallacy of false appeal to authority
  74. rationalization
  75. higher-level
  76. denying the antecedent
  77. Innuendo
  78. narrative tone
  79. suppressed evidence
  80. good
  81. expository
  82. inconsistent
  83. traditional wisdom
  84. modus ponens
  85. more information matters
  86. organizational inconsistency
  87. biased statistics
  88. true
  89. pattering
  90. Anticipate and counter-argue readers' objections.
  91. three types of rival causes
  92. indirect proof
  93. GE
  94. self deception
  95. A subject-predicate proposition that asserts or denies a relationship between a subject class and a predicate.
  96. validity
  97. contradiction
  98. fine-print disclaimers
  99. None but that it is said.
  100. weasel words
  101. Inductively
  102. superstitions
  103. Being strict about the rules it sets up and the licenses it requires
  104. appeal to ignorance
  105. Appeal to Authority
  106. vague words
  107. affirming the consequent
  108. reasoning by analogy
  109. coverage of events will be automatic
  110. exactly
  111. loyalty, provincialism, herd instinct
  112. Concatenated
  113. valid
  114. Reverse causation
  115. common practice
  116. False
  117. inconsistency
  118. the consumer
  119. pseudoscience
  120. hypothetical syllogism
  121. guilt by association
  122. disjunctive syllogism
  123. questionable
  124. statistical induction
  125. sexist language
  126. polls
  127. particular Negative
  128. Disjunctive Syllogism
  129. anxiety, stress
  130. cliches
  131. two wrongs make a right
  132. con artists
  133. demand by patients
  134. dilemma
  135. tautology
  136. premise
  137. prejudice
  138. value assumption
  139. syllogism
  140. Straw Man
  141. separate fact from fiction
  142. procrastination
  143. rationalization, suppression, and denial.
  144. fallacious
  145. Appeal to Ignorance
  146. Particular affirmative
  147. straw man
  148. deductively
  149. Hypothetical Syllogism
  150. reality assumptions
  151. slippery slope argument
  152. pseudoscientific beliefs
  153. euphemisms
  154. because they work
  155. Alfalfa Diner, Luigi's, and Hotdog Hut are other restaurants.
  156. more persuasive
  157. particular negative
  158. either-or-fallacy form
  159. uncontested claims
  160. Induction by Enumeration
  161. questionable cause
  162. Concede that your claim is false.
  163. evading the issue
  164. argument
  165. Present the negative evidence in order to show that you have given it consideration.
  166. either-or-fallacy
  167. True
  168. learning from experience
  169. culture lag
  170. Affirming the consequent
  171. composition
  172. questionable statistics
  173. suppression
  174. prisoner of war
  175. irrelevant reason
  176. Nitpicking every detail in an argument where certain assumptions can be reasonably made.
  1. a True or false: Higher-level inductions can be overruled by low-level inductions because low-level inductions are more general.
  2. b greater sample size yields greater _______
  3. c True or false: It is the case that if an argument is inductively correct then the conclusion is factually correct as well.
  4. d Tom will buy a car or Tom will buy a house.
    Tom will not buy a car.
    Therefore, Tom will buy a house.
    The previous argument is an example of which type of deductively valid argument form?
  5. e True or False: Slanting is a form of misrepresentation.
  6. f _____ is comforting and upbeat concerning our own welfare and the satisfaction of our deepest desires.
  7. g Which of the following is one of your text's suggestions for how to handle negative evidence?
  8. h thinking in terms of stereotypes and scapegoats often stems from a _____ ____- viewing everything in terms of "us against them" or "my right opinions against your wrong ones."
  9. i Either P or Q.
    Not P.
    Therefore, Q.
  10. j 1. claims consistent with our experiences. 2. claims independent of interpretation. 3. areas in which there is agreement among experts. 4. technical or mathematical claims.
  11. k committed when a wrong is justified on the grounds not that one other person or group, but rather lots of, or most, or even all others do the same sort of thing.
  12. l Attacking an opponent rather than the opponent's evidence and arguments.
  13. m According to your text, Leaks are which of the following:
  14. n thinking of a large organization as a kind of artificial person; have one representative speak out of one side of the mouth while the other speaks from the other side.
  15. o an argument that presents two alternatives, both claimed to be bad for someone, or some position.
  16. p More general, ___________ inductions can be used to evaluate those that are less general.
  17. q although _____ are an important source of information, they need to be dealt with cautiously. They can be misleading because of the way in which questions are worded-often deliberately, to obtain the desired statistics; because they ask the wrong questions; because respondents don't want to appear ignorant, immoral, odd, or prejudiced; or because they are based on a sample that is too small or unrepresentative.
