Milady Chapter 20 // Cosmetology flashcards |

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Acid-balanced waves

Permanent waves that have a 7 or neutral pH; because of their higher pH, they process at room temperature, do not require the added heat of a hair dryer, process more quickly, and produce firmer curls than true acid waves.

Alkaline Waves

"cold waves"; have a pH between 9.0 and 9.6, use ammonium thioglycolate as a reducing agent, and process at room temperature without the addition of heat.

Amino Acids

Compounds made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur.

Ammonia-free waves

Perms that use an ingredient that does not evaporate as readily as ammonia, so there is very little odor associated with their use.

Ammonium Thioglycolate

Active ingredient or reducing agent in alkaline permanents

Base Control

Position of the tool in relation to its base section, determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped.

Base Cream

"protective base cream"; oily cream used to protect the skin and scalp during hair relaxing.

Base Direction

Angle at which the rod is positioned on the head (horizontally, vertically, or diagonally); also, the directional pattern in which the hair is wrapped.

Base Placement

Refers to the position of the rod in relation to its base section; base placement is determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped.

Base Relaxers

Relaxers that require the application of protective base cream to the entire scalp prior to the application of the relaxer.

Base Sections

Subsections of panels into which hair is divided for perm wrapping; one rod is normally placed on each base section.

Basic Permanent Wrap

"straight set wrap"; perm wrapping pattern in which all the rods within a panel move in the same direction and are positioned on equal-sized bases; all the base sections are horizontal, and are the same length and width as the perm rod.

Bookend Wrap

Perm wrap in which one end paper is folded in half over the hair ends like an envelope.

Bricklay Permanent Wrap

Perm wrap similar to actual technique of bricklaying; base sections are offset from each other row by row, to prevent noticeable splits and to blend the flow of the hair.

Chemical Hair Relaxing

A process or service that rearranges the structure of curly hair into a straighter or smoother form.

Chemical Texture Services

Hair services that cause a chemical change that alters the natural wave pattern of the hair.

Concave rods

Perm rods that have a smaller diameter in the center that increases to a larger diameter on the ends.

Croquignole perm wrap

Perms in which the hair strands are wrapped from the ends to the scalp in overlapping concentric layers.

Curvature Permanent Wrap

Perm wrap in which partings and bases radiate throughout the panels to follow the curvature of the head.

Double Flat Wrap

Perm wrap in which one end paper is placed under and another is placed over the strand of hair being wrapped.

Double-rod wrap

"piggyback wrap"; a wrap technique whereby extra-long hair is wrapped on one rod from the scalp to midway down the hair shaft, and another rod is used to wrap the remaining hair strand in the same direction.

End Papers

"end wraps"; absorbent papers used to control the ends of the hair when wrapping and winding hair on perm rods.

Endothermic waves

Perm activated by an outside heat source, usually a conventional hood-type hair dryer.

Exothermic waves

Creates an exothermic chemical reaction that heats up the waving solution and speeds up processing.

Glyceryl Monothioglycolate

Main active ingredient in true acid and acid-balanced waving lotions.

Half off-base placement

Base control in which the hair is wrapped at an angle of 90 degrees or perpendicular to its base section, and the rod is positioned half off its base section.

Hydroxide Neutralization

An acid-alkali neutralization reaction that neutralizes (deactivates) the alkaline residues left in the hair by a hydroxide relaxer and lowers the pH of the hair and scalp; hydroxide relaxer neutralization does not involve oxidation or rebuild disulfide bonds.

Hydroxide Relaxers

Very strong alkalis with a pH over 13

Keratin Proteins

Long, coiled polypeptide chains.

Ianthionization

Process by which hydroxide relaxers permanently straighten hair; they remove a sulfur atom from a disulfide bond and convert it into a Ianthionine bond.

Loop Rod

"circle rod"; tool that is usually about 12-inches long with a uniform diameter along the entire length of the rod.

Low-pH waves

Perms that use sulfates, sulfites, and bisulfites as an alternative to ammonium thioglycolate; they have a low pH

Metal Hydroxide Relaxers

Ionic compounds formed by a metal which is combined with oxygen and hydrogen.

No-base relaxers

Relaxers that do not require application of a protective base cream.

Normalizing Lotions

Conditioners with an acidic pH that restore the hair's natural pH after a hydroxide relaxer prior to shampooing.

Off-base placement

Base control in which the hair is wrapped at 45 degrees below the center of the base section, so the rod is positioned completely off its base.

On-base placement

Base control in which the hair is wrapped at 45 degree angle beyond perpendicular to its base section, and the rod is positioned on its base.

Peptide Bonds

"end bonds"; chemical bonds that join amino acids together, end to end in long chains, to form polypeptide chains.

Permanent Waving

A two-step process whereby the hair undergoes a physical change caused by wrapping hair on perm rods, and then the hair undergoes a chemical change caused by the application of permanent waving solution and neutralizer.

Polypeptide chains

Long chains of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds.

Single Flat Wrap

Perm wrap that is similar to double flat wrap but uses only one end paper, placed over the top of the strand of hair being wrapped.

Soft Bender Rods

Tool about 12-inches long with a uniform diameter along the entire length.

Soft Curl Permanent

Combination of a the relaxer and a the permanent that is wrapped on large rods to make existing curl larger and looser.

