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Law Enforcement Officer
A sworn and certified peace officer who is an employee of a law enforcement agency.
Intentionally or knowingly engages in a course of conduct directed at a specific person and should know it causes fear for safety.
Intentionally, knowingly, recklessly, with criminal negligence causes the death of another human being.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Promotes a "rest and digest" response, promotes calming of the nerves and return to regular function, and enhances digestion.
4 positions of searching
Terry frisk - least amount of control, Standing - more control than Terry frisk but less than kneeling, Kneeling - more control than standing search but less than prone, Prone - greatest amount of control.
Define perceptual narrowing
Loss of night vision. Causes Tunnel vision, a 70% reduction of the peripheral field.
Name the 4 federal agencies
1.Department of Justice. 2.Department of homeland security. 3.Department of agriculture. 4.Department of the interior.
What is the most common form of an investigative report?
A combination of a category and narrative, because it encompasses all of the advantages of the format styles.
Name the required components in an investigative report.
Facts needed to establish that a crime has been committed and all actions taken by peace officers have been appropriate. Who, What, When, Where, How, and Why.
Name some prospective users of an investigative report.
Immediate supervisors/field training officers. Detectives/Investigators, Representatives in other law enforcement agencies, attorneys, parole, probation, and corrections personnel, involved parties, media reps, insurance agencies.
List some of the uses for an investigative report.
Record facts into a permanent record, provide investigative leads, provide a source for officer evaluation, assist officers for court appearances, serve as reference material.
Can field notes be subpoenaed into court?
Yes! (This is why they must provide a basis for building a report and must be legible and organized)
Key components of field notes include..?
Names of suspects, victims, witnesses. Names of officers, assistants in investigation. Important dates and times. Circumstances of crime. Additional information as necessary.
6 Clues for detecting hazardous materials.
3.Marking and colors
4.Placards and labels
3 reasonableness factors when making an arrest are?
1.Severity of crime at issue
2.If the suspect poses an immediate threat to the safety of the officers or others.
3.Whether the suspect is actively resisting arrest or attempting to evade arrest.
Under what conditions allows state and federal criminal liability to attach to an officers conduct?
When an officers conduct contains the elements of a criminal offense.
The termination of freedom of movement by use of physical force intentionally applied or submission to a show of authority.
Goals of the criminal justice system
Provide order in the social system, and serve the citizens of the state.
What is the guidebook for first responders during the initial phase of a dangerous goods/hazardous materials transportation incident?
Emergency Response Guidebook
Which physical sense is the best way to identify a hazardous material?
Sight! (Don't you dare taste, touch, or breathe in that crap!)
Where do you want to be when there is a hazardous material incident?
Upwind and Uphill (Think about why Pumbas friends never stood upwind...)
Universal components of leadership
Credibility, Modeling (think of pretty eyes), Inspiring, Challenging, Encouraging, Enabling.
Persons and/or agencies liable under Title 42 U.S.C
The Officer, fellow officer, supervisor, agency head, government agency, government entity of which the agency is a part.
What does Title 42 U.S.C 1983 do?
Protect individuals from deprivation of their constitution rights by law enforcement officers or other government authorities.
Liabilities a Peace Officer may be subjected to as a result of excessive force?
Criminal, Civil, Departmental Administrative action, Moral.
Define control (think of arresting)
Degree of influence you must exert over a person to take them safely into custody.
4 most common attacks on officers
1.Sucker/round house punch
Area to which extends the intimate activity associated with the sanctity of a mans home and privacies of life.
*Barney Style: Area immediately surrounding home
Define plain smell
Officer must be lawfully present in the location and the smell is immediately evident.
Define plain view
A search may be made if evidence of criminal activity can be seen without entry or search.
When can you do a Terry Frisk?
When you can articulate suspicion that the person has weapons and poses a threat to the officer or others.
