Milady Chapter 5 // Cosmetology flashcards |

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acquired immune deficiency syndrome

"AIDS" ; a disease that breaks down the body's immune system. ; caused by HIV.

Acquired Immunity

Immunity that the body develops after overcoming a disease, through inoculation (such as flu vaccinations), or through exposure to natural allergens, such as pollen, cat dander, and ragweed.


Reaction due to extreme sensitivity to certain foods, chemicals, or other normally harmless substances.


Chemical germicides formulated for use on skin; registered and regulated by the FDA.


Showing no signs of infection.


Short rod-shaped bacteria. Most common bacteria and produce diseases such as tetanus, typhoid fever, tuberculosis, and diphtheria.


One-celled microorganisms that have both plant and animal characteristics.


Capable of destroying bacteria.

Binary Fission

The division of bacteria cells into two new cells called daughter cells.


The number of viable organisms in or on an object or surface or the organic material on a surface or object before decontamination or sterilization.

Bloodborne Pathogens

Disease-causing microorganisms carried in the body by blood or body fluids, such as hepatitis and HIV.

Chelating Soaps

"chelating detergents"; detergents that break down stubborn films and remove the residue of pedicure products such as scrubs, salts, and masks.


Round-shaped bacteria that appear singly (alone) or in groups.

Staphylococci, Streptococci, and Diplococci

What are the three types of Cocci?


The presence, or the reasonably anticipated presence of blood or other potentially infectious materials on an item's surface or visible debris or residues such as dust, hair, and skin.


The removal of blood or other potentially infectious materials on an item's surface and the removal of visible depress or residue such as dust, hair, and skin.


Determination of the nature of a disease from its symptoms and/or diagnostic tests.


Spherical bacteria that grow in pairs and cause diseases such as pneumonia

Direct Transmission

Transmission of blood or body fluids through touching, kissing, coughing, sneezing, and talking.


An abnormal condition of all or part of the body, or its systems or organs, that makes the body incapable of carrying on normal function.


Chemical products that destroy all bacteria, fungi, and viruses (but not spores) on surfaces.

Disinfection (disinfecting)

A chemical process that uses specific products to destroy harmful organisms (except bacterial spores) on environmental surfaces.


The ability to produce an effect.

Exposure Incident

Contact with non intact skin, blood, body fluid or other potentially infectious materials that is the result of the performance of an employee's duties.


Slender, hairlike extensions used by bacilli and spirilla for locomotion. "cilia"


Microscopic plant parasites, which include molds, mildews, and yeasts; can produce contagious diseases such as ringworm.


Capable of destroying fungi.


A bloodborne virus that causes disease and can damage the liver.

Hospital Disinfectants

Disinfectants that are effective for cleaning blood and body fluids.

Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)

"Planter warts" ; a virus that can infect the bottom of the foot and resembles small black dots, usually in clustered groups.


The ability of the body to destroy and resist infection. It can be natural or acquired.

Indirect Transmission

Transmission of blood or body fluids through contact with an intermediate contaminated object such as a razor, extractor, nipper, or an environmental surface.


The invasion of body tissues by disease-causing pathogens.

Infection Control

The methods used to eliminate or reduce the transmission of infectious organisms.


Caused by or capable of being transmitted by infection.

Infectious Disease

Disease caused by pathogenic microorganisms that enter the body. It may or may not be spread person to person.


A condition in which the body reacts to injury, irritation, or infection; characterized by redness, heat, pain, and swelling.

Local Infection

An infection, such as a pimple or abscess, that is confined to a particular part of the body and appears as a lesion containing pus.

Material Safety Datta Sheet (MSDS)

information compiled by the manufacturer about product safety, including the names of hazardous ingredients, safe handling and use procedures, precautions to reduce the risk of accidental harm or overexposure, and flammability warnings.

Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus

"MRSA" ' a type of infectious bacteria that is highly resistant to conventional treatments such as antibiotics.


Any organism of microscopic or submicroscopic size.


A type of fungus that affects plants or grows on intimate objects, but does not cause human infections in the salon.




"reusable" ' items that can be cleaned, disinfected, and used on more than one person, even if the item is accidentally exposed to blood or body fluid.

Mycobacterium Fortuitum

A microscopic germ that normally exists in tap water in small numbers.

Natural Immunity

Immunity that is partly inherited and partly developed through healthy living.


Harmless microorganisms that may perform useful functions and are safe to come in contact with since they do not cause disease or harm.


An item that is made or constructed of a material that has no pores or openings and cannot absorb liquids.

Occupational Disease

Illness resulting from conditions associated with employment, such as prolonged and repeated overexposure to certain products or ingredients.


Organisms that grow, feed, and shelter on or in another organisms while contributing nothing to the survival of that organism. They mush have a host to survive.

Parasitic Disease

Disease caused by parasites, such as lice and mites.


Harmful microorganisms that can cause disease or infection in humans when they invade the body.

Pathogenic Disease

Disease produced by organisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.

Phenolic Disinfectants

Powerful tuberculocidal disinfectants. They are a form of formaldehyde, have a very high pH, and can damage the skin and eyes.


Made or constructed of a material that has pores or openings. Is absorbent.


What is a fluid created by infection.

Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (quats)

What are disinfectants that are very effective when used properly in the salon?


A chemical process for reducing the number of disease-causing germs on cleaned surfaces to a safe level.


A contagious skin disease that is caused by the itch mite, which burrows under the skin.

