Milady Chapter 16 // Cosmetology flashcards |

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Angle

Space between two lines or surfaces that intersect at a given point.

Apex

Highest point on the top of the head.

Beveling

Haircutting technique using diagonal lines by cutting hair ends with a slight increase or decrease in length.

Blunt Haircut

"one-length haircut" ; haircut in which all the hair comes to one hanging level forming a weight line or area; hair is cut with no elevation or overdirection.

Carving

Haircutting technique done by placing the still blade into the hair and resting it on the scalp and then moving the seas through the hair wile opening and partially closing the shears.

Cast

Method of manufacturing shears; a metal-forming process whereby molten steel is poured into a mold and, once the metal is cooled, takes on the shape of the mold.

Clipper-Over-Comb

Haircutting technique similar to scissor-over-comb, except that the clippers move side to side across the comb rather than bottom to top.

Cross-Checking

Parting the haircut in the opposite way from which you cut it in order to check for precision of line and shape.

Crown

Area of the head between the apex and back of the parietal ridge.

Cutting Line

Angle at which the fingers are held when cutting, and, ultimately, the line that is cut; also known as "finger angle, finger position, cutting position, or cutting angle."

Distribution

Where and how hair is moved over the head.

Elevation

"projection or lifting" ; angle or degree at which a subsection of hair is held, or lifted, from the head when cutting.

Forged

Process of working metal to a finished shape by hammering or pressing.

Four Corners

Points on the head that signal a change in the shape of the head, from flat to round or vice versa.

Free-hand notching

Haircutting technique in which pieces of hair are snipped out at random intervals.

Free-hand slicing

Haircutting technique used to release weight from the subsection, allowing the hair to move more freely.

Graduated Haircut

Graduated shape or wedge; an effect or haircut that results from cutting the hair with tension, low to medium elevation, or overdirection.

Graduation

Elevation occurs when a section is lifted above 0 degrees

Growth Pattern

Direction in which the hair grows from the scalp; also referred to as natural fall or natural falling position.

Guideline or "guide"

section of hair, located either at the perimeter or the interior of the cut, that determines the length the hair will be cut. Usually the first section that is cut to create a shape.

Hairline

Hair that grows at the outermost perimeter along the face, around the ears, and on the neck.

Head Form

"head shape" ; shape of the head, which greatly affects the way the hair falls and behaves.

Interior

Inner or internal part

Interior Guideline

Guideline that is inside the haircut rather than on the perimeter.

Layered Haircut

Graduated effect achieved by cutting the hair with elevation or overdirection; the hair is cut at higher elevations, usually 90 degrees or above, which removes weight.

Layers

Create movement and volume in the hair by releasing weight.

Line

Thin continuous mark used as a guide can be straight or curved, horizontal, vertical, or diagonal.

Long-Layered Haircut

Haircut in which the hair is cut at a 180-degree angle; the resulting shape has shorter layers at the top and increasingly longer layers toward the perimeter.

Nape

Back part of the neck; the hair below the occipital bone.

Notching

Haircutting technique, a version of point cutting, in which the tips of the scissors are moved toward the hair ends rather than into them; creates a chunkier effect.

Occipital Bone

Bone that protrudes at the base of the skull.

Overdirection

Combing a section away from its natural falling position, rather than straight out from the head, toward a guideline; used to create increasing lengths in the interior or perimeter.

Palm-to-Palm

Cutting position in which the palms of both hands are facing each other.

Perietal Ridge

Widest area of the head, usually starting at the temples and ending at the bottom of the crown.

Part/Parting

Line dividing the hair at the scalp; separating one section of hair from another, creating subsections.

Perimeter

Outer line of a hairstyle.

Point Cutting

Haircutting technique in which the tips of the shears are used to cut points into the ends of the hair.

Razor-over-comb

Texturizing technique in which the comb and the razor are used on the surface of the hair

Razor Rotation

Texturizing technique similar to razor-over-comb, done with small circular motions.

Reference Points

Points on the head that mark where the surface of the head changes or the behavior of the hair changes, such as ears, jawline, occipital bone, apex, and so on; used to establish design lines that are proportionate.

Scissor-over-comb

"shear-over-comb"; haircutting technique in which the hair is held in place with the comb while the tips of the scissors are used to remove the lengths.

Sections

To divide the hair by parting into uniform working areas for control.

Shrinkage

When hair contracts or lifts through the action of moisture loss or drying.