Define Reasonable suspicion
A level of suspicion that would cause a reasonable person, under the circumstances to believe that criminal activity has occurred or is occurring.
Define Probable Cause
Sufficient reason based upon known facts to believe a crime has been committed or that certain property is connected with a crime.
What is a 1st priority victim in the Triage Categories?
A victim with life-threatening injuries who cannot wait for help. (IMMEDIATE care needed)
What is a 2nd priority victim in the Triage Categories?
A victim with injuries that need care very soon, but may be able to wait for help. (URGENT care needed)
What is a 3rd priority victim in the Triage Categories?
Those with minor injuries, who can walk. (DELAYED care)
What is a 4th priority victim in the Triage Categories?
Those who cannot be saved.
Example: Dead or very low likelihood of survival.
(NO CARE needed.
How do you determine perimeter boundaries of a crime scene?
Ensure the perimeter encloses all areas to be searched, make the perimeter larger rather than smaller, you can always scale back later.
What should an officer attempt to determine through observation of the crime scene prior to actually entering the scene?
The crime committed.
How the crime was committed.
The route the suspect used.
Apparent physical evidence.
Special equipment needed to collect and preserve evidence.
Define in-custody death
Any unintentional death that occurs while a subject is in police custody. Such deaths usually take place after the subject has demonstrated bizarre and/or violent behavior, and has been restrained.
3 examples of in-custody death
1.The death of a person in the process of arrest
2.In route to be incarcerated
3.Incarcerated at a correctional facility/juvenile facility
4 historical explanations for sudden death
1."Bells Mania" or "exhaustive Mania"
2.Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
What statements and conversations made under circumstances of assured confidentiality must not be disclosed in court?
Communications between husband and wife.
Attorney and client
Physician or therapist and patient
Minister or priest
What is hearsay?
Statement made out side of court and offered in evidence to prove the truth of the matter asserted.
Define: Circumstantial Evidence
Requires some inferences to connect it to a conclusion.
Example-Finger prints, footprints, tire marks, fibers, etc...
What is the burden of proof needed for an administrative trial?
Clear and convincing evidence.
Preponderance of the evidence.
What are some exceptions to the hearsay rule?
Present sense impression.
Statement for medical purposes.
Records of regularly conducted activity.
Define: Procedural Law
A law which prescribes a method of enforcing rights or obtaining redress for their violation
A conversation held to generate information from a person who has knowledge of a crime, so an investigation can be continued or concluded.
Questioning a person suspected of having committed an offense or who is reluctant to make full disclosure of information that is pertinent to an investigation.
Deprivation of freedom in any significant manner as it relates to interviews and interrogations.
An acknowledgement of the commission of all elements of a crime and the individuals involvement in their commission.
An acknowledgement of certain facts which tend to be incriminating with respect to a specific crime, but not complete enough to constitute a confession.
Describe the basic elements of the beginning of the interview process.
Warm-up period when the interviewer establishes rapport.
Describe the basic elements of the main portion of the interview process.
The interviewer acquires the desired information about the case.
Describe the basic elements of the end portion of the interview process.
The interviewer concludes the interview and expresses appreciation.
Describe Miranda v. Arizona 1996
Whenever a person is taken into custody or otherwise deprived of freedom of action, and is questioned or interviewed, he/she must be given warnings of specific rights regarding self-incrimination or any statements made will be inadmissible.
Describe Brown v. Illinois 1975
Confessions or statements obtained as a result of an illegal arrest will not be admissible even though Miranda warnings are given.
Describe Oregon v. Mathiason 1977
Miranda warnings are not necessarily required simply because questioning takes place in a police station or because the questioned person is a suspect; there must be some restriction of freedom to place the suspect "in custody".
What two things are necessary before the Miranda warnings must be given?
Describe Brown v. Mississippi 1936
Use of force in obtaining a confession will make the confession inadmissible.