  18. r Accepting an argument that is invalid because we are fooled by an equivocal use of language.
  19. s when we label something as the cause of something else on the basis of insufficient or unrepresentative evidence, or when doing so contradicts well-established, high-level theories.
  20. t prejudice against others often is conjoined with an overtolerance of the defects and foibles of one's own group and its members, and it may be reinforced by the need to find _____- others who can be blamed for our own troubles and mistakes.
  21. u the essential ingredient in problem solving.
  22. v we reason from the similarity of two things in several relevant respects to their similarity in another.
  23. w neglecting relevant evidence makes us guilty of the fallacy______
  24. x Another way to be _____- is to argue one way at a given time and another way at some other time, or when talking to one person and then to another.
  25. y we commit this when we accept the testimony of someone who has no expertise in the relevant area.
  26. z self-deception frequently aids in the reduction of _____ and _____, both of which can be harmful to health.
  27. aa A categorical proposition is which of the following types of arguments?
  28. ab When good reasons are lacking, the rational conclusion to draw is that we just don't know. But when we greatly desire to believe something, it's tempting to take the absence of evidence, and thus absence of refutation, as justification for believing that it is true.
  29. ac claim can be presented as a diagram or drawing.
  30. ad If Chris quits her job then she will be broke.
    Chris is broke.
    Therefore Chris quit her job.
    Therefore Chris quit her job.
    The previous argument is an example of which type of deductively invalid argument form?
  31. ae The claim, "All S are P," is an example of which kind of categorical proposition?
  32. af One effective way to beg the question at issue is simply to avoid it entirely. Doing this makes one guilty of the fallacy of ________.
  33. ag "The tooth fairy turned out not to be real. The Easter Bunny turned out not to be real. So I'm beginning to wonder about Santa." An example of:______
  34. ah Which of the statements below is an example of an underlying assumption for the claim:
    "Pickles Deli, the new restaurant on Redwood Road, is going to fail. Consider, Alfalfa Diner, Luigi's, and the Hotdog Hut all failed in that location."
  35. ai ________= (less offensive or dullar expressions used in place of more offensive of emotively charged locutions.)
  36. aj Locutions from which as much negative emotive content as possible has been removed.
  37. ak employing the right ____ can be used to mask lack of cogent reasoning or content or to sway audiences via emotional appeals.
  38. al when we reason from a sample that isn't sufficiently representative, we commit the fallacy of _______.
  39. am Dilemma _____:
    Either P or Q.
    If P then R.
    If Q then S.
    Therefore, either R or S.
  40. an Style of writing characterized by stories and anecdotes.
  41. ao erroneously accusing others of fallacious reasoning.
  42. ap an erroneous but frequently persuasive way of being led from a reason or circumstance to a conclusion."
  43. aq If we successfully market silly bands, then lots of people will buy silly bands.
    If lots of people buy silly bands, then our company will make a profit.
    Therefore, if we successfully market silly bands then our company will make a profit.
    The previous argument is an example of which type of deductively valid argument form?
  44. ar Accepting an argument on the basis of relevant but insufficient information.
  45. as used to refer to reasons or premises that are irrelevant to a conclusion when the error doesn't fit a narrower fallacy category such as ad hominem argument or two wrongs make a right.
  46. at Words such as "because, since, for" usually indicate that what follows is a ___ of an argument
  47. au 1. A then B.
    2. If B then C.
    3. If A then C.
  48. av Drawing conclusions about a population on the basis of a sample that is too small to be a reliable measure of that population.
  49. aw The claim in the argument is also called, "the thesis." Another term for the claim in an argument is:
  50. ax Mistaking a token gesture for the real thing, or accepting a token gesture in lieu of something more concrete.
  51. ay _____= may mask failure to respond to questions (Sarah Palin wandering from the point of the question about whether she had the national security credentials to serve as vice president.
  52. az another word for thesis.
  53. ba affirming the consequent and denying the antecedent are examples of _______ argument forms
  54. bb News tends to get slanted to cover the new, but not the:
  55. bc when the evidence is not sufficient to support a claim, the author is guilty of-
  56. bd common rhetorical devices often are used in a _____ manner. Ex- slanting words and expressions ("all this proves is that...") weasel words, fine-print disclaimers, obfuscation.
  57. be Accepting the word of an authority, alleged or genuine, when we shouldn't.
