Permanent waves that have a 7 or neutral pH; because of their higher pH, they process at room temperature, do not require the added heat of a hair dryer, process more quickly, and produce firmer curls than true acid waves.
"cold waves"; have a pH between 9.0 and 9.6, use ammonium thioglycolate as a reducing agent, and process at room temperature without the addition of heat.
Perms that use an ingredient that does not evaporate as readily as ammonia, so there is very little odor associated with their use.
Position of the tool in relation to its base section, determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped.
"protective base cream"; oily cream used to protect the skin and scalp during hair relaxing.
Angle at which the rod is positioned on the head (horizontally, vertically, or diagonally); also, the directional pattern in which the hair is wrapped.
Refers to the position of the rod in relation to its base section; base placement is determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped.
Relaxers that require the application of protective base cream to the entire scalp prior to the application of the relaxer.
Subsections of panels into which hair is divided for perm wrapping; one rod is normally placed on each base section.
Basic Permanent Wrap
"straight set wrap"; perm wrapping pattern in which all the rods within a panel move in the same direction and are positioned on equal-sized bases; all the base sections are horizontal, and are the same length and width as the perm rod.
Perm wrap in which one end paper is folded in half over the hair ends like an envelope.
Bricklay Permanent Wrap
Perm wrap similar to actual technique of bricklaying; base sections are offset from each other row by row, to prevent noticeable splits and to blend the flow of the hair.
Chemical Hair Relaxing
A process or service that rearranges the structure of curly hair into a straighter or smoother form.
Chemical Texture Services
Hair services that cause a chemical change that alters the natural wave pattern of the hair.
Perm rods that have a smaller diameter in the center that increases to a larger diameter on the ends.
Croquignole perm wrap
Perms in which the hair strands are wrapped from the ends to the scalp in overlapping concentric layers.
Curvature Permanent Wrap
Perm wrap in which partings and bases radiate throughout the panels to follow the curvature of the head.
Double Flat Wrap
Perm wrap in which one end paper is placed under and another is placed over the strand of hair being wrapped.
"piggyback wrap"; a wrap technique whereby extra-long hair is wrapped on one rod from the scalp to midway down the hair shaft, and another rod is used to wrap the remaining hair strand in the same direction.
"end wraps"; absorbent papers used to control the ends of the hair when wrapping and winding hair on perm rods.
Perm activated by an outside heat source, usually a conventional hood-type hair dryer.
Creates an exothermic chemical reaction that heats up the waving solution and speeds up processing.
Half off-base placement
Base control in which the hair is wrapped at an angle of 90 degrees or perpendicular to its base section, and the rod is positioned half off its base section.
An acid-alkali neutralization reaction that neutralizes (deactivates) the alkaline residues left in the hair by a hydroxide relaxer and lowers the pH of the hair and scalp; hydroxide relaxer neutralization does not involve oxidation or rebuild disulfide bonds.
Process by which hydroxide relaxers permanently straighten hair; they remove a sulfur atom from a disulfide bond and convert it into a Ianthionine bond.
"circle rod"; tool that is usually about 12-inches long with a uniform diameter along the entire length of the rod.
Perms that use sulfates, sulfites, and bisulfites as an alternative to ammonium thioglycolate; they have a low pH
Metal Hydroxide Relaxers
Ionic compounds formed by a metal which is combined with oxygen and hydrogen.
Conditioners with an acidic pH that restore the hair's natural pH after a hydroxide relaxer prior to shampooing.
Base control in which the hair is wrapped at 45 degrees below the center of the base section, so the rod is positioned completely off its base.
Base control in which the hair is wrapped at 45 degree angle beyond perpendicular to its base section, and the rod is positioned on its base.
"end bonds"; chemical bonds that join amino acids together, end to end in long chains, to form polypeptide chains.
A two-step process whereby the hair undergoes a physical change caused by wrapping hair on perm rods, and then the hair undergoes a chemical change caused by the application of permanent waving solution and neutralizer.
Single Flat Wrap
Perm wrap that is similar to double flat wrap but uses only one end paper, placed over the top of the strand of hair being wrapped.
Soft Curl Permanent
Combination of a the relaxer and a the permanent that is wrapped on large rods to make existing curl larger and looser.
Spiral Perm Wrap
Hair is wrapped at an angle other than perpendicular to the length of the rod, which causes the hair to spiral along the length of the rod, similar to the stripes on a candy cane.
Stops the action of a permanent wave solution and rebuilds the hair in its new curly form.
Use the same ammonium thioglycolate that is used in permanent waving, but at a higher concentration and a higher pH.
Perm that uses an ingredient other than ATG as the primary reducing agent, such as cysteamine or mercaptamine.
True Acid Waves
Have a pH between 4.5 and 7.0 and require heat to process; they process more slowly than alkaline waves, and do not usually produce as firm a curl.
The measurement of the thickness or thinness of a liquid that affects how the fluid flows.
The chemical texture service that loosens overly curly hair into loose curls or waves.
Hydroxide ions left in the hair after a relaxer can be neutralized using an ________.
Metal Hydroxide Relaxers
Which type of relaxer contains one component and is used without any additional mixing?
Lithium hydroxide relaxers and potassium hydroxide relaxers are often advertised and sold as ______.
Which type of bonds are relatively weak physical side bonds that are the result of an attraction between negative and positive electrical charges?
For on-base placement, the hair is wrapped at a _____ angle beyond perpendicular to its base section, and the rod is positioned on its base.
examine the scalp before the perm service
With permanent waving, it is recommended that you ________.
thinnest and weakest
With extremely curly hair, the twists are the ______ sections of the hair strands.
double flat wrap
A ______ is a perm wrap in which one end paper is placed under and another is placed over the strand of hair being wrapped.
Curvature permanent wrap
The partings and bases radiate throughout the panels to follow the curvature of the head in which type of wrap?
Japanese Thermal Straightening
What is a method of hair straightening that combines the use of a the relaxer with flat ironing?
Which type of relaxer requires the application of a protective base cream to the entire scalp prior to the application of the relaxer?
A ________ is a type of wrap in which the hair is wrapped on one rod from the scalp to midway down the hair shaft.
What stops the cation of the waving solution and rebuilds the hair into its new curly form?
neither swells the hair nor penetrates into the cortex
Manufacturers add an alkalizing agent to waving solutions because the acid in them _______.
always smell the hair after the recommended time has elapsed
When rinsing the hair for a permanent wave, it is recommended that you _________.