<>

This is a Free Service provided by Why Fund Inc. (a 501 C3 NonProfit) We thank you for your donation!


(1. Click on the course Study Set you wish to learn.) (2. If you wish you can click on "Print" and print the test page.) (3. When you want to take a test...click on anyone of the tests for that Study Set.) (4. Click on "Check Answers" and it will score your test and correct your answers.) (5. You can take all the tests as many times as you choose until you get an "A"!) (6. Automated college courses created from lecture notes, class exams, text books, reading materials from many colleges and universities.)

Critical Thinking Final Exam flashcards |
New

Long-Term Learning

Learn efficiently and remember over time.

Start Long-Term Learning

Get personalized study reminders at intervals optimized for better retention.
Track your progress on this set by creating a folder
Or add to an existing folder

Add this set to a folder

  • central claim

    another word for thesis.

    uncontested claims

    1. claims consistent with our experiences. 2. claims independent of interpretation. 3. areas in which there is agreement among experts. 4. technical or mathematical claims.

    contestable claim

    claims that are not commonly accepted knowledge.

    concept map

    claim can be presented as a diagram or drawing.

    argument

    a combination of the claim and the evidence for it. (because, as a result, in the first place, in the second place, for example, in addition, given that, studies show, etc.)

    precision

    Overuse of ambiguous and abstract words such as "a great deal, many, often, a high probability," and so on are indicative of-

    fallacy of hasty generalization

    when the evidence is not sufficient to support a claim, the author is guilty of-

    fallacy

    an erroneous but frequently persuasive way of being led from a reason or circumstance to a conclusion."

    fallacy of false appeal to authority

    we commit this when we accept the testimony of someone who has no expertise in the relevant area.

    reality assumptions

    our beliefs about what events have taken place, what exists or how things work in the world.

    valid

    If a statementit has modens or syllagism in the name, it is-

    causal claims

    certain events or factors are responsible for bringing about other events or situations.

    three types of rival causes

    1) related to differences between groups. 2) correlation between characteristics. 3) the post hoc ergo propter hoc fallacy.

    reasoning

    the essential ingredient in problem solving.

    cogent

    another word for "good" in reasoning

    fallacious

    another word for "bad" in reasoning.

    premise

    Words such as "because, since, for" usually indicate that what follows is a ___ of an argument

    expository

    A passage that is purely ______ gives us no reason to accept any "facts" it may contain (other than the implied authority of the writer or speaker."

    validity

    concerns the nature of the connection between the premises and conclusion of an argument, not the truth or believability of its premises.

    deductively

    A(n) ______ valid argument: "If all of its premises are true, then its conclusion must be true, also, because the claim asserted by its conclusion already has been stated in its premises, although usually only implicitly. (FORM)

    modus ponens

    1. If A then B.
    2. A.
    3. B.

    Inductively

    _________ valid arguments have conclusions that go beyond what is contained in their premises, projecting patterns stated in the premises onto additional cases. (experience)

    induction by enumeration

    "The tooth fairy turned out not to be real. The Easter Bunny turned out not to be real. So I'm beginning to wonder about Santa." An example of:______

    deductive and inductive

    two kinds of valid reasoning.

    modus tollens

    1. If A then B.
    2.Not B.
    3. Not A.

    hypothetical syllogism

    1. A then B.
    2. If B then C.
    3. If A then C.

    disjunctive syllogism

    1. A or B.
    2. Not A.
    3. B.

    deductively valid

    modus ponens, modus tollens, hypothetical syllogism, and disjunctive syllogism are all examples of _______ ______ argument forms.

    deductively invalid

    Any argument that doesn't have a deductively valid form.

    denying the antecedent

    1. If A then B.
    2. Not A.
    3. Not B.

    affirming the consequent

    1. A then B.
    2. B.
    3. A.

    categorical proposition

    Subject-predicate proposition that asserts or denies a relationship between a subject class and a predicate class.

    Universal Affirmative

    "All S are P."

    universal negative

    "No S are P."

    Particular affirmative

    "Some S are P."

    particular Negative

    "Some S are not P."

    indirect proof

    also called reductio ad absurdum (reduce to an absurdity). We reason this way when we assume the opposite of what we wish to prove and then deductively derive a conclusion claimed to be false.

    tautology

    a statement that is logically, or necessarily true or is so devoid of content as to be practically empty. "Barry Bonds did take steroids, or he didn't.

    contradiction

    a statement that is necessarily false (because it contradicts itself.) "Barry Bonds did take steroids, and he didn't take them."

