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Ch. 3 Clear Thinking, Critical Thinking and Clear Writing flashcards |
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  • Vagueness

    state or condition of being unclear, indefinite, or indistinct

    Ambiguity

    unclearness by virtue of having more than one meaning

    vague

    not clearly understood. For ex. The concept of functionally literate.

    Ambiguos

    that can be understood in more than one way.

    Semantic ambiguity

    Ambiguity that results from the mutiple meanings of particular words. Ex: On my way to the bank, to cash my paycheck, I passed by the park and saw the most colorful ducks swimming by the bank of the river.

    Grouping ambiguity

    A kind of semantic ambiguity in which it is unclear whether a claim refers to a group of things taken individually or collectively. Ex. "hundreds of people have stayed in this hotel room" (100 ppl at a time or indiv's over time?)

    Fallacy of Division

    assuming that what is true of the whole is automatically true of the part

    Fallacy of Composition

    The incorrect belief that what is true for the individual, or part, must necessarily be true for the group, or whole.

    Syntactic ambiguity

    When the structure or grammar of a sentence renders the meaning of a word or phrase uncertain.
    "Mary saw the man with the telescope"; Ambiguity in sentences and phrases.

    Pronoun ambiguity

    lack of clarity that results from an unclear indication about the noun to which a pronoun refers. Ex. The teacher gave the student her notes. (Does the pronoun her refer to the noun teacher or the noun student?)

    Generality

    vague statement; general statement which is not detailed; quality of being general; greater part; most. Ex. War on Terror. What is terrorism?

    Terrorism

    the calculated use of violence (or threat of violence) against civilians in order to attain goals that are political or religious or ideological in nature

    Definition by example

    defines something by providing several concrete examples of it

    Definition by Synonym

    defining the topic by comparing it to something with which it is synonymous

    Analytical Definition

    Specifying the features that a thing must possess in order for the term being defined to apply to it.

    Lexical

    Is the type of definition whose purpose is to tell us what a word means.

    Stipulative

    Definition that serves to give a special meaning in a give context.
    'desktop' for computer

    Precising

    Definition to reduce vagueness or generality or to eliminate vagueness. For example: "In this case dollars will only refer to Canadian dollars" Unless otherwise stipulated

    Rhetorical

    Also known as persuasive. Definitions intended to persuade and manipulate.

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