Milady Chapter 21 // Cosmetology flashcards |

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Activators

powdered persiflage salts added to hair color to increase its lightening ability.

Aniline Derivatives

Contain small, uncolored dyes that combine with hydrogen peroxide to form larger, permanent dye molecules within the cortex.

Baliage

"free-form technique"; painting a lightener directly onto clean, styled hair.

Base Color

Predominant tone of a color.

Cap Technique

Lightening technique that involves pulling clean dry strands of hair through a perforated cap with a thin plastic or metal hook, and then combing them to remove tangles.

Color Fillers

Equalize porosity and deposit color in one application to provide a uniform contributing pigment on pre lightened hair.

Complementary Colors

A primary and secondary color positioned directly opposite each other on the color wheel.

Conditioner Fillers

Used to recondition damaged, overly porous hair and equalize porosity so that the hair accepts the color evenly from strand to strand and scalp to ends.

Contributing Pigment

"undertone"; the varying degrees of warmth exposed during a permanent color or lightening process.

Demipermanent haircolor

"no-lift deposit-only color"; formulated to deposit but not lift natural hair color.

Developers

"oxidizing agents"; when mixed with an oxidation hair color, supplies the necessary oxygen gas to develop color molecules and create a change in hair color.

Double-process application

"two-step coloring"; a coloring technique requiring two separate procedures in which the hair is pre lightened before the depositing color is applied to the hair.

Fillers

Used to equalize porosity

Foil Technique

Highlighting technique that involves coloring selected strands of hair by slicing or weaving out sections, placing them on foil or plastic wrap, applying lightener or permanent hair color, and then sealing them in the foil or plastic wrap.

Glaze

A nonammonia color that adds shine and tone to the hair.

Hair Color

The natural color of hair.

Hair Lightening

"bleaching or decolorizing"; chemical process involving the diffusion of the natural hair color pigment or artificial hair color from the hair.

Haircolor

Professional, salon industry term referring to artificial hair color products and services.

Haircolor Glaze

Common way to describe a hair color service that adds shine and color to the hair.

Highlighting

Coloring some of the hair strands lighter than the natural color to add a variety of lighter shades and the illusion of depth.

Highlighting shampoo

Colors prepared by combining permanent hair color, hydrogen peroxide, and shampoo.

Hydrogen Peroxide Developer

Oxidizing agent that, when mixed with an oxidation hair color, supplies the necessary oxygen gas to develop the color molecules and create a change in natural hair color.

Intensity

The strength of a color.

Law of Color

System for understanding color relationships

Level

The unit of measurement used to identify the lightness or darkness of a hair color

Level System

System that colorists use to determine the lightness or darkness of a hair color

Lighteners

Chemical compounds that lighten hair by dispersing, dissolving, and decolorizing the natural hair pigment.

Line of Demarcation

Visible line separating colored hair from new growth.

Metallic Haircolors

"gradual haircolors"; haircolors containing metal salts that change hair color gradually by progressive buildup and exposure to air creating a dull, metallic appearance.

Mixed Melanin

Combination of natural hair color that contains both pheomelanin and eumelanin

Natural Haircolors

"vegetable haircolors"; colors, such as henna, obtained from the leaves or bark of plants.

New Growth

Part of the hair shaft between the scalp and the hair that has been previously colored.

Off-the-scalp lighteners

"quick lighteners"; powdered lighteners that cannot be used directly on the scalp.

On-the-scalp lighteners

Lighteners that can be used directly on the scalp by mixing the lightener with activators.

Patch test

"predisposition test"; test required by the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act for identifying a possible allergy in a client.

Permanent Haircolors

Lighten and deposit color at the same time and in a single process because they are more alkaline than no-lift deposit-only colors and are usually mixed with a higher-volume developer.

Prelightening

First step of double-process hair coloring, used to lift or lighten the natural pigment before the application of toner.

Presoftening

Process of treating gray or very resistant hair to allow for better penetration of color.

Primary Colors

Pure or fundamental colors (red, yellow, and blue) that cannot be created by combining other colors.

Resistant

Hair type that is difficult for moisture or chemicals to penetrate, and thus requires a longer processing time.

Reverse Highlighting

"lowlighting"; technique of coloring strands of hair darker than the natural color.

Secondary Color

Color obtained by mixing equal parts of two primary colors.

Semipermanent Haircolor

No-lift deposit-only non oxidation hair color that is not mixed with peroxide and is formulated to last through several shampoos.

Single-process haircoloring

Process that lightens and deposits color in the hair in a single application.

Slicing

Coloring technique that involves taking a narrow, 1/8 inch section of hair by making a straight part at the scalp, positioning the hair over the foil, and applying lightener or color.

Soap Cap

Combination of equal parts of a prepared permanent color mixture and shampoo used the last five minutes and worked through the hair to refresh the ends.

Special Effects Haircoloring

Any technique that involves partial lightening or coloring.

Strand Test

Determines how the hair will react to the color formula and how long the formula should be left on the hair.