    Reverse causation

    When two factors, A and B, are correlated, it may be that A is causing B, but it is also possible that B is causing A.

    pattering

    We can think of induction as a kind of ______.

    probability

    greater sample size yields greater _______

    representative

    More representative samples yield higher probabilities than those that are less _________.

    enumerative

    One definite counterexample shoots down an _________ induction.

    reasoning by analogy

    we reason from the similarity of two things in several relevant respects to their similarity in another.

    statistical induction

    Having found that a certain percentage of the As examined have the property in question, we can conclude that the same percentage of the total population of As have that property.

    higher-level

    More general, ___________ inductions can be used to evaluate those that are less general.

    concatenated

    a joining together of inductions and deductions in the discovery of a pattern that fits what has been observed or previously reasoned to.

    deductively invalid

    affirming the consequent and denying the antecedent are examples of _______ argument forms

    syllogism

    an argument containing three categorical propositions, two of them premises, one a conclusion.

    questionable premise

    accepting premises that we should doubt makes us guilty of the fallacy of ______.

    suppressed evidence

    neglecting relevant evidence makes us guilty of the fallacy______

    inconsistency

    We commit the fallacy of ______ when we are persuaded to accept the conclusion of an argument that contains self-contradictory statements or statements that contradict each other.

    inconsistent

    Another way to be _____- is to argue one way at a given time and another way at some other time, or when talking to one person and then to another.

    organizational inconsistency

    thinking of a large organization as a kind of artificial person; have one representative speak out of one side of the mouth while the other speaks from the other side.

    false

    The importance of fallacy of inconsistency- it lies in the crucial importance of consistency to cogent reasoning. At least one of a set of inconsistent statements must be ______!

    straw man

    committed when we misrepresent an opponent's position, or a competitor's product, or go after a weaker opponent or competitor while ignoring a stronger one.

    dilemma

    an argument that presents two alternatives, both claimed to be bad for someone, or some position.

    form

    Dilemma _____:
    Either P or Q.
    If P then R.
    If Q then S.
    Therefore, either R or S.

    false dilemma

    a dilemma that can be shown to be false.

    either-or-fallacy

    sometimes called the black-or-white fallacy) is very similar to that of false dilemma. We're guilty of this fallacy when we mistakenly reason from two alternatives, one claimed to be bad (that is, to be avoided) so that we ought to choose the other alternative.

    either-or-fallacy form

    Either P or Q.
    Not P.
    Therefore, Q.

    begging the question

    when we assume as a premise some form of a very point that is at issue- the very conclusion we intended to prove-- we are guilty of the fallacy of _____.

    questionable

    The fallacy of begging the question usually falls into the broad category questionable premise because a statement that is ______ as a conclusion is equally _______ as a premise.

    evading the issue

    One effective way to beg the question at issue is simply to avoid it entirely. Doing this makes one guilty of the fallacy of ________.

    tokenism

    mistaking a token gesture for the real thing, or accepting a token gesture in lieu of something more concrete. Another common fallacy.

    ad hominem

    attacking an opponent rather than the opponent's evidence and arguments.

    difference

    the ________ between ad hominem and straw man is that straw man attacks misrepresent an opponent's position, whereas those that are ad hominem abuse an opponent directly.

    guilt by association

    people judged by the company they keep.

    two wrongs make a right

    Those who try to justify a wrong by pointing to a similar wrong perpetrated by others often are guilty of the fallacy of _____.

    common practice

    committed when a wrong is justified on the grounds not that one other person or group, but rather lots of, or most, or even all others do the same sort of thing.

    traditional wisdom

    committed when a wrong or an unsuitable practice is justified on grounds that it follows a traditional or accepted way of doing things.

    irrelevant reason

    used to refer to reasons or premises that are irrelevant to a conclusion when the error doesn't fit a narrower fallacy category such as ad hominem argument or two wrongs make a right.

    equivocation

    Accepting an argument that is invalid because we are fooled by an equivocal use of language.

    appeal to ignorance

    When good reasons are lacking, the rational conclusion to draw is that we just don't know. But when we greatly desire to believe something, it's tempting to take the absence of evidence, and thus absence of refutation, as justification for believing that it is true.

    composition

    The fallacy of ______ ("salesman's fallacy") or "the consumer's fallacy, is committed when someone assumes that a particular item must have a certain property because all of its parts have that property.

    slippery slope argument

    an action is objected to on the grounds that once it is taken, another, and then perhaps still another, are bound to be taken, down a "___________" until some undesirable consequence results.