Single-use (disposable)

Items that cannot be used more than once.

Sodium Hypochlorite

What is the chemical name for household bleach?


Spiral or corkscrew-shaped bacteria that cause diseases such as syphilis and Lyme disease.


Pus-forming bacteria that grow in clusters like a bunch of grapes. They cause abscesses, pustules, and boils.


The process that completely destroys all microbial life, including spores.


Pus-forming bacteria arranged in curved lines resembling a string of beads. They cause infections such as strep throat and blood poisoning.

Systemic Disease

Disease that affects the body a a whole, often due to under-functioning or over-functioning or internal glands or organs. It is carried through the blood stream or the lymphatic system.

Tinea Barbae

"barbers itch" ; a superficial fungal infection that commonly affects the skin. It is primarily limited to the bearded areas of the face and neck or around the scalp.

Tinea Capitis

A fungal infection of the scalp characterized by red papillose, or spots, at the opening of the hair follicles.

Tinea Pedis

A ringworm fungus of the foot.


Various poisonous substances produced by some microorganisms (bacteria and viruses)

Tuberculocidal Disinfectants

Disinfectants that kill the bacteria that causes tuberculosis.


A disease caused by bacteria that are transmitted through coughing and sneezing.

Universal Precautions

A set of guidelines published by OSHA that require the employer and the employee to assume that all human blood and body fluids are infectious for blood borne pathogens.


Capable of destroying viruses.


A parasitic submicroscopic particle that infects and resides in cells of biological organisms.


Which type of bacteria can cause strep throat or blood poisoning?


What are bacteria that grow in pairs and can cause pneumonia?


Lyme disease and syphilis are caused by spiral or corkscrew-shaped bacteria called what?

whirlpool foot spas

In 2000, a bacteria called "Mycobacterium fortuitum" caused a client outbreak due to the failure of the practitioner to follow proper disinfection guidelines for what?


Bacteria generally consist of an outer cell wall containing a liquid called ______.

Bacterial Infection

The presence of pus is a sign of ________.


A ______ infection appears as a lesion containing pus and is confined to a particular part of the body.

Pediculosis Capitis

What is a condition caused by an infestation of head lice?

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

Disinfectants used in salons must carry an ________ registration number.


Which agency publishes the guidelines known as Universal Precautions?

Completely immersed in an EPA-registered disinfectant.

A salon implement that accidentally comes in contact with blood or body fluids must be thoroughly cleaned and _______.

1 minute

When washing your hands, you apply soap, lather and scrub your hands and under the free edges of nails with a nail brush for at least ______.

Killing germs on the hands

Antiseptics are effective for _______

bloodborne pathogens

Universal Precautions require employees to assume that human blood and body fluids are infectious for _______.

10 minutes

When disinfecting a whirlpool foot spa after use by a client, you must circulate the disinfectant for ______ or for the time recommended by the manufacturer.

At least once a week

How often should you clean a whirlpool foot spa and leave disinfectant solution in it overnight?

With a clean paper towel

After cleaning and disinfecting a pipe-less foot spa at the end of the day, how should you dry it?

Hepatitis B

Which form of hepatitis is the most difficult to kill on a surface?

14 Days

Accelerated hydrogen peroxide, or AHP, is a recently approved form of disinfectant that only needs to be changed every ______.

adding disinfectant to water

Mix disinfectants properly by ______.


Licensing, enforcement, and your conduct when you are working in the salon are regulated by ______ agencies.


Some ______ disinfectants are harmful to salon tools and equipment.

Not allowed

As a cosmetologist, you are ______ to recommend treatments for diseases.

Any part of the nail

Cosmetologists are not allowed to trim or cut living skin around ________.


Fungal infections are much more common on the ______ than on the hands.


A surface must be properly cleaned before it can be ________.

Infection Control

Sterilization is the most reliable means of ________.

diluted before use

If the label on a disinfection product includes the word "concentrate", it means that the product must be _______.

too much

Using ______ bleach can damage metal and plastic.

no longer used

Fumigants are _____ in salons because they produce potentially harmful formaldehyde gas.


Never let disinfectants such as phenols and quotes come in contact with your _____.


Salons should keep a _______ that identifies each time a piece of equipment is used, cleaned, disinfected, tested, and maintained.

clean and disinfect

There is no additive, powder, or tablet that eliminates the need for you to _____ equipment such as whirlpool foot spas.


Not having ______ available poses a health risk to anyone exposed to hazardous materials and violates federal and sate regulations.

no more effective than

Antimicrobial and antibacterial soaps are ________ regular soaps or detergents.

clean, covered

After they have been properly cleaned and disinfected, implements should be stored in a ________ container.

pipe-less foot spa

When cleaning and disinfecting a ______, remove the impeller, footplate, and any other removable parts according to the manufacturer's instructions.

clean, disinfected nail brush

Before beginning any service, you should wash your hands using pump soap, water, and a ________.


Something caused by or capable of being transmitted by infection is called ______.

Intermediate Contaminated Object

Transmission of blood or body fluids through contact with an ________, such as a razor or an environmental surface, is indirect transmission.

Contagious disease

What is a disease that is spread by contact from one person to another person?

Infectious disease

What is a disease caused by pathogenic microorganisms that enter the body, and which may or may not be spread from one person to another person?


What is a parasitic disease caused by?

Occupational Diseases

What are illnesses resulting from conditions associated with employment?

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