  58. bf _______ often supports procrastination- putting off until tomorrow what ought to be done today.
  59. bg What is one doing when one quibbles?
  60. bh Perfectly good statistics also sometimes are a problem-- for two reasons. The first is the inability of so many people to understand the significance of this statistic or that, made worse by the natural tendency in all of us to see statistics as favoring conclusions we already have drawn. The second is the ability of charlatans to bamboozle the rest of us via cleverly employed statistics. Ex: Accepting evidence that the murder rate in states that have adopted a death penalty for serious crimes is higher than in states that have not done so as proof the the death penalty does not deter crime, without further evidence that this statistical evidence has a causal foundation
  61. bi Overuse of ambiguous and abstract words such as "a great deal, many, often, a high probability," and so on are indicative of-
  62. bj committed when a wrong or an unsuitable practice is justified on grounds that it follows a traditional or accepted way of doing things.
  63. bk We don't want to be overly critical of the reasoning of others to the point that we are guilty of ________.
  64. bl A(n) ______ valid argument: "If all of its premises are true, then its conclusion must be true, also, because the claim asserted by its conclusion already has been stated in its premises, although usually only implicitly. (FORM)
  65. bm What kind of evidence is offered in valid induction?
  66. bn on occasion, most of us lack a good sense of _____, a defect in reasoning that critical reasoners try to minimize.
  67. bo "Bachellors are unmarried men" is an example of which kind of statement?
  68. bp a combination of the claim and the evidence for it. (because, as a result, in the first place, in the second place, for example, in addition, given that, studies show, etc.)
  69. bq "No S are P."
  70. br When the interests of politicians or big business moguls coincide with those of the masses which of the following is the consequence?
  71. bs A passage that is purely ______ gives us no reason to accept any "facts" it may contain (other than the implied authority of the writer or speaker."
  72. bt Theories put forth by "scientists" that continue to be accepted by a significant number of people in spite of the fact that they produce no postive results whatsoever.
  73. bu sometimes called unrepresentative sample, but this name also applies to cases where known statistics that are unfavorable to a theory are deliberately suppressed.
  74. bv True or False: To obfuscate means to make so confused or opaque as to be difficult to perceive or understand, to render indistinct or dim.
  75. bw Words that are imprecise and do not stimulate reader's imaginations.
  76. bx Which of the statements below is an example of explicit evidence in the following claim:
    "Ruby left for lunch at 12:30 and returned after 1:45. She will be written up for taking too long for her break."
  77. by A dilemma that can be shown to be false.
  78. bz _____ ____ suck out all or part of the meaning of a sentence ("economic success may be....")
  79. ca a statement that is necessarily false (because it contradicts itself.) "Barry Bonds did take steroids, and he didn't take them."
  80. cb The media is not only beholden to the people but also to which of the following?
  81. cc Stemming from the natural tendency to identify with the ideas, interests, and kinds of behavior favored by those in groups with which we identify, this impediment causes us to tend to see things from the point of view of and interests of our primary culture.
  82. cd If I conclude from surveying 700 people that, because all 700 people I interviewed believed that Pepsi tasted better than Diet Pepsi, all people believe that Pepsi tastes better than Diet Pepsi, what kind of induction am I using?
  83. ce What reason does your book offer for why negative campaign ads continue despite voter outcry against them?
  84. cf 1. A then B.
    2. B.
    3. A.
  85. cg 1. If A then B.
    2. Not A.
    3. Not B.
  86. ch A type of reasoning where we reason from the similarity of two things in several relevant respects to their similarity in another.
  87. ci Your text uses the "Chevrolet. Like A Rock," slogan as an example of which of the following techniques?
  88. cj also called reductio ad absurdum (reduce to an absurdity). We reason this way when we assume the opposite of what we wish to prove and then deductively derive a conclusion claimed to be false.
  89. ck We aren't always justified in reasoning by analogy. When we do so anyway, we are guilty of the fallacy of ________, sometimes referred to as faulty comparison.
  90. cl accepting premises that we should doubt makes us guilty of the fallacy of ______.
  91. cm ____ _____ use the emotive side of language to mask cognitive meaning by whipping up emotions so that reason is overlooked and to dull the force of language so as to make acceptable what otherwise might not be. The latter purpose often is accomplished by means of euphemisms (less offensive or dullar expressions used in place of more offensive of emotively charged locutions.)
  92. cn According to your text, human interest stories tend to crowd out which of the following?
  93. co Slanting is also referred to by which of the following terms?
  94. cp News-gathering methods are designed to do which of the following, according to your text?
