The tendency to view everything in relation to self, considering only one's own interests, and assuming that one's own values and beliefs are superior to others.
Using direct power over others (up to and including force) to get what is selfishly desired.
Strategic subservience where they egocentric thinker caters to those with power or prestige who can advance their goals.
Rational Mind Development Process
1. Identify the predictable, pathological tendencies we have; and 2. correct these pathologies through critical thinking.
Remembering only that evidence and information that supports our thinking. Corrected by explicitly seeking evidence and information that runs counter to our thinking.
Adopting an overly narrow point of view and thinking in absolutes. Corrected by considering points of view that conflict with ours.
Feeling superior because of possessing the "Truth." Correct by stating unanswered questions and reminding ourselves of how little we actually know.
Ignoring complexity and embracing simplicity that conforms to our existing views, values, and beliefs. Corrected by focusing on complexities and restating them and considering their impact on our thinking.
Ignoring inconsistencies between belief and behavior and between public standards and private actions. Corrected by comparing beliefs and behaviors and standards and actions to expose inconsistencies.
Not seeing facts and evidence that contradict our thinking. Corrected by seeking out facts and evidence that challenge our thinking.
Overgeneralizing so that immediate events, whether favorable, or unfavorable, influence thinking. Corrected by adopting a broader view and keeping positive and negative events in perspective.
Failing to recognize thinking that has "absurd" consequences. Corrected by reviewing our thinking for realism.
Five Foundations of Ethical Thinking
1. We cannot pick and choose our ethical principles subjectively.
2. If we are reasonable, we should respect clear-cut ethical principles.
3. We must learn how to apply ethical concepts and principles to ethical issues.
4. We should distinguish ethical principles from other domains.
5. We should recognize egocentrism and sociocentrism as significant barriers to sound ethical reasoning.
Characteristics of an Advanced Thinker
Understanding the role of critical thinking in the quality of life and understanding the relationship among thoughts, feelings and desires; monitoring thoughts, feelings, and desires; employing strategies for improving critical thinking and employing critiques of progress in that improvement; developing new habits of thought and sensitivity to inconsistency and contradictions; and embracing intellectual integrity, intellectual empathy, and intellectual courage.
Universal Ethical Standards
Principles for correct human behavior acknowledged by reasonable people.