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  • Felony

    The most serious offense. Punishable by with with prison, jail, and/or fine.

    Capitol Crime

    Life in prison, life without parol or death penalty.

    First Degree Felony

    Five years-life in prison and up to $10,000 fine.

    Second Degree Felony

    1-15 years in prison and up to $10,000 fine.

    Third Degree Felony

    0-5 years in prison and up to a $5,000 fine.


    Lower than Felony. Punishable with fine or jail term of one year.

    Class A Misdemeanor

    One year in jail and up to a $2,500 fine.

    Class B Misdemeanor

    Six months in jail and up to $1,000 fine.

    Class C Misdemeanor

    Ninety days in jail and up to a $750 fine.


    Minor offense, least serious crime to commit. Punishable by fine only.

    Bodily Injury

    physical pain, illness, or any impairment on the body

    Serious Bodily Injury

    Causes serious PERMINENT disfigurement

    Substantial Bodily Injury

    Causes physical pain, TEMPORARY disfigurement

    Law Enforcement Officer

    A sworn and certified peace officer who is an employee of a law enforcement agency.


    Induces the commission of an offense.

    4 types of Mens Rea

    Knowingly, Intentionally, Recklessly, Strict Liability

    Define Stalking

    Intentionally or knowingly engages in a course of conduct directed at a specific person and should know it causes fear for safety.

    Define Homicide

    Intentionally, knowingly, recklessly, with criminal negligence causes the death of another human being.

    Mens Rea

    Criminal Intent

    How much annual training is required per year?

    40 hours

    Possible POST council action includes

    Letter of warning, suspension 3 to 4 years, revocation

    Actus Rea

    Criminal Act

    Preponderance of Evidence

    More likely than not


    Where the characteristic gives you power or privilege.


    Where the characteristic places you in a position of oppression.

    Sympathetic Nervous System

    Provides the ability to either fight, flight or freeze

    Parasympathetic Nervous System

    Promotes a "rest and digest" response, promotes calming of the nerves and return to regular function, and enhances digestion.

    4 positions of searching

    Terry frisk - least amount of control, Standing - more control than Terry frisk but less than kneeling, Kneeling - more control than standing search but less than prone, Prone - greatest amount of control.

    When is it important to have communication?

    Before, During, After.

    Define perceptual narrowing

    Loss of night vision. Causes Tunnel vision, a 70% reduction of the peripheral field.

    Name the 4 federal agencies

    1.Department of Justice. 2.Department of homeland security. 3.Department of agriculture. 4.Department of the interior.

    Eighth Amendment

    Right to reasonable bail. Right to be free of cruel and unusual punishment.

    Sixth Amendment

    Right to speedy trial. Right to confront witnesses. Right to an attorney.

    Fifth Amendment

    Right to remain silent. Indictment by grand jury. Double Jeopardy.

    Fourth Amendment

    Protection from unreasonable search and seizure

    First Amendment

    Freedom to religion. Freedom of speech. Freedom of the press. Right of assembly.

    What percentage of officers nationwide are addicted to alcohol?


    What is the most common form of an investigative report?

    A combination of a category and narrative, because it encompasses all of the advantages of the format styles.

    Name the required components in an investigative report.

    Facts needed to establish that a crime has been committed and all actions taken by peace officers have been appropriate. Who, What, When, Where, How, and Why.

    Name some prospective users of an investigative report.

    Immediate supervisors/field training officers. Detectives/Investigators, Representatives in other law enforcement agencies, attorneys, parole, probation, and corrections personnel, involved parties, media reps, insurance agencies.

    List some of the uses for an investigative report.

    Record facts into a permanent record, provide investigative leads, provide a source for officer evaluation, assist officers for court appearances, serve as reference material.

    From what perspective are you writing a report from?

    First person active voice

    Can field notes be subpoenaed into court?

    Yes! (This is why they must provide a basis for building a report and must be legible and organized)

    Key components of field notes include..?

    Names of suspects, victims, witnesses. Names of officers, assistants in investigation. Important dates and times. Circumstances of crime. Additional information as necessary.

    Field notes often contain information not detailed in a..?


    6 Clues for detecting hazardous materials.

    2.Container shapes/sizes
    3.Marking and colors
    4.Placards and labels
    5.Shipping papers/manifest

    A victim cannot give consent if they are ___ years old or less.


    3 reasonableness factors when making an arrest are?

    1.Severity of crime at issue
    2.If the suspect poses an immediate threat to the safety of the officers or others.
    3.Whether the suspect is actively resisting arrest or attempting to evade arrest.

    Under what conditions allows state and federal criminal liability to attach to an officers conduct?

    When an officers conduct contains the elements of a criminal offense.

    What is the level of proof required in civil liability cases?

    Preponderance of the evidence

    Define Seizure

    The termination of freedom of movement by use of physical force intentionally applied or submission to a show of authority.

    Define Compulsion

    Forced to do the crime

    Felony statute of limitations (typically)

    Within 4 years

    Misdemeanor statute of limitations

    Within 2 years

    Infraction statute of limitations

    Within 1 year

    Define Inchoate

    ATTEMPTED criminal act

    Goals of the criminal justice system

    Provide order in the social system, and serve the citizens of the state.

