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  1. Is the Supreme Court requiring lower courts to show increased or decreased deference to the judgment of correctional officers and administrators?
  2. Give 4 reasons why detailed use-of-force reports are important.
  3. What is the major difference between the legal test imposed by the 1st amendment for evaluation of a restriction on an inmates ability to practice his or her religion and the legal test imposed by the Religious Land Use and Institutional Persons Act?
  4. Give 2 examples of where an individual officers failures could provide the basis for a suicide lawsuit.
  5. Name 4 types of Discovery.
  6. Name 3 types of lawsuits most commonly filed by inmates.
  7. Has the Turner Test made it easier or harder for an institution to justify restricting constitutional rights of inmates?
  8. List 2 factors that led to the courts first becoming involved with correctional issues.
  9. Why is crowding an important issue in condition of confinement suits?
  10. What is the most common justification for restricting inmates 1st amendment rights?
  11. May deadly force be used to protect personal property?
  12. Who should make the decision on whether an inmate needs medical care?
  13. What are the general areas a court will focus on in a conditions-of-confinement suit?
  14. What are 3 factual claims most likely to appear in a suicide case?
  15. Is Sexual Harassment and Sexual Discrimination both against the law?
  16. Why is the Right of Access to the courts and important part of Americas legal system?
  17. Since the beginning of the 21st century, has the Supreme Court stepped back from it's long-held position that lower courts must give substantial deference to judgment calls of correctional administrators about such things as institutional safety and security?
  18. Why are there more procedural rights in a parole-revocation hearing than in a prison or jail disciplinary hearing?
  19. Name 2 types of legal actions that could be brought following a suicide.
  20. What were the 3 periods or eras of court involvement with corrections?
  21. What is the most common institutional concern that may justify restriction of an inmate's constitutional rights?
  22. List 5 sources of Officers Rights.
  23. What is the major vulnerability of an access-to-the-courts system, which is built around books and other written materials?
  24. What is necessary to justify visitor strip searches?
  25. What is the most important thing for correctional officers to remember when performing inmate searches?
  26. In a constitutional excess force case, what 5 questions will a court ask?
  27. If an inmate is represented by appointed counsel in a criminal case, why is this not necessarily sufficient access to the courts?
  28. Under what circumstances may a hearing officer rely on evidence from a witness whose identity is not disclosed to the inmate being charged with the offense?
  29. The Supreme Court has held that inmates have no expectation of privacy in regards to their cells. How then might a cell search trigger court intervention?
  30. The institution imposes a restriction on an inmate practicing his religion. The inmate sues, claiming 1st amendment were violated. Institution responds, saying restriction was imposed because of security needs. Based on this response, will the institution win the lawsuit? Why or Why not?
  31. Under what circumstances is an agency likely to refuse to defend an employee sued by an inmate?
  32. Can a state be sued in a Civil Rights Action?
  33. Give an example of when a supervisor could be held liable in a civil rights action, even if the supervisor did not take part directly in the actions that led to the suit.
  1. a Must be reasonable suspicion that the visitor is hiding contraband on their person.
  2. b Correctional Medical Staff
  3. c 1. Union Contracts
    2. Civil Service Laws
    3. Discrimination Laws
    4. Occupational Health and Safety Laws
    5. State and Federal Constitutional Law
  4. d 1. Civil Rights Action
    2. Tort Suit
  5. e An agency is likely to refuse to defend an employee sued by an inmate when the employee acts outside the scope of his or her duties, and in bad faith.
  6. f Crowding is important in conditions of confinement suits because crowding often results in a breakdown of a facilities ability to provide inmates with their basic human needs.
  7. g 1. Allows supervisors to evaluate the incident.
    2. Allows the court to evaluate the incident.
    3. Allows officers to review the details of the incident prior to testifying.
    4. May be able to be introduced into evidence at a trial.
  8. h 1. Failure to complete suicide screening questionnaire during intake process.
    2. Failure to monitor an inmate according to policy.
  9. i 1. Personal Safety
    2. Medical Care
    3. Sanitation
    4. Food Service
    5. Shelter
    6. Clothing
  10. j Security of the Institution.
  11. k The Turner Test has made it easier to justify restricting constitutional rights of inmates.
  12. l Because Parole is seen as a form of conditional liberty. Basically, there is more at stake in a parole hearing versus a jail disciplinary hearing.
  13. m 1. What was the need for force?
    2. What was the amount of force used?
    3. What injuries were sustained by the inmate?
    4. What was the threat perceived by the reasonable correctional officer?
    5. What efforts to temper the use of force did the officer make?
  14. n The institution would lose the lawsuit, only because the statement is too vague. The institution must articulate in detail as to why the restriction is related to security.
  15. o 1. The Civil Rights Movement
    2. Poor correctional practices
  16. p 1. Depositions
    2. Interrogatories
    3. Motions to Produce
    4. Requests for Admissions
  17. q 1. Hands-Off Era
    2. Hands-On Era
    3. One-Hand-On, One-Hand-Off Era
  18. r Security of the institution.
  19. s 1. The inmate with limited reading skills.
    2. The inmate with limited English-language skills.
  20. t When the hearing officer is convinced the informant is reliable by a corrections officer that knows the identity of the informant.
    However, unless informant is an eyewitness, the information is suspect.
  21. u 1. Failure to identify.
    2. Failure to monitor.
    3. Failure to respond.
  22. v If the cell was left in complete disarray after the cell search. The search was conducted in an unreasonable manner.
  23. w The Supreme Court has NOT stepped back. The court re-emphasized the importance of deference in 2003. Bazzetta v. Overton
  24. x Increased deference to the judgment of correctional officers and administrators.
  25. y 1. Civil Rights Actions
    2. Habeas Corpus Actions
    3. Tort Suits
  26. z Failure-To-Supervise case.
  27. aa No. Deadly force cannot be used to protect personal property. Only self defense and protecting others from death or serious harm. In some cases preventing escape.
  28. ab No. The suit must be against a "person" and the state is not a person.
  29. ac Often court appointed counsel do not offer "meaningful access-to-the-courts. They are unable to provide advice or assistance outside of the criminal case. So once the inmate is sentenced they are no longer represented by that counsel.
  30. ad Yes, both are against the law.
  31. ae The RLUIPA test is more difficult. It reduces the level of deference courts give correctional administrators. It increases power of the courts to second guess decisions by imposing the "least restrictive" alternative.
  32. af Without courts, rights would only belong to the strongest, and any freedoms guaranteed by laws would become futile if not enforced by a governing body.
  33. ag 1. Maintain high level of professionalism.
    2. Respect the dignity of the inmate.