Questions of Fact
Questions having only one correct answer. These are characterized by evidence and reasoning within a single system and also serve as a basis of knowledge.
Questions of Preference
Questions having many possible answers based on subjective preferences. These are characterized by subjective choice and requiring no judgment or assessment.
Questions of Judgment
Questions having more than one answer with some answers being better than others. These are characterized by evidence and reason within multiple systems and have competing answers and require reasoned judgment.
Dimensions of Decision-Making
1. Figure out, and regularly rearticulate your most fundamental goals, purposes, and needs.
2. Take problems and decisions one-by-one.
3. Figure out the implications of alternatives.
4. Figure out the information you need and seek it.
5. Draw reasonable inferences from the information you analyze and interpret.
6. Figure out long- and short-term options and limitations (time, money, power).
7. Consider pros and cons of options.
8. Be strategic in your decision-making.
9. Monitor the implications of your actions and shift strategy if need be.
Dimensions of Problem-Solving
1. Figure out and regularly reevaluate your goals, purposes, and needs.
2. Identify your problems explicitly, then analyze them.
3. Figure out the information you need, and actively seek that information.
4. Carefully analyze, interpret, and evaluate the information you collect.
5. Figure out your options for action and evaluate them.
6. Adopt a strategic approach to the problem, and follow through on this strategy.
7. When you act, monitor the implications of your actions as they begin to emerge.
Identification in Strategic Thinking
Recognize when one's thinking is irrational or flawed. Looking at one's irrational emotions or desires and figuring out what is generating them and then, replacing the irrational thinking with rational thinking.
Intellectual Action in Strategic Thinking
Engaging and challenging one's own thinking. This requires figuring out what is going on in a situation, the options available for action, the justification for choosing an option, and ways to reduce the impact of irrational thinking.
Methods of Determining Causation
Common factor, single difference, concomitant variation, and process of elimination.
Single Difference Causation Analyzation
Looking for a causal factor this is present in one situation but absent in another, similar, situation.
Concomitant Variation Causation Analyzation
Looking for a pattern of variation between a possible cause and a possible effect.
Process of Elimination Causation Analyzation
Successfully ruling out non-causal factors until one correct causal factor remains.