  95. cq a joining together of inductions and deductions in the discovery of a pattern that fits what has been observed or previously reasoned to.
  96. cr When we misrepresent an opponent's position or a competitor's product, or go after a weaker opponent or competitor while ignoring a stronger one.
  97. cs _________ valid arguments have conclusions that go beyond what is contained in their premises, projecting patterns stated in the premises onto additional cases. (experience)
  98. ct employing statistics that are questionable without further support. Example: Accepting government statistics on short-term business trends as completely accurate rather than just educated approximations. Extreme example: Employing unknowable statistics about how many wars have been fought in the past 5,000 years and how many casualties there have been.
  99. cu __-_____ ________= take back part of what was originally asserted ("tickets must be purchased 30 days in advance, subject to availability")
  100. cv Which of the following, according to your book, is the reason most often cited by physicians for inappropriately prescribing medications in the New England Journal of Medicine?
  101. cw Most claims in business, and in persuasive writing more generally, tend to be contestable claims. This requires the author of the argument to do which of the following "destructive testing" on their ideas?
  102. cx We can think of induction as a kind of ______.
  103. cy Putting off for tomorrow what common sense tells us needs to be done today.
  104. cz Subject-predicate proposition that asserts or denies a relationship between a subject class and a predicate class.
  105. da being _____, in a sense of provident- acting so as to maximize long-run interests- is an important component of a good sense of proportion that we often lack.
  106. db Consciously believing what at a deeper level we know to be dubious.
  107. dc The idea that corporations ought to be responsible in the argument, "Corporate responsibility ought to be a higher priority for big companies because they have a larger impact on the community, the environment and the economy" is an example of:
  108. dd two kinds of valid reasoning.
  109. de an action is objected to on the grounds that once it is taken, another, and then perhaps still another, are bound to be taken, down a "___________" until some undesirable consequence results.
  110. df 1) related to differences between groups. 2) correlation between characteristics. 3) the post hoc ergo propter hoc fallacy.
  111. dg Taking the absence of evidence, and thus the absence of refutation, as justification for believing that a claim is true.
  112. dh Government can sometimes harass a news agency by doing which of the following?
  113. di Metaphorical phrases that, while formerly vivid, are now over-used.
  114. dj According to your text, those who have the most important say as to what sort of news stories are presented in the media are:
  115. dk the ________ between ad hominem and straw man is that straw man attacks misrepresent an opponent's position, whereas those that are ad hominem abuse an opponent directly.
  116. dl Which of the following is NOT an example of a weasel word?
  117. dm "Some S are not P."
  118. dn The argument below contains which kind of reasoning:
    "Pickles Deli, the new restaurant on Redwood Road, is going to fail. Consider, Alfalfa Diner, Luigi's, and the Hotdog Hut all failed in that location."
  119. do claims that are not commonly accepted knowledge.
  120. dp When we are persuaded to accept the conclusion of an argument that contains self-contradictory statements or statements that contradict each other.
  121. dq sometimes called the black-or-white fallacy) is very similar to that of false dilemma. We're guilty of this fallacy when we mistakenly reason from two alternatives, one claimed to be bad (that is, to be avoided) so that we ought to choose the other alternative.
  122. dr If a statementit has modens or syllagism in the name, it is-
  123. ds people judged by the company they keep.
  124. dt Three other important ways to cut the wishful thinking pie are _____, _____, and _____.
  125. du our beliefs about what events have taken place, what exists or how things work in the world.
  126. dv Having found that a certain percentage of the As examined have the property in question, we can conclude that the same percentage of the total population of As have that property.
  127. dw Those who try to justify a wrong by pointing to a similar wrong perpetrated by others often are guilty of the fallacy of _____.
  128. dx According to your text and as argued in the case of Boumediene v. Bush, the term "Enemy Combatants" is an equivocation of which of the following terms?
  129. dy 1. A or B.
    2. Not A.
    3. B.
  130. dz Which of the following is NOT a criterion of cogent reasoning?
  131. ea most words have _____ meanings (in addition to cognitive meanings). Words like oppression, kike, and bitch have more or less negative (con) overtones; words like spring, free, and satisfaction have positive (pro) overtones; and words like socialism, marijuana, and God have mixed overtones.
  132. eb An extreme example of self-deception where the individual persists in deceiving themselves despite mounting evidence.
  133. ec 1. If A then B.
    2. A.
    3. B.
  134. ed What sort of evidence is offered for an expository claim?
  135. ee When two factors, A and B, are correlated, it may be that A is causing B, but it is also possible that B is causing A.
