Milady Chapter 12 // Cosmetology flashcards |

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Hydrogen

Inorganic chemistry is the study of substances that do not contain the element carbon, but may contain which element?

Element

A _____ is a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances without loss of identity.

Molecule

Chemically joining two or more atoms in definite proportions forms a ______.

Solution

A _____ is a stable physical mixture of two or more substances.

Solute

A _____ is a substance dissolved into a solution.

Immiscible

Liquids that are not capable of being mixed into stable solutions are considered ______.

Suspensions

Solutions that contain undissolved particles that are visible to the naked eye are known as _____.

Emulsion

An _____ is a mixture of two or more immiscible substances united with the aid of a binder.

Surfactant

A _____ is a substance that acts as a bridge to allow oil and water to mix or emulsify.

Lipophilic

The tail of a surfactant molecule is oil-loving or ______.

Ion

What is a molecule that carries an electrical charge?

used to exfoliate the skin

Alpha Hydroxy Acids (AHAs) are________

releases heat

An exothermic chemical reaction ______.

Acidic

A substance that has a pH below 7.0 is considered to be ______.

produce less odor

Alkanolamines are often used in place of ammonia because they ______.

Minerals

What is NOT composed of organic chemicals?

Atoms

Elemental molecules contain two or more _____ of the same element in definite proportions.

Liquid

Vapor is a _____ that has evaporated into a gas-like state.

Oxygen

An oxidizing agent is a substance that releases ______.

have unique chemical and physical properties

Pure substances __________.

Suspension

Calamine lotion is an example of a ______

Greasier

Water-in-oil emulsions feel _____ than oil-in-water emulsions.

Ammonia

A common use of _____ is raising the pH in hair products to allow the solution to penetrate the hair shaft.

Carbon

Volatile organic compounds contain ______ and evaporate very easily.

oils

Which type of products have no pH?

Oxidization

What is the chemical reaction that combines a substance with oxygen to produce an oxide?

10

The term logarithm means multiples of ____.

Reduction

The process through which oxygen is subtracted or hydrogen is added to a substance via a chemical reaction is _____.

Matter

Any substance that occupies space and has mass.

Chemical Properties

Characteristics that can only be determined by a chemical change in the substance are ______.

Pure Substance

A chemical combination of matter in definite proportions in a ______.

Physical Mixture

A physical combination of matter in any proportions is a ______.

Atom

The _____ is the smallest chemical component of an element.

Combustion

Rapid oxidation of a substance, accompanied by the production of heat and light is ______

Physical Properties

Characteristics that can be determined without a chemical reaction and that do not involve a chemical change in the substance.

Acidic Solution

A solution that has a pH below 7

Alkaline Solution

A solution that has a pH above 7.

Alkanolamines

Alkaline substances used to neutralize acids or raise the pH of many hair products.

Anion

An ion with a negative electrical charge

Cation

An ion with a positive electrical charge

Chemical Change

A change in the chemical composition or make-up of a substance.

Chemistry

Science that deals with the composition, structures, and properties of matter, and how matter changes under different conditions.

Compound Molecules

a chemical combination of two or more atoms of different elements in definite proportions.

Elemental Molecule

Molecule containing two or more atoms of the same element cannot be broken down into a simpler substance without a loss of identity.

Emulsifier

An ingredient that brings two normally incompatible materials together and binds them into a uniform and fairly stable blend.

Exothermic Reactions

Chemical reactions that release a significant amount of heat.

Glycerin

Sweet, colorless, oily substance used as a solvent and as a moisturizer in skin and body creams.

Inorganic Chemistry

The study of substances that do not contain the element carbon, but may contain the element hydrogen

Ionization

The separation of an atom or molecule into positive and negative ions.

Oxidation

A chemical reaction that combines a substance with oxygen to produce an oxide.

Oxidation-Reduction

"redox" ; a chemical reaction in which the oxidizing agent is reduced and the reducing agent is oxidized.

Oxidizing Agent

Substance that releases oxygen.

pH

The abbreviation used for potential hydrogen. It represents the quantity of hydrogen ions.

Physical Change

A change in the form or physical properties of a substance, without a chemical reaction or the creation of a new substance.

Reducing Agent

A substance that adds hydrogen to a chemical compound or subtracts oxygen from the compound.

Reduction Reaction

A chemical reaction in which oxygen is subtracted from or hydrogen is added to a substance.

Silicones

Special type of oil used in hair conditioners, water-resistant lubricants for the skin, and nail polish dryers.

States of Matter

The three different physical forms of matter - solid, liquid, and gas.

Thioglycolic Acid

A colorless liquid or white crystals with a strong unpleasant odor that is used in permanent waving solutions.

Water-in-oil Emulsion

water droplets are emulsified in oil.

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