Spiral Perm Wrap

Hair is wrapped at an angle other than perpendicular to the length of the rod, which causes the hair to spiral along the length of the rod, similar to the stripes on a candy cane.

Straight Rods

Perm rods that are equal in diameter along their entire length or curling area.

Thio Neutralization

Stops the action of a permanent wave solution and rebuilds the hair in its new curly form.

Thio relaxers

Use the same ammonium thioglycolate that is used in permanent waving, but at a higher concentration and a higher pH.

Thio-Free waves

Perm that uses an ingredient other than ATG as the primary reducing agent, such as cysteamine or mercaptamine.

True Acid Waves

Have a pH between 4.5 and 7.0 and require heat to process; they process more slowly than alkaline waves, and do not usually produce as firm a curl.

Viscosity

The measurement of the thickness or thinness of a liquid that affects how the fluid flows.

Weave Technique

Wrapping technique that uses zigzag partings to divide base areas.

Curl Re-formation

The chemical texture service that loosens overly curly hair into loose curls or waves.

Cortex

The layer of the hair that provides strength and elasticity.

5.0

What is the natural pH of hair?

Size of the rod

In permanent waving, the size of the curl is determined by the _____.

Spiral and croquignole

What are the two basic types of wrapping hair around a perm rod?

Oxygen

A reduction reaction involves either the addition of hydrogen or removal of ______.

9.0 and 9.6

Most alkaline permanent waves have a pH between _______.

Neutralizer

The basic components of acid waves are permanent wave solution, activator, and ______.

Outside Heat Source

An endothermic wave must be activated using an _______.

5 minutes

Permanent wave solution should be rinsed from the hair for a minimum of ______.

Acid-balanced shampoo

Hydroxide ions left in the hair after a relaxer can be neutralized using an ________.

Metal Hydroxide Relaxers

Which type of relaxer contains one component and is used without any additional mixing?

No-lye relaxers

Lithium hydroxide relaxers and potassium hydroxide relaxers are often advertised and sold as ______.

Salt Bonds

Which type of bonds are relatively weak physical side bonds that are the result of an attraction between negative and positive electrical charges?

Loop Rods

Which type of rod is also commonly known as a circle rod.

45-degree

For on-base placement, the hair is wrapped at a _____ angle beyond perpendicular to its base section, and the rod is positioned on its base.

Ammonia-free wave

Which permanent waves process at room temperature?

Raise

Chemical texturizers ______ the pH of the hair.

before perming the hair

When should you perform an elasticity test?

Can be damaged by a highly alkaline permanent waving solution

Porous hair: ______

a low pH

GMTG, the primary reducing agent in all acid waves, has _____.

heat

True acid waves require _____ to process.

damaging

Ammonia-free waves can be ________.

5 to 10 minutes

In permanent waving, most of the processing takes place within _______

examine the scalp before the perm service

With permanent waving, it is recommended that you ________.

thinnest and weakest

With extremely curly hair, the twists are the ______ sections of the hair strands.

alkaline

Relaxers are extremely _______.

will not hold a curl

If the client's hair has been treated with a hydroxide relaxer, it ________.

double flat wrap

A ______ is a perm wrap in which one end paper is placed under and another is placed over the strand of hair being wrapped.

reducing agent

Thioglycolic acid is a common ________.

Medulla

The ______ is the innermost layer of the hair.

Curvature permanent wrap

The partings and bases radiate throughout the panels to follow the curvature of the head in which type of wrap?

Peptide bonds

The chemical bonds that join amino acids together are called ________.

Japanese Thermal Straightening

What is a method of hair straightening that combines the use of a the relaxer with flat ironing?

Base Relaxer

Which type of relaxer requires the application of a protective base cream to the entire scalp prior to the application of the relaxer?

Cortex

What is the middle layer of the hair?

Base Direction

What is the angle at which the rod is positioned on the head?

Sodium Hydroxide Relaxers

What are commonly known as lye relaxers?

Straight Rods

Which rods are equal in diameter along their entire length or curling area?

Viscosity

What is the thickness or thinness of a liquid?

Cuticle

The ______ is the tough exterior layer of the hair.

Piggyback Wrap

A ________ is a type of wrap in which the hair is wrapped on one rod from the scalp to midway down the hair shaft.

Thio Neutralization

What stops the cation of the waving solution and rebuilds the hair into its new curly form?

either water or heat

Hydrogen bonds can be broken by ______.

Thio

The reducing agent used in permanent waving solutions.

neither swells the hair nor penetrates into the cortex

Manufacturers add an alkalizing agent to waving solutions because the acid in them _______.

100 times more alkaline

A pH of 7.0 is ______ than the pH of the hair.

7.8 and 8.2

Most of the acid waves found in today's salons have a pH between _______.

Concentrator

What is NOT one of the three main components of an exothermic wave?

low-pH wave

A _______ uses an endothermic process.

True acid waves

What type of perm is recommended for very damaged hair?

Hydrogen Peroxide

What is the most common neutralizer?

always smell the hair after the recommended time has elapsed

When rinsing the hair for a permanent wave, it is recommended that you _________.

thermal reconditioning.

Japanese thermal straightening is sometimes called _________.

fine, color-treated, or damaged hair

Mild-strength relaxers are formulated for __________.

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