Describe Chanbers v. Florida
Confessions will be inadmissible when intimidation or coercion are employed through brutality, deprivation, extended incommunicado interrogation, or questioning above the IQ and age of a suspect.
Describe Massiah v. the United States, 1964
Trickery cannot be used to obtain incriminating statements
Describe Escobedo v. Illinois, 1964
When investigative questioning and/or focus shifts to the subject with the purpose of obtaining a confession; the accused must be permitted to consult with a lawyer or any statements made will be inadmissible.
Ten Deadly Errors
1. Missing the Danger Signs
2. Taking a bad position
3. Improper mindset
4. Failure to watch hands
5. Relaxing too soon
6. Poor equipment maintenance
7. Sleepy or asleep on-duty
8. Poor search or no search
9. Improper or no handcuffing
10. Tombstone courage
Deliberately violating accepted principles of right and wrong, What is considered immoral by most people, Situational morality.
Being either moral nor immoral; not belong in or caring for morality and immorality. A person can be amoral in area and not amoral in another area.
Intelligence Liaison Officer Program (ILO)
The ILO program is designed to ensure appropriate communication between all local and state law enforcement agencies and the Fusion Center.
When a person by means of fire or explosives unlawfully and intentionally damages any property with intention of defrauding an insurer; or the property of another.
Dog's lips curled to expose it's teeth
Dog is attempting to get the approaching officer to move away
Dog's body posture is "recoiled away from the officer" or "straining at at the end of the leash" towards the officer. Or Dog's hackles are standing up (fur on the back is sticking up like goosebumps)
It is risky to approach the dog or allow it to come closer.
Clues that a dog is present.
Dog Food, Food/water bowels, dog toys, Dog droppings, leashes and constraints etc.
How to employ non-lethal strategies to a dog when owner or animal control specialist is not present and advanced notice is not possible.
Distract dog with food, toys, fire extingquisher, noise makers (like an air horn), chemical agents or weapons, or electronic devices.
The ability to integrate to ones environment and is reflected solid personal relationships, satisfaction in living, success and achievements, flexibility and coping skills, and maturity. Can affect people of any age in any family but may not permanent.
Mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activity, permanent.
Schedule I Controlled Substances
Most illegal drugs, have almost not legal medical use, Ex. Marijuana
Schedule II Controlled Substances
Illegal drugs that have some medical purposes, doctors can write a prescription. Ex Cocaine
Schedule III Controlled Substances
Illegal drugs have more uses that Schedule II and lower chance of addiction.
Describe Arizona vs Gant
the Supreme Court held that police may search the passenger compartment of a vehicle, incident to a recent occupant's arrest (and therefore without a warrant) only if it is reasonable to believe that the arrestee might access the vehicle at the time of the search, or that the vehicle contains evidence of the offense of arrest.
Evidence is admissible if the law can articulate that the evidence would have been discovered by lawful means.
What is the Utah State Criminal Justice Information System? (UCJIS)
A computerized system which maintains Utah records and verifications for NCIC, NLETS and UCCH.
(National Crime Information Center) (National Law Enforcement Telecommunications System) (Utah Computerized Criminal History)
What are all of the available files on the UCJIS System?
-Drivers License Division (DLD)
-Division of Motor Vehicles (DMV)
-Statewide Warrants/Protective Orders (SWW)
-National Law Enforcement Telecommunications System (NLETS)
-National Crime Information Center (NCIC)
-Utah Computerized Criminal History (UCCH)
Difference between leadership in the agency and leadership in the community.
Leadership in agency: Like you're a sergeant or lieutenant.
Leadership in Community: You are the police officer on the scene which makes you the one in charge.
Manic state that results into cardiac arrest, usually associated with in custody death.
License plate number, state or province issuing plate, vehicle identification number (VIN)
Reasons for having a staging area for the media
Maintain safety, crime scene integrity, exclusively for interviews.
Non-Judicial adjustment (Juvenile Law)
closure of a case by assigned probation officer without judicial determination.