  136. ef when we assume as a premise some form of a very point that is at issue- the very conclusion we intended to prove-- we are guilty of the fallacy of _____.
  137. eg Having found that 490 of the first 1,000 observed tosses of a given coin land face up, we can conclude that 49 percent of all of the tosses with that coin will land face up.
    The above claim is an example of which kind of induction?
  138. eh What kind of reasoning is used if one joins together inductions and deductions in the discovery of a pattern that fits what has been observed or previously reasoned to?
  139. ei What does the word "Rhetoric" mean?
  140. ej Which of the following is NOT a way to limit your claim that your text discusses?
  141. ek The fallacy of ______ ("salesman's fallacy") or "the consumer's fallacy, is committed when someone assumes that a particular item must have a certain property because all of its parts have that property.
  142. el committed when we misrepresent an opponent's position, or a competitor's product, or go after a weaker opponent or competitor while ignoring a stronger one.
  143. em Which major reform of language does your text cite as an example of language revision in our society? The reform of _____ _______.
  144. en Which of the following is the best example of "negative evidence" for the claim, "Samsung makes excellent quality phones"?
  145. eo Often the press can report political spin without analyzing it to do which of the following?
  146. ep As an example of Corporate Image Whitewashing, your text references the "eco imagination" campaign. Which company launched that campaign?
  147. eq "Some lawyers don't lie," is an example of which kind of categorial proposition?
  148. er Pseudosciences also gain widespread acceptance because charlatans have learned how to _____ us in our ungaurded or weak moments. (ex- Hitler)
  149. es 1. If A then B.
    2.Not B.
    3. Not A.
  150. et Your text argues that acknowledging limitations makes your writing ______. Fill in the blank:
  151. eu More representative samples yield higher probabilities than those that are less _________.
  152. ev certain events or factors are responsible for bringing about other events or situations.
  153. ew If you have no rebuttal, what does your text suggest you should do?
  154. ex ______ ______ are adopted, and endure, in spite of their failure to help us deal successfully with everyday problems, because of wishful thinking, self deception, and similar psychological mechanisms.
  155. ey our reasoning sometimes is skewed from the truth because of _________, which inclines us to see our own society and its beliefs in a more favorable light that the evidence may warrant, because of _______, which narrows our interests and knowledge of what goes on in a world, and because of the _____ _____, which makes it easy and natural for us to believe what most others in our society believe.
  156. ez an argument containing three categorical propositions, two of them premises, one a conclusion.
  157. fa _______ ______- believing what we want to believe, no matter what the evidence- or from its variant, called self-deception- consciously believing what, at some deeper level, we know to be dubious.
  158. fb a dilemma that can be shown to be false.
  159. fc loyalty and provincialism are related to _____, in particular, to it against members of other groups, and to thinking in terms of unverified stereotypes.
  160. fd The fallacy of begging the question usually falls into the broad category questionable premise because a statement that is ______ as a conclusion is equally _______ as a premise.
  161. fe "Some S are P."
  162. ff We commit the fallacy of ______ when we are persuaded to accept the conclusion of an argument that contains self-contradictory statements or statements that contradict each other.
  163. fg another word for "bad" in reasoning.
  164. fh The statement, "Jerry ate all of the pizza" is an example of which kind of statement?
  165. fi concerns the nature of the connection between the premises and conclusion of an argument, not the truth or believability of its premises.
  166. fj Avoiding thoughts that are stressful by either not thinking about them or, more commonly, by thinking nonstressful thoughts.
  167. fk The tendency of practices and beliefs to persist long after whatever conditions made them useful or sensible have disappeared.
  168. fl One definite counterexample shoots down an _________ induction.
  169. fm Which of the following terms has approximately the same cognitive meaning as "bureaucrat" but has a different emotive meaning according to your book?
  170. fn ____ often are supported by a small amount of evidence. What makes them this is what we believe them on the basis of insufficient and, frequently, biased samples from which all negative evidence has been eliminated.
  171. fo When we assume as a premise some form of the very point that is at issue.
  172. fp Which of the statements below is an example of a reality assumption for the following claim:
    "It is not a good marketing strategy to sell laptops in ten-pack units if you are only selling to private consumers."
  173. fq modus ponens, modus tollens, hypothetical syllogism, and disjunctive syllogism are all examples of _______ ______ argument forms.
  174. fr Cogent reasoning is reasoning that is:
  175. fs Corporate power affects the dissemination of news by:
  176. ft another word for "good" in reasoning