Milady Final Exam 1 flashcards |

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How many years of college education do a person need to become a dermatologist?

12 years

The average adult skin weighs....

6-9lbs

How many times thicker is the dermis layer of skin than the epidermis?

25

How much protein does melanin give?

very little

Define dermatology

The study of skin

The largest organ of the body

Skin

Is skin naturally acidic or alkaline?

Slightly acidic

Hair, nails, sudoriferous and sebaceous glands are what?

Appendages

Outermost layer and thinnest layer of skin

Epidermis

What is another name for the cuticle layer?

Stratum corneum

What layer of skin is visible?

Stratum corneum

The deepest layer of the epidermis

Stratum germinativium

Basal cell layer

Stratum germinativium

What are the two layers in the dermis?

Papillary and reticular

The top of the papillary layer where it joins with the epidermis is called...

Epidermal-dermal junction

Where do you find the nerve endings for the sense of touch?

Sensory nerve fibers

Fatty tissue is found where?

Subcutaneous tissue

Carry impulses from the brain to the muscles

Motor nerves

Red to yellow in color

Pheomelanin

Elastin

protein base similar to collagen that forms elastic tissue

Clogged pore with hardened sebum

Comedo

Promotes healing of the skin; enables the body to properly absorb and use calcium

Vitamin D

How much of the body is made up of water

50-70%

Collagen

Fibrous protein; gives skin strength and form

Dermal papillae

small cone-shaped elevations at base of the hair follicles

Keratin

fibrous protein; principle component of hair and nails

Pimple; small elevation on the skin that contains no fluid but may develop pus

Papule

Cells that produce the dark skin pigment called melanin

Melanocytes

Regulate the excretion of perspiration from the sweat glands and control the flow of sebum to the surface of skin

Sensory nerve fibers

What do state agencies regulate

Licensing enforcement and your conduct when you are working in the salon

What helps the body break down food and protect if against infections?

Non-pathogenic bacteria

the division of bacteria cells into 2 new cells called daughter cells

binary fission

partly inherited and partly developed

natural immunity

immunity the body develops from a disease, through vaccinations or through exposure to allergens

acquired immunity

Statues

Laws

Invasion of body tissues by disease-causing pathogens

infection

Using soap and water to remove all visible dirt, debris, and many germs

clean

What kind of motility do cocci have?

Active motility

a parasitic submicroscopic particle that infects and resides in cells of biological organisms

virus

A blood borne virus tat causes disease and can damage the liver

Hepatitis

What causes AIDS?

HIV

Microscopic plant and parasites, can produce contagious diseases; mold, mildew, and yeast

Fungi

What is quaternary ammonium compound (QUATS)?

Disinfectants that are very effective when used properly in the salon

Sodium Hypochlorite

Bleach

How long should you wash your hands for?

20 sec

Who regulate and enforce safety and health standards to protect employees in the work place?

OSHA

Short, rod- shaped bacteria, most common bacteria

Bacilli

The process that completely destroys all microbial life, including spores

steralization

Spiral or corkscrew- shaped baceria

Spirilla

Various poisonous substances produced by some microorganisms

Toxins

Round-shaped bacteria that appear singly or in a group

Cocci

The parts of the muscle

Origin, belly, insertion

Strongest facial bone

mandible

Colorless jelly-like substance found inside cells

Protoplasm

Microscopic Anatomy is also known as....

Histology

The protoplasm of a cell that surrounds the nucleus is the....

Cytoplasm

when cells of living organisms are nourished

anabolism

when cells of living organisms carry out activities

catabolism

How many bones are in the face?

14

Binds together, protects and supports various parts of the body

Connective tissue

Cheekbones

Zygomatic bones

Uppermost bone in the arm, largest bone that extends from elbow to shoulder

Humerus

Inner bone of forearm; located on the side of the little finger

Ulna

Long bone that forms the leg above the knee

Femur

Insertion is the part of the muscle --- to the skeleton

Farthest

How massage of the muscle is directed

insertion to origin

Orbicularis oculi

Eye socket

Muscles that separate the fingers

abductors

Thin walled blood vessles

Veins

Main arteries that supply blood to the head, face, and neck

Carotid arteries

Releases secretion of hormones directly into the bloodsream

Endocrine Glands

What is found in the center of the cell

nucleus

Study of the functions of the body's sturcture

Physiology

The study of the muscles

Mycology

The study of the structure, function, and pathology of the nervous system

Neurology

Autonomic reaction to a stimulus that involves movement of an impulse

Reflex

Middle part of the muscle

Belly

Rays of the sun cause how much aging?

