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107 Multiple choice questions

  1. Permanent waves that have a 7 or neutral pH; because of their higher pH, they process at room temperature, do not require the added heat of a hair dryer, process more quickly, and produce firmer curls than true acid waves.
  2. Hydrogen bonds can be broken by ______.
  3. Which permanent waves process at room temperature?
  4. What stops the cation of the waving solution and rebuilds the hair into its new curly form?
  5. Perms that use an ingredient that does not evaporate as readily as ammonia, so there is very little odor associated with their use.
  6. A ________ is a type of wrap in which the hair is wrapped on one rod from the scalp to midway down the hair shaft.
  7. Stops the action of a permanent wave solution and rebuilds the hair in its new curly form.
  8. Main active ingredient in true acid and acid-balanced waving lotions.
  9. What is the angle at which the rod is positioned on the head?
  10. Perm that uses an ingredient other than ATG as the primary reducing agent, such as cysteamine or mercaptamine.
  11. "straight set wrap"; perm wrapping pattern in which all the rods within a panel move in the same direction and are positioned on equal-sized bases; all the base sections are horizontal, and are the same length and width as the perm rod.
  12. "circle rod"; tool that is usually about 12-inches long with a uniform diameter along the entire length of the rod.
  13. Most of the acid waves found in today's salons have a pH between _______.
  14. True acid waves require _____ to process.
  15. The chemical texture service that loosens overly curly hair into loose curls or waves.
  16. Chemical texturizers ______ the pH of the hair.
  17. Permanent wave solution should be rinsed from the hair for a minimum of ______.
  18. The ______ is the tough exterior layer of the hair.
  19. What is the natural pH of hair?
  20. What is the most common neutralizer?
  21. Which type of bonds are relatively weak physical side bonds that are the result of an attraction between negative and positive electrical charges?
  22. A _______ uses an endothermic process.
  23. With extremely curly hair, the twists are the ______ sections of the hair strands.
  24. A two-step process whereby the hair undergoes a physical change caused by wrapping hair on perm rods, and then the hair undergoes a chemical change caused by the application of permanent waving solution and neutralizer.
  25. Refers to the position of the rod in relation to its base section; base placement is determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped.
  26. Which type of relaxer requires the application of a protective base cream to the entire scalp prior to the application of the relaxer?
  27. "piggyback wrap"; a wrap technique whereby extra-long hair is wrapped on one rod from the scalp to midway down the hair shaft, and another rod is used to wrap the remaining hair strand in the same direction.
  28. Wrapping technique that uses zigzag partings to divide base areas.
  29. Ammonia-free waves can be ________.
  30. "end bonds"; chemical bonds that join amino acids together, end to end in long chains, to form polypeptide chains.
  31. Perm rods that are equal in diameter along their entire length or curling area.
  32. Porous hair: ______
  33. The ______ is the innermost layer of the hair.
  34. Long chains of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds.
  35. Japanese thermal straightening is sometimes called _________.
  36. Creates an exothermic chemical reaction that heats up the waving solution and speeds up processing.
  37. Ionic compounds formed by a metal which is combined with oxygen and hydrogen.
  38. Relaxers are extremely _______.
  39. What is NOT one of the three main components of an exothermic wave?
  40. Compounds made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur.
  41. What is the middle layer of the hair?
  42. Perm wrap similar to actual technique of bricklaying; base sections are offset from each other row by row, to prevent noticeable splits and to blend the flow of the hair.
  43. What are the two basic types of wrapping hair around a perm rod?
  44. Base control in which the hair is wrapped at an angle of 90 degrees or perpendicular to its base section, and the rod is positioned half off its base section.
  45. If the client's hair has been treated with a hydroxide relaxer, it ________.
  46. Hydroxide ions left in the hair after a relaxer can be neutralized using an ________.
  47. Perms in which the hair strands are wrapped from the ends to the scalp in overlapping concentric layers.
  48. Perms that use sulfates, sulfites, and bisulfites as an alternative to ammonium thioglycolate; they have a low pH
  49. "end wraps"; absorbent papers used to control the ends of the hair when wrapping and winding hair on perm rods.
  50. In permanent waving, the size of the curl is determined by the _____.
  51. Very strong alkalis with a pH over 13
  52. The partings and bases radiate throughout the panels to follow the curvature of the head in which type of wrap?
  53. Perm wrap in which partings and bases radiate throughout the panels to follow the curvature of the head.
  54. Position of the tool in relation to its base section, determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped.
