This is a Free Service provided by Why Fund Inc. (a 501 C3 NonProfit) We thank you for your donation!

(1. Click on the course Study Set you wish to learn.) (2. If you wish you can click on "Print" and print the test page.) (3. When you want to take a test...click on anyone of the tests for that Study Set.) (4. Click on "Check Answers" and it will score your test and correct your answers.) (5. You can take all the tests as many times as you choose until you get an "A"!) (6. Automated college courses created from lecture notes, class exams, text books, reading materials from many colleges and universities.)

Ch. 3 Clear Thinking, Critical Thinking and Clear Writing flashcards |

Long-Term Learning

Learn efficiently and remember over time.

Start Long-Term Learning

Get personalized study reminders at intervals optimized for better retention.
Track your progress on this set by creating a folder
Or add to an existing folder

Add this set to a folder

  • Vagueness

    state or condition of being unclear, indefinite, or indistinct


    unclearness by virtue of having more than one meaning


    not clearly understood. For ex. The concept of functionally literate.


    that can be understood in more than one way.

    Semantic ambiguity

    Ambiguity that results from the mutiple meanings of particular words. Ex: On my way to the bank, to cash my paycheck, I passed by the park and saw the most colorful ducks swimming by the bank of the river.

    Grouping ambiguity

    A kind of semantic ambiguity in which it is unclear whether a claim refers to a group of things taken individually or collectively. Ex. "hundreds of people have stayed in this hotel room" (100 ppl at a time or indiv's over time?)

    Fallacy of Division

    assuming that what is true of the whole is automatically true of the part

    Fallacy of Composition

    The incorrect belief that what is true for the individual, or part, must necessarily be true for the group, or whole.

    Syntactic ambiguity

    When the structure or grammar of a sentence renders the meaning of a word or phrase uncertain.
    "Mary saw the man with the telescope"; Ambiguity in sentences and phrases.

    Pronoun ambiguity

    lack of clarity that results from an unclear indication about the noun to which a pronoun refers. Ex. The teacher gave the student her notes. (Does the pronoun her refer to the noun teacher or the noun student?)


    vague statement; general statement which is not detailed; quality of being general; greater part; most. Ex. War on Terror. What is terrorism?


    the calculated use of violence (or threat of violence) against civilians in order to attain goals that are political or religious or ideological in nature

    Definition by example

    defines something by providing several concrete examples of it

    Definition by Synonym

    defining the topic by comparing it to something with which it is synonymous

    Analytical Definition

    Specifying the features that a thing must possess in order for the term being defined to apply to it.


    Is the type of definition whose purpose is to tell us what a word means.


    Definition that serves to give a special meaning in a give context.
    'desktop' for computer


    Definition to reduce vagueness or generality or to eliminate vagueness. For example: "In this case dollars will only refer to Canadian dollars" Unless otherwise stipulated


    Also known as persuasive. Definitions intended to persuade and manipulate.

    Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

    Having trouble? Click here for help.

    We can’t access your microphone!

    Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again


    Reload the page to try again!


    Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

    Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

    It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

    Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
    to use Voice Recording.

    For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

    Your microphone is muted

    For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

    Star this term

    You can study starred terms together

    ! Voice Recording

    This is a Plus feature

    Create Study Set