80-85%

What is the cause of Rosacea?

Unknown

Another name for Acne vulgairs

Acne

small sesame seed, commonly found on babies

milia

Whitehead

a closed comedo

Large blister containing a water fluid

Bulla

an abnormal cell mass that varies in size, shape, and color

tumor

Piles of material on the skin surface

Secondary Skin Lesions

Forms over a wound or blemish while it is healing

Scab

Thick scar resulting from excessive growth of fibrous tissue

keloid

Open lesion on the skin or mucous membrane of the body; loss of skin depth and fluids or pus

ulcer

Hypertrophy of the papillae and epidermis

Wart

most common and least severe type of skin cancer

Basal cell carcinoma

Main food source for acne bacteria

Fatty acids

Intrinsic skin-aging factors

genetics, gravity, facial expressions

Abnormal, brown-colored or wine-colored skin discoloration

Stain

An inflammation of skin cause by having contact with certain chemicals or substances

Contact dermatitis

Small brown or flesh-colored outgrowth of the skin

Skin tag

Skin sore or abrasion produced by scratching or scraping

Excoriation

Conjunctivitis

pink eye

Allergic reaction created by repeated exposure to a chemical or substance

Sensitization

Large protruding pocket-like lesion filled with sebum

Sebaceous Cyst

Light abnormal skin patches; caused by a burn or congenital disease that destroys the pigment-producing cells

Luekoderma

Caused by minor injury to the nail matrix

leukonychia spots

What are pigment cells called

melanocytes

too much cuticle remover can cause

onychorrhexis

What can lead to ingrown nails

Plicatured nails

The separation and falling off of a nail plate from the nail bed

Onychomadesis

What causes bruised nails

Small injury to the nail bed

Nails that are thin, white, and flexible

Eggshell nails

Visible depressions running the width of the natural nail plate

Beau's lines

What are ridges that are vertical down the natural nail caused by

Aging and uneven growth

Lifting of the nail plate, but does NOT shed

Onycholysis

Condition in which the living skin around the nail plate splits and tears, agnail

Hangnail

Ingrown nails; nails that grow into the sides of living tissue around the nail

Onychocryptosis

Bitten Nails

Oychophagy

Caused by physical trauma or injury to the nail bed that damages the capillaries and allows small amounts of blood flow

Splinter Hemorrhages

Free edge pinches the sidewalls into a deep curve, pincer nail

Trumpet nail

Fungal infection of the natural nail plate

Onychomycosis

Greek word for hair

Trichos

How many of the 20 amino acids that make up the hair can your body produce?

11

Cooling and drying hair reformed what bond?

Hydrogen bond

Outermost layer of the hair; provides a barrier that protects the inner strength

Cuticle

Ringworm

Tinea

Long coiled, complex polypeptides made of amino acides

Proteins

The shape of the hair strand; straight, wavy, curly, extra curly

Wave pattern

Study of hair

Trichology

Brittle Hair

Fagilitas Crinium

Part of the hair located below the surface of the epidermis

Hair root

Temporary hair loss experienced at the end of pregnancy

Postpartum Alopecia

Fatty, oily substance

sebum

Fibrous protein cor formed by elongated cells that contain melanin pigment is...

the cortex

Innermost layer of hair

medula

3 different types of side bonds

Hydrogen, Salt, Disulfide

Which bond is altered in permanent waving and hair relaxers

Disulfide bonds

Hydroxide relaxers change the disulfide bonds into ---- bonds

lanthiomine

Vellus is the short, fine, downy hair also known as...

Lanugo

3 growth phases of hair

Anagen, Catagen, Telogen

Resting phase of hair growth

Telogen

pityriasis

dandruff

What fungus that causes dandruff

Malassizia

What causes scabies?

Parasite called a mite

How is density of hair measured?

The number of individual hair stands in one square inch

The ability of the hair to absorb water

Porosity

The ability of the hair to stretch and return to its original length without breaking

Elasticity

The way the hair grows

Hair stream

How many naturally occurring elements are there?

90

Sodium Chloride

Table salt

When did people start making soaps?

4500 years ago

What kind of emulsion are cold creams?

water-in-oil

What is an element?

Simplest form of a chemical component

What substances does air contain?

Nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor

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