Slicing

Haircutting technique that removes the bulk and adds movement through the lengths of the hair; the shears are not completely closed, and only the portion of the blades near the pivot is used.

Slide Cutting

Method of cutting or thinning the hair in which the fingers and shears glide along the edge of the hair to remove length.

Slithering

"effilating; process of thinning the hair to graduated lengths with shears; cutting the hair with a sliding movement of the shears while keeping the blades partially opened.

Stationary Guideline

Guideline that does not move.

Subsections

Smaller sections within a larger section of hair, used to maintain control of the hair while cutting.

Taper

Haircutting effect in which there is an even blend from very short at the hairline to longer lengths as you move up the head; (to narrow progressively at one end)

Tension

Amount of pressure applied when combing and holding a section, created by stretching or pulling the section.

Texturizing

Haircutting technique designed to remove excess bulk without shortening the length; changing the appearance or behavior of the hair through specific haircutting techniques using shears, thinning shears, or a razor.

Traveling Guideline

"moveable guideline" ; guideline that moves as the haircutting pro

Uniform Layers

Hair is elevated to 90 degrees from the scalp and cut at the same length.

Weight Line

Visual line in the haircut where the ends of the hair hang together.

horizontal lines

The straight lines used to build weight or create a one-length or low-elevation haircut are _______.

Vertical Lines

The straight lines used to remove weight or create graduated layers are _____.

Fullness on the sides

For a client with a long face, the stylist would recommend a style that adds ______.

1/2 inch to 2 inches

To compensate for shrinkage associated with curly hair, the stylist should allow for shrinkage of _______.

Barber Comb

Which type of comb is used for close tapers in the scissors-over-comb technique?

Transferring the comb

The technique used to free up the dominant cutting hand to cut a subsection is called _____.

A blunt haircut or heavier graduated haircut

The technique of cutting below the fingers or inside the knuckles using a horizontal cutting line creates _____.

Cross-checking

Parting a haircut in the opposite way it was cut to check for precision of line and shape is called ______.

turn the comb around and comb with the wide teeth

For a blunt haircut, when using the wide teeth of a comb when cutting, comb the section first with the fine teeth and then __________.

texturizing

The process of removing excess bulk or cutting for effect without shortening hair length.

Dry

When performing the slicing technique on the surface of the haircut , it is best to work on ____ hair.

Angle of the comb

When using the clipper-over-comb technique, the length is determined by the _______.

Throughout history

Haircuts _______ have often reflected a change in the thinking of the time.

Clients

The ability to duplicate an existing haircut or create a new haircut from a photo will build a stronger professional relationship between the stylist and ____.

graduation and layers

Elevation creates what?

Only as needed

Shears should be sharpened ______.

Maximum

You should use _____ tension when your goal is to create precise lines.

Curly

Using a razor on _____ hair will weaken the cuticle and cause frizzing

Before

A client consultation should be performed _____ every haircut.

Cleansed and unstyled

The client's hair should be ______ before the consultation.

Wide or Long

A quick way to analyze a face shape is to determine if it is _____.

Skinnier

A fine hair strand is much _____ than a coarse hair strand.

less expensive

Cast shears are usually _____ than forged shears.

Finger Tang

The _____ on a pair of shears is designed to give you more control over the shear.

Week

Your shears should be cleaned and lubricated once a _____.

Sharpen

Before purchasing a pair of shears, ensure that the company has authorized someone in your area to _____ the company's shears.

Arms

Knowing how to hold your tools properly will help you avoid muscle strain in your _____.

thumb, index, and middle

When palming your shears, you hold the comb with your _____ fingers.

Consistent

When cutting hair, it is important to always use _____ tension.

Expands

Heavier graduated haircuts work well on hair that _____ when dry

ends

When working with a razor, the ____

Clippers

Texturizing CANNOT be done with _____.

Against

When using clippers, you should always work _____ the natural growth patterns, especially in the nape.

both his ears and eyebrows

When trimming a male client's facial hair, it is recommended that you check _____ and ask if he would like you to remove any excess hair.

Parietal Ridge

What is the widest area of the head?

Bang Area

What is the triangular section that begins at the apex and ends at the four corners?

Horizontal

Lines parallel to the floor are _____ lines.

Vertical

Lines perpendicular to the floor are _____ lines.

Diagonal

Lines that have a slanting or sloping direction are _____ lines.

Part

The line dividing the hair at the scalp is a _____.

90

When creating uniform layers, the hair is elevated to ____ degrees from the scalp and cut at the same length.

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