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44 Multiple choice questions

  1. ...
  2. persons released for good behavior under the supervision of a parole officer
  3. formulated by Auguste Comte- refers to the method of examining and understanding social behavior. the positivist approach to crime became known as criminology
  4. a sentenced required by law to be imposed for certain crimes
  5. ...
  6. ...
  7. limit the judge's sentencing discretion in order to promote sentencing equality
  8. allows for determination of the risk posed by a defendant of failing to return to court or being arrested for a new crime, while promoting a fundamental concept of American Justice, equality, that is treating similar defendants similarly. actuarial-type instruments that rate defendants according to criminal history, education, and employment record, family and marital history, companions,alcohol and drug problems, emotional and personal attributes, and attitude or orientation(e.g. supportive of crime and unfavorable toward convention)
  9. John Augustus is the "Father of Probation"
    Established probation in 1841 in Boston
    First state to issue a statute issuing probation was New York in 1901
    Federal probation was created in 1925
  10. "an eye for an eye", a primitive system of vengeance, emerged and was passed dow from generation to generation to each family, tribe, or society sought to preserve its own existence without recourse to a written code of laws
  11. theory of natural selection supplied the conceptual ammunition for an ideology (later labeled social darwinism) that allayed the qualms of the rich about not helping the poor by telling them the latter's suffering were an inevitable price for societal advancement that could occur only through the struggle for existence ending in the survival of the fittest
  12. permits only small grants of good time- 10 to 15 percent
  13. maintains the basic belief in free will while paving the way for the entry of mitigation (and subsequently aggravation) into criminal justice by considering three areas
    1)past criminal record
    2)insanity and retardation
  14. probation department
  15. ...
  16. there is a lack of joint planning and budgeting, or even systematic consultation, among the various agencies responsible for criminal justice
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  18. reveals that most crimes aren't reported to the police
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  20. classical view- free will, choice, punishment & deterrence
    positivist view- determination, cause, treatment & incarceration(focus on the criminal not the crime)
  21. A metaphor for life imprisonment upon a third conviction
  22. bootcamp prisons(allows offenders to be released early)
  23. when the state reimburses the county for offenders placed on probation instead of being sentenced to a state prison. serves as an encouragement to grant probation
  24. a popular alternative to restitution
  25. a construct stressing the lack of choice, particularly the belief that one's behavior is "determined" by physiological or environmental variables, devoid of mens rea
  26. 1)protect society while ensuring rights
    2)deter offenders without spending a lot of money
  27. ...
  28. biblical origins(Deuteronomy)- holds that every person has the ability to distinguish and choose between right and wrong, between being law abiding and criminal; in other words, behavior that violates the law is a rational choice made by a person with free will
  29. persons who jumped bail or probation
  30. legal term of free will
  31. the part of a pre sentence report that addresses the harm to the victim
  32. 1)help the court make the appropriate sentencing decision
    2)serve as the basis for a plan of probation or parole supervision and treatment indicates problem areas of defendant's life
    3) assist jail and prison personnel
    4)provides parole authorities with information pertinent to release planning and consideration for parole
  33. intermediate sanctions(keeps offenders from becoming inmates)
  34. those with power are not often defined as a criminal

    police receive about 42% of budget
    courts receive about 22% of budget
    corrections receive about 29% of budget
  35. ...
  36. a document submitted by a probation department to a judge containing information about the offender on which the judge can base his or her sentencing decision
  37. reasonable grounds for suspicion supported by facts and circumstances sufficiently strong in themselves to lead a reasonably cautious person to believe that a person is guilty of a particular crime. it is also the level of evidence to initiate a probation or parole violation
  38. ...
  39. is an outgrowth of the european enlightenment period of the 18th century(the "age of reasoning") whose adherents rejected spiritualism and religious explanations for criminal behavior
  40. ...
  41. police receive a majority of the budget & arrest more people than the rest of the system can handle
  42. a wrongful act or deed, refers to the need to prove that a violation of the criminal law- a crime- actually occurred. consists of a description of the criminal behavior and evidence that the accused acted accordingly.
  43. a mythical state of affairs wherein each person agrees to a pact, the basic stipulation of which is that, all men being created equal, conditions of law are the same for all
  44. high cost of imprisonment, overcrowding of prisons, understaffing of prisons