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35 Multiple choice questions

  1. Darkening of the fingernails or toenails; may be seen as a black band within the nail plate, extending from the base to the free edge.
  2. A typical bacterial infection on the nail plate can be identified in the early stages as a ______ spot that becomes darker in its advanced stages.
  3. What is the medical term for fungal infections associated with the feet?
  4. Nails turn a variety of colors; may indicate surface staining, a systematic disorder, or poor blood circulation.
  5. If a client has ridges running vertically down the length of the natural nail plate, it is recommended that you ______.
  6. "white spots" ; whitish discolorations of the nails, usually caused by injury to the matrix area; not related to the body's healthy or vitamin deficiencies.
  7. A noninfectious condition that affects the surface of the natural nail plate causing tiny pits or severe roughness on the surface of the nail plate.
  8. Condition in which a blood clot forms under the nail plate, causing a dark purplish spot. Usually due to small injuries to the nail bed.
  9. Fungal infection of the natural nail plate.
  10. Hemorrhages caused by trauma or injury to the nail bed that damage the capillaries and allow small amounts of blood flow.
  11. Inflammation of the nail matrix, followed by shedding of the natural nail.
  12. "bitten nails" ; result of a habit of chewing the nail or chewing the hardened skin surrounding the nail plate.
  13. Severe inflammation of the nail in which a lump of red tissue grows up from the nail bed to the nail plate.
  14. Bacterial inflammation of the tissues surrounding the nail causing pus, swelling, and redness, usually in the skin fold adjacent to the nail plate.
  15. Any deformity or disease of the natural nails.
  16. A normal healthy nail is firm and flexible and should be ______.
  17. Visible depressions running across the width of the natural nail plate; usually a result of major illness or injury that has traumatized the body.
  18. Abnormal condition that occurs when the skin is stretched by the nail plate; usually caused by serious injury.
  19. The separation and falling off of a nail plate from the nail bed.
  20. Splinter hemorrhages are caused by physical trauma or injury to the _____.
  21. A cosmetologist can disobey state or federal rules and regulations ______.
  22. Condition caused by an injury or disease of the nail unit.
  23. Medical term for fungal infections of the feet; red, itchy rash of the skin on the bottom of the feet and/or in between the toes, usually found between the fourth and fifth toe.
  24. "agnail" ; a condition in which the living tissue surrounding the nail plate splits or tears.
  25. "trumpet nail" ; increased crosswise curvature throughout the nail plate caused by an increased curvature of the matrix. The edges of the nails plate may plate may curl around to form the shape of a trumpet or shape cone at the free edge.
  26. The separation and falling off of a nail from the nail bed is a sign of ______.
  27. Noticeably thin, white nail plates that are more flexible than normal and can curve over the free edge.
  28. "ingrown nails" ; nail grows into the sides of the tissue around the nail.
  29. Vertical lines running through the length of the natural nail plate that are caused by uneven growth of the nails, usually the result of normal aging.
  30. Split or brittle nails that have a series of lengthwise ridges giving a rough appearance to the surface of the nail plate.
  31. "folded nail" ; a type of highly curved nail usually caused by injury to the matrix but may be inherited.
  32. One of several common bacteria that can cause nail infection.
  33. Onychomadesis can affect _______.
  34. Nail fungi can be transmitted through ______ instruments.
  35. Lifting of the nail plate from the nail bed without shedding, usually beginning at the free edge and continuing toward the lunula area.