Sources of Evidence
Analogy, intuition, personal observation, appeal to authority, case example, testimonial, survey/questionnaire, research study, and personal experience.
Drawing a comparison between two things in order to show a meaningful resemblance between them. It implies that if two things are alike in one respect, they will be alike in other respects.
Evidence that quantifies an observation or phenomenon. Evidence that is often expressed as a number or empirical measure. This is generally the outcome of scientific methods. This type of evidence is concerned with determining causation.
Evidence that describes or recounts an observation or phenomenon. Evidence that communicates understanding and meaning -- the why and how something happened. This is usually derived from participant observation and personal communications. It is the result of unstructured or unscientific gathering of information.
Dependable Evidence Traits
Believable, objective, sufficient, relevant, from reputable sources, free of bias, independently verifiable, logically sound, and internally consistent.
A direct function of the quality of evidence supporting it. The dependability of a particular claim of causation is inversely related to the number of plausible rival causes.
A plausible alternative explanation for why a certain outcome happened. These show that more than one credible explanation may be the cause.
An analogy in which there are important relevant dissimilarities between the two things being compared.
Neglect of a Common Cause
The failure to recognize that two events may be related through the effects of a common third factor.
Beliefs about the way the world is, was, or will be whose credibility depends on the quality of evidence offered to support them.