    hasty conclusion

    committed when we draw a conclusion from relevant but insufficient evidence.

    small sample

    the fallacy of ________- when we accept a conclusion based on a sample too small to be a reliable representation of the population from which it was drawn.

    unrepresentative sample

    when we reason from a sample that isn't sufficiently representative, we commit the fallacy of _______.

    biased statistics

    sometimes called unrepresentative sample, but this name also applies to cases where known statistics that are unfavorable to a theory are deliberately suppressed.

    questionable cause

    when we label something as the cause of something else on the basis of insufficient or unrepresentative evidence, or when doing so contradicts well-established, high-level theories.

    analogy

    We reason by ______ when we conclude from the observed similarity of two or more items in some respects to their similarity in another.

    questionable analogy

    We aren't always justified in reasoning by analogy. When we do so anyway, we are guilty of the fallacy of ________, sometimes referred to as faulty comparison.

    false charge of fallacy

    erroneously accusing others of fallacious reasoning.

    quibbling

    We don't want to be overly critical of the reasoning of others to the point that we are guilty of ________.

    conclusion

    The claim in the argument is also called, "the thesis." Another term for the claim in an argument is:

    true

    In an argument such as the one below, if the premises are true, the conclusion must necessarily be which of the following? :
    If A then B.
    If B then C
    If A then C

    value assumption

    The idea that corporations ought to be responsible in the argument, "Corporate responsibility ought to be a higher priority for big companies because they have a larger impact on the community, the environment and the economy" is an example of:

    inductive reasoning

    The argument below contains which kind of reasoning:
    "Pickles Deli, the new restaurant on Redwood Road, is going to fail. Consider, Alfalfa Diner, Luigi's, and the Hotdog Hut all failed in that location."

    Private consumers do not buy many laptops at the same time.

    Which of the statements below is an example of a reality assumption for the following claim:
    "It is not a good marketing strategy to sell laptops in ten-pack units if you are only selling to private consumers."

    it must contain exposition

    Which of the following is NOT a criterion of cogent reasoning?

    learning from experience

    What kind of evidence is offered in valid induction?

    Alfalfa Diner, Luigi's, and Hotdog Hut are other restaurants.

    Which of the statements below is an example of an underlying assumption for the claim:
    "Pickles Deli, the new restaurant on Redwood Road, is going to fail. Consider, Alfalfa Diner, Luigi's, and the Hotdog Hut all failed in that location."

    None but that it is said.

    What sort of evidence is offered for an expository claim?

    good

    Cogent reasoning is reasoning that is:

    Ruby returned after 1:45.

    Which of the statements below is an example of explicit evidence in the following claim:
    "Ruby left for lunch at 12:30 and returned after 1:45. She will be written up for taking too long for her break."

    contingent

    The statement, "Jerry ate all of the pizza" is an example of which kind of statement?

    modus tollens

    Which of the following are deductively valid argument forms?

    A subject-predicate proposition that asserts or denies a relationship between a subject class and a predicate.

    A categorical proposition is which of the following types of arguments?

    modus ponens

    If it's the holidays, then stores will have sales.
    It is the holidays.
    Therefore, stores will have sales.
    The previous argument is an example of which deductively valid form?

    Hypothetical Syllogism

    If we successfully market silly bands, then lots of people will buy silly bands.
    If lots of people buy silly bands, then our company will make a profit.
    Therefore, if we successfully market silly bands then our company will make a profit.
    The previous argument is an example of which type of deductively valid argument form?

    particular negative

    "Some lawyers don't lie," is an example of which kind of categorial proposition?

    contradiction

    "Jim sold more cars than Sally and Sally sold more cars than Jim," is an example of which of the following statements?

    tautology

    "Bachellors are unmarried men" is an example of which kind of statement?

    Universal Affirmative

    The claim, "All S are P," is an example of which kind of categorical proposition?

    Disjunctive Syllogism

    Tom will buy a car or Tom will buy a house.
    Tom will not buy a car.
    Therefore, Tom will buy a house.
    The previous argument is an example of which type of deductively valid argument form?

    Affirming the consequent

    If Chris quits her job then she will be broke.
    Chris is broke.
    Therefore Chris quit her job.
    Therefore Chris quit her job.
    The previous argument is an example of which type of deductively invalid argument form?

    True

    True or False: With Induction, Greater sample size yields greater probability.

    False

    True or false: Higher-level inductions can be overruled by low-level inductions because low-level inductions are more general.