  55. Process by which hydroxide relaxers permanently straighten hair; they remove a sulfur atom from a disulfide bond and convert it into a Ianthionine bond.
  56. Thioglycolic acid is a common ________.
  57. Base control in which the hair is wrapped at 45 degrees below the center of the base section, so the rod is positioned completely off its base.
  58. "cold waves"; have a pH between 9.0 and 9.6, use ammonium thioglycolate as a reducing agent, and process at room temperature without the addition of heat.
  59. Perm wrap that is similar to double flat wrap but uses only one end paper, placed over the top of the strand of hair being wrapped.
  60. What type of perm is recommended for very damaged hair?
  61. The layer of the hair that provides strength and elasticity.
  62. A pH of 7.0 is ______ than the pH of the hair.
  63. Have a pH between 4.5 and 7.0 and require heat to process; they process more slowly than alkaline waves, and do not usually produce as firm a curl.
  64. A process or service that rearranges the structure of curly hair into a straighter or smoother form.
  65. Perm wrap in which one end paper is folded in half over the hair ends like an envelope.
  66. Perm rods that have a smaller diameter in the center that increases to a larger diameter on the ends.
  67. GMTG, the primary reducing agent in all acid waves, has _____.
  68. A reduction reaction involves either the addition of hydrogen or removal of ______.
  69. Base control in which the hair is wrapped at 45 degree angle beyond perpendicular to its base section, and the rod is positioned on its base.
  70. An endothermic wave must be activated using an _______.
  71. Mild-strength relaxers are formulated for __________.
  72. Relaxers that do not require application of a protective base cream.
  73. Angle at which the rod is positioned on the head (horizontally, vertically, or diagonally); also, the directional pattern in which the hair is wrapped.
  74. Subsections of panels into which hair is divided for perm wrapping; one rod is normally placed on each base section.
  75. What are commonly known as lye relaxers?
  76. What is a method of hair straightening that combines the use of a the relaxer with flat ironing?
  77. For on-base placement, the hair is wrapped at a _____ angle beyond perpendicular to its base section, and the rod is positioned on its base.
  78. Which type of relaxer contains one component and is used without any additional mixing?
  79. A ______ is a perm wrap in which one end paper is placed under and another is placed over the strand of hair being wrapped.
  80. Relaxers that require the application of protective base cream to the entire scalp prior to the application of the relaxer.
  81. Perm wrap in which one end paper is placed under and another is placed over the strand of hair being wrapped.
  82. The reducing agent used in permanent waving solutions.
  83. Which type of rod is also commonly known as a circle rod.
  84. The chemical bonds that join amino acids together are called ________.
  85. Which rods are equal in diameter along their entire length or curling area?
  86. Hair is wrapped at an angle other than perpendicular to the length of the rod, which causes the hair to spiral along the length of the rod, similar to the stripes on a candy cane.
  87. When rinsing the hair for a permanent wave, it is recommended that you _________.
  88. With permanent waving, it is recommended that you ________.
  89. Hair services that cause a chemical change that alters the natural wave pattern of the hair.
  90. Tool about 12-inches long with a uniform diameter along the entire length.
  91. What is the thickness or thinness of a liquid?
  92. The basic components of acid waves are permanent wave solution, activator, and ______.
  93. Active ingredient or reducing agent in alkaline permanents
  94. The measurement of the thickness or thinness of a liquid that affects how the fluid flows.
  95. Manufacturers add an alkalizing agent to waving solutions because the acid in them _______.
  96. Conditioners with an acidic pH that restore the hair's natural pH after a hydroxide relaxer prior to shampooing.
  97. When should you perform an elasticity test?
  98. Lithium hydroxide relaxers and potassium hydroxide relaxers are often advertised and sold as ______.
  99. Perm activated by an outside heat source, usually a conventional hood-type hair dryer.
  100. "protective base cream"; oily cream used to protect the skin and scalp during hair relaxing.
  101. In permanent waving, most of the processing takes place within _______
  102. ...
  103. An acid-alkali neutralization reaction that neutralizes (deactivates) the alkaline residues left in the hair by a hydroxide relaxer and lowers the pH of the hair and scalp; hydroxide relaxer neutralization does not involve oxidation or rebuild disulfide bonds.
  104. Most alkaline permanent waves have a pH between _______.
  105. Long, coiled polypeptide chains.
  106. Combination of a the relaxer and a the permanent that is wrapped on large rods to make existing curl larger and looser.
  107. Use the same ammonium thioglycolate that is used in permanent waving, but at a higher concentration and a higher pH.