How does LDL Cholesterol affect your health?
It builds up in your arteries, making you have a greater chance for heart disease.
Maintain professionalism, treat everyone with respect. Don't see the world in black and white. No case is ever the same, therefore don't treat every case the same.
When is it alright to kidnap someone?
If you believe that they are in danger, if their life was in danger.
Judge examines facts, and then decides whether to hold the defendant without bail or release the defendant without requiring bail. Or the bail price.
Similiar to a court trial. Where the lawyers enter evidence and examine witnesses. Sole purpose is for the judge to determine if there is sufficient evidence to hold defendant for trial.
The main court proceeding. deferent has the right to confront witnesses and have an attorney. Prosecutor also represents the evidence and examine witnesses to prove the case to the judge or jury.
Ounce a decision is made by a judge or jury the decision can be appealed to the appropriate court, such as guilt, innocence or sentencing can be appealed to the proper courts.
If you check a License plate number and it comes back with no results. What other option do you have to look up a vehicle's information?
You can also use the Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) found on the vehicle or vehicle registration.
What is Empathy? What is Sympathy?
Empathy - Understanding someone and where they come from. "Put yourself in their shoes."
Sympathy - Feeling sorry.
Define Fruit of the Poisonous Tree? What is an exception to this doctrine?
If evidence is collected
illegally (i.e. without warrant) anything other evidence (secondary
evidence) collected due to that evidence is also illegal.
Exceptions are Inevitable Discovery, and Good Faith Doctrine.
Define Double Jeopardy?
You cannot be tried for the same crime with the same evidence twice in the same court.
What is Bigamy? What is Polygamy?
Bigamy - The act of going through a marriage ceremony while already married to another person.
*Remember BIGAMY is the word used in Utah Law to describe both Polygamy and Bigamy.
Polygamy - The practice of having more than one spouse at the same time. (practically the same definition)
What is the difference between Retail Theft and Theft?
Retail Theft happens in a Retail area (store). More commonly known as Shoplifting. The penalties for both are the same.
What is the difference between Voyeurism and Privacy Violation?
Voyeurism - is recording/photographing any part of the human body without permission that should be private.
Privacy Violation - trespasses on property or installs equipment with intent to spy on someone in a private place (i.e. like a home).
Three basic premises of arrests
1. The police role in a physical arrest is essentially defensive
2. An arrest is an emotional problem as well as physical one
3. Mind over Body.
Transportation to alternate shelter
Stand-by for removal of personal property
Personal safety options
Any sexual activity with an animal (any live nonhuman vertebrate creature including fowl), with the intent of sexual gratification
Causing a catastrophe
Causing widespread injury or damage to persons or property by uses of a weapon of mass destruction, explosion, fire, flood avalanche, collapse of a building, or other harmful or destruction force or substance that is not a weapon of mass destruction
Justice Court Jurisdiction
Class B and C, violation of ordinances, and misdemeanors for those under 18 years of age
District Court Jurisdiction
all person of 16 years of age who are charged with, murder or aggravated murder, or any felony if committed by and adult.
Arrested or observed with gang members
Wears known gang cloths
photographed with gang members
uses gang hand signs
Amits or identified as a gang member by a reliable source
Color Code Review
Orange- Alert, specific
Red- Fight sensory overload
Black- Sensory overload, Unable to react.
Rights retained by the people, that are not specifically enumerated in the Constitution.
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
A person who has a mental or emotion condition which has substantial adverse effects on their ability to function, and who requires care and treatment. (Not including people who are alcohol or drug dependent people because they would unlikely by receptive to intervention efforts).
Three levels of conflict Resolution
1.Non verbal intervention
2. Verbal intervention
3. Physical intervention
6 Major hazards
3. Relatives, Friends, Bystanders who might intervene
4. Escape routes
5. Your footing
6. Cover and/or concealment for subject and officer