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AP Exam - Rhetoric and Critical Thinking words flashcards |
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  • argument to explore

    an argument to examine important issue is puzzling or new to you or your audience

    argument to inform

    an argument to tell readers something they do not already know but you think they should

    argument to convince

    an argument to convince readers that your perspective on an issue deserves their support

    argument to persuade

    an argument to convince readers and also move them into action

    argument to make decision

    an argument to explore with the audience multiple options and choose one path

    assumptions

    something accepted as true without proof

    authority

    the ability to influence others because of command knowledge or reputation on a subject

    autonomy

    the ability to reason for yourself without undue influence by other opinions

    active

    a direct or engaged relationship with a person or subject

    antithesis

    a person or idea that is the direct opposite of something else

    appeal to authority

    appealing to the reader based on the command, experience or knowledge of a source

    appeal to character ethos

    appealing to the reader based on the integrity, honesty, goodness or even humor of a source

    appeal to emotion (or heart) pathos

    appealing to the reader based on an emotional not intellectual reaction

    appeal to logic logos

    appealing to the reader based on the soundness of the ideas presented in an argument

    appeal to values

    appealing to the reader based on a strongly held common value such as equality or courage

    argument

    using evidence and reason in order to discover the truth, leading an audience toward a conviction

    audience

    the readers of your work -either intended or actual readers

    breadth

    the scope of an argument, and usually suggesting a great scope that covers a wide swath

    candor

    a writer's honesty and willingness to be upfront with an audience, even about shortcomings

    claim

    an essential idea of a piece of writing, often synonymous with thesis, but they can be implicit

    common ground

    finding an area of agreement between the writer and the reader's

    context

    the unique set of circumstances in which an argument exists: shaped by current events, values, culture, etc.

    credibility

    the trustworthiness of a writer

    depth

    the amount of thinking and text that focuses on one specific aspect of a topic as opposed to a wide swath

    digression

    the act of a writer moving off of the main point to entertain a smaller, possibly unrelated, point

    humility

    a modest view of one's own importance

    hypocrisy

    the claim to have moral standards are beliefs to which one's own behavior does not conform

    implications

    the possible longer-term consequences that can be predicted from a line of reasoning

    inferences

    a conclusion reached on the basis of evidence and reasoning

    integrity

    quality of being honest and having strong moral principles

    objective/objectivity

    not influenced by personal feelings or opinions in the presentation of an argument

    passive

    accepting or allowing what happens or what others do without active response or resistance

    persuasion

    attempting to change a point of view or move the audience from conviction to action, no discovery, truth is already known

    point-of-view/ orientation

    the perspective of the writer on a subject, as shaped by personal experiences or biases

    preconceptions

    a preconceived idea based on previous experiences on the subject

    qualitative

    related to the quality of something rather than its amount

    qualifier

    a phrase used to carefully and deliberately limit the scope of a subject; instead of people, Americans age 15-25

    quantitative

    related to a measurable amount of something rather than its quality

    reasoning

    the use of logical statements presented in a thoughtful orderly way in order to develop a line of thinking

    rebuttal

    a point that refutes or contradicts a previous idea, or the idea of another writer

    reflection

    a kind of writing that focuses on a close analysis of the writer himself in order to develop self-knowledge

    refutation

    similar to rebuttal, a statement that refutes or disagrees with a contradicting idea

    relevance

    pertaining to the matter at hand, not moving off subject

    subjective/subjectivity

    strongly influenced by personal feelings, tastes or opinions in the presentation of an

    warrant

    a premise that would be considered reasonable to most readers; upon this premise a sound argument is based

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