    Concatenated

    What kind of reasoning is used if one joins together inductions and deductions in the discovery of a pattern that fits what has been observed or previously reasoned to?

    false

    True or false: With Induction, more representative samples yield lower probabilities than those that are less representative.

    Induction by Enumeration

    If I conclude from surveying 700 people that, because all 700 people I interviewed believed that Pepsi tasted better than Diet Pepsi, all people believe that Pepsi tastes better than Diet Pepsi, what kind of induction am I using?

    false

    True or false: It is the case that if an argument is inductively correct then the conclusion is factually correct as well.

    analogy

    A type of reasoning where we reason from the similarity of two things in several relevant respects to their similarity in another.

    induction by enumeration

    If we reason from the fact that all As observed so far are Bs to the conclusion that all As whatsoever are Bs, which kind of induction would we be utilizing?

    false

    True or false: With Induction, no single counterexample shoots down an enumerative induction.

    Statistical Induction

    Having found that 490 of the first 1,000 observed tosses of a given coin land face up, we can conclude that 49 percent of all of the tosses with that coin will land face up.
    The above claim is an example of which kind of induction?

    Appeal to Ignorance

    Taking the absence of evidence, and thus the absence of refutation, as justification for believing that a claim is true.

    equivocation

    Accepting an argument that is invalid because we are fooled by an equivocal use of language.

    traditional wisdom

    When a wrong or unsuitable practice is justified on ground that it follows a traditional or accepted way of doing things.

    ad hominem

    Attacking an opponent rather than the opponent's evidence and arguments.

    tokenism

    Mistaking a token gesture for the real thing, or accepting a token gesture in lieu of something more concrete.

    Begging the Question

    When we assume as a premise some form of the very point that is at issue.

    Straw Man

    When we misrepresent an opponent's position or a competitor's product, or go after a weaker opponent or competitor while ignoring a stronger one.

    Inconsistency

    When we are persuaded to accept the conclusion of an argument that contains self-contradictory statements or statements that contradict each other.

    Appeal to Authority

    Accepting the word of an authority, alleged or genuine, when we shouldn't.

    False Dilemma

    A dilemma that can be shown to be false.

    Nitpicking every detail in an argument where certain assumptions can be reasonably made.

    What is one doing when one quibbles?

    true

    There is no such thing as a "Poll Fallacy".

    hasty conclusion

    Accepting an argument on the basis of relevant but insufficient information.

    small sample

    Drawing conclusions about a population on the basis of a sample that is too small to be a reliable measure of that population.

    unrepresentative sample

    Reasoning from a sample that is not representative (typical) of the population from which it was drawn.

    questionable analogy

    Drawing an analogical conclusion when the cases compared are not relevantly alike.

    false charge of fallacy

    Erroneously accusing others of fallacious reasoning.

    false

    Good statistics will necessarily result in good reasoning about those statistics.

    appeal to ignorance

    Which of the following is NOT one of the other fallacies that your text suggests "Questionable Cause" is related to or overlaps with?

    more persuasive

    Your text argues that acknowledging limitations makes your writing ______. Fill in the blank:

    Concede that your claim is false.

    Which of the following is NOT a way to limit your claim that your text discusses?

    Anticipate and counter-argue readers' objections.

    Most claims in business, and in persuasive writing more generally, tend to be contestable claims. This requires the author of the argument to do which of the following "destructive testing" on their ideas?

    the use of language to convince

    What does the word "Rhetoric" mean?

    Present the negative evidence in order to show that you have given it consideration.

    Which of the following is one of your text's suggestions for how to handle negative evidence?

    false

    True or False: For business writing, it is always best to present the most analytical, matter-of-fact writing in order to be convincing.

    vague words

    Words that are imprecise and do not stimulate reader's imaginations.

    cliches

    Metaphorical phrases that, while formerly vivid, are now over-used.

    narrative tone

    Style of writing characterized by stories and anecdotes.

    limit your claim

    If you have no rebuttal, what does your text suggest you should do?

    42.3% of Samsung A670 users reported problems with their cell phones within the first 30 days of use.

    Which of the following is the best example of "negative evidence" for the claim, "Samsung makes excellent quality phones"?

    self deception

    Consciously believing what at a deeper level we know to be dubious.

    See More

    Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

    Having trouble? Click here for help.

    We can’t access your microphone!

    Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

    Example:

    Reload the page to try again!

    Reload

    Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

    Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

    It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

    Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
    to use Voice Recording.

    For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

    Your microphone is muted

    For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

    Star this term

    You can study starred terms together

    ! Voice Recording

    This is a Plus feature

    Create Study Set