Temporary Haircolor

Nonpermanent color whose large pigment molecules prevent penetration of the cuticle layer, allowing only a coating action that may be removed by shampooing.

Tertiary Color

Intermediate color achieved by mixing a secondary color and its neighboring primary color on the color wheel in equal amounts.

Tone

"hue"; the balance of color

Toners

Semipermanent, demipermanent, and permanent haircolor products that are used primarily on pre lightened hair to achieve pale and delicate colors.

Virgin Application

First time the hair is colored.

Volume

Measures the concentration and strength of hydrogen peroxide.

Weaving

Coloring technique in which selected strands are picked up from a narrow section of hair with a zigzag motion of the comb, and lightener or color is applied only to these strands

Cortex

What is the layer of the hair that provides strength and elasticity?

Diameter

In individual hair strands, hair texture is determined by the _______.

High Porosity

If the cuticle is lifted, allowing the hair to take color quickly, the hair is said to have _______.

1 to 10

Hair color levels are arranged on a scale from ________.

warm, neutral, or cool

Hair color tones can be described as __________.

Natural Tones

Colors that are described as sandy or tan are considered _________.

Blue

Which color will help minimize orange tones in the hair?

Blue

What is the strongest and only cool primary color?

Lighter

Red added to blue-based colors will cause them to appear _______

Tertiary

A _______ color is achieved by mixing a secondary color and its neighboring primary color.

gray, white, or black

Depending on the level of color, equal proportions of the primary colors will produce _________.

Large

Temporary color pigment molecules do not penetrate because they are ______.

4 to 6 weeks

Semipermanent hair color on average should last _______.

Demipermanent

Which type of haircolor penetrates the hair shaft and is formulated to deposit but not lift color?

Permanent Haircolor

Which type of haircolor lightens and deposits color at the same time and in a single process because it is more alkaline than no-lift deposit-only colors and is usually mixed with a higher-volume developer?

40-volume peroxide

To provide maximum lift in a one-process color service, most high-lift colors require ________.

10

During the decolorization process, natural hair can go through as many as _____ stages.

a line of demarcation

Overlapping color can cause breakage and create a sign of roots or ________.

oil, powder, and cream

What are the three forms of hair lighteners.

a blond shade

For clients with 80 to 100 percent gray, which hair color is generally most flattering?

two levels lighter than the natural level

To cover unpigmented hair in a salt-and-pepper client, the color formulation should be ______.

First

On a lightener retouch, new growth is lightened ______.

Three

To produce a hair color that looks natural, how many primary colors must be present?

double-process blonding

The best way to obtain pale blond results is to use ________.

Yellow

When hair is violet, it is recommended that you use ______ to balance it.

orange

When hair is blue, it is recommended that you use ______ to balance it

Warm

Selecting ______ base colors creates brighter colors.

look at the client directly

During a hair color consultation, you should ________.

Soft

What word is the best choice to use when discussing hair color with clients?

the same color that will be used for the hair color service

When performing a patch test, which color should you use?

a greater degree of porosity

Hair that has previously received a color service will have _______.

yellow or orange

Under-lightened hair is likely to appear to have more _____ than the intended color.

double-process application

What is a coloring technique that requires two separate procedures in which the hair is pre lightened before the depositing color is applied?

Pheomelanin

The melanin that gives blond and red colors to hair is called _______.

hair color

What is the proper way to write the term that refers to the natural color of hair?

Lightener

A _______ is a chemical compound that lightens hair by dispersing, dissolving, and decolorizing the natural hair pigment.

glaze

A _____ is a nonammonia color that adds shine and tone to the hair.

Conditioner Filler

What is used to recondition damaged overly porous hair and equalize porosity so that the hair accepts the color evenly from strand to strand and form scalp to ends?

hydrogen peroxide developer

What is an oxidizing agent that, when mixed with an oxidation hair color, supplies the necessary oxygen gas to develop the color molecules and create a change in natural haircolor?

Color Filler

A _______ is used to equalize porosity and deposit color in one application to provide a uniform contributing pigment on pre lightened hair.

Eumelanin

Which type of melanin lends black and brown colors to hair?

Gradual Haircolors

Hair colors containing metal salts that change hair color gradually by progressive buildup and exposure to air, creating a dull, metallic appearance, are called _______.

Strand test

A _______ is a test performed to determine how the hair will react to the color formula and how long the formula should be left on the hair.

color wheel

When identifying natural levels for a hair color service, your most valuable tool is the _______.

Red

What is the medium primary color?

Semipermanent Color

Which type of color adds subtle color results?

To raise the cuticle of the hair

What is a role of the alkalizing ingredient in permanent haircolor?

Natural Haircolor

Henna is an example of _______.

20-volume

What is the standard hydrogen peroxide volume?

a legally binding contract

A release statement is NOT _________.

Deposit color

Semipermanent colors _________.

Creamy

A _______ consistency provides the best control during the application of lightener as part of a double-process hair coloring service.

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