    What is the guidebook for first responders during the initial phase of a dangerous goods/hazardous materials transportation incident?

    Emergency Response Guidebook

    What does red represent on a placard?


    What does blue represent on a placard?


    What does white represent on a placard?


    What does yellow represent on a placard?


    Which physical sense is the best way to identify a hazardous material?

    Sight! (Don't you dare taste, touch, or breathe in that crap!)

    Where do you want to be when there is a hazardous material incident?

    Upwind and Uphill (Think about why Pumbas friends never stood upwind...)

    Universal components of leadership

    Credibility, Modeling (think of pretty eyes), Inspiring, Challenging, Encouraging, Enabling.

    Persons and/or agencies liable under Title 42 U.S.C

    The Officer, fellow officer, supervisor, agency head, government agency, government entity of which the agency is a part.

    What does Title 42 U.S.C 1983 do?

    Protect individuals from deprivation of their constitution rights by law enforcement officers or other government authorities.

    Liabilities a Peace Officer may be subjected to as a result of excessive force?

    Criminal, Civil, Departmental Administrative action, Moral.

    Define control (think of arresting)

    Degree of influence you must exert over a person to take them safely into custody.

    4 most common attacks on officers

    1.Sucker/round house punch
    3.Gun grab

    Four Principles of defensive tactics


    Define totality of the circumstances

    Corroboration of information

    Define Reasonable Articulable suspicion

    Specific and articulable facts and rational inferences.

    Define Curtilage

    Area to which extends the intimate activity associated with the sanctity of a mans home and privacies of life.

    *Barney Style: Area immediately surrounding home

    Define plain smell

    Officer must be lawfully present in the location and the smell is immediately evident.

    Define plain view

    A search may be made if evidence of criminal activity can be seen without entry or search.

    When can you do a Terry Frisk?

    When you can articulate suspicion that the person has weapons and poses a threat to the officer or others.

    Name 2 Voluntary Encounters

    1.Knock and Talk
    2.Talking to anyone on the street

    Define Reasonable suspicion

    A level of suspicion that would cause a reasonable person, under the circumstances to believe that criminal activity has occurred or is occurring.

    Define Probable Cause

    Sufficient reason based upon known facts to believe a crime has been committed or that certain property is connected with a crime.

    When it comes to unlawful sexual activity of a minor, the age of a minor is?

    >14 and <16

    What should the landing zone size be?


    What is a 1st priority victim in the Triage Categories?

    A victim with life-threatening injuries who cannot wait for help. (IMMEDIATE care needed)

    What is a 2nd priority victim in the Triage Categories?

    A victim with injuries that need care very soon, but may be able to wait for help. (URGENT care needed)

    What is a 3rd priority victim in the Triage Categories?

    Those with minor injuries, who can walk. (DELAYED care)

    What is a 4th priority victim in the Triage Categories?

    Those who cannot be saved.
    Example: Dead or very low likelihood of survival.
    (NO CARE needed.

    How do you determine perimeter boundaries of a crime scene?

    Ensure the perimeter encloses all areas to be searched, make the perimeter larger rather than smaller, you can always scale back later.

    What should an officer attempt to determine through observation of the crime scene prior to actually entering the scene?

    The crime committed.
    How the crime was committed.
    The route the suspect used.
    Apparent physical evidence.
    Special equipment needed to collect and preserve evidence.

    Define in-custody death

    Any unintentional death that occurs while a subject is in police custody. Such deaths usually take place after the subject has demonstrated bizarre and/or violent behavior, and has been restrained.

    3 examples of in-custody death

    1.The death of a person in the process of arrest
    2.In route to be incarcerated
    3.Incarcerated at a correctional facility/juvenile facility

    4 historical explanations for sudden death

    1."Bells Mania" or "exhaustive Mania"
    2.Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
    3.Cocaine Psychosis
    4.Excited Delirium

    Evidence admissibility must be?

    3.Legally obtained

    Exceptions to the privilege rule are?

    1. On-going abuse
    2. Danger to society

    What statements and conversations made under circumstances of assured confidentiality must not be disclosed in court?
    (Privilege rule)

    Communications between husband and wife.
    Attorney and client
    Physician or therapist and patient
    Minister or priest

    What is hearsay?

    Statement made out side of court and offered in evidence to prove the truth of the matter asserted.

    Define: Circumstantial Evidence

    Requires some inferences to connect it to a conclusion.
    Example-Finger prints, footprints, tire marks, fibers, etc...

    Define: Direct Evidence

    Directly supports the truth of an assertion.
    Example-Caught on video.

    Define: Evidence

    Anything used to demonstrate the truth of an assertion.

    What is the burden of proof needed for an administrative trial?

    Clear and convincing evidence.
    Preponderance of the evidence.

    What are some exceptions to the hearsay rule?

    Present sense impression.
    Excited utterance.
    Statement for medical purposes.
    Recorded recollection.
    Records of regularly conducted activity.

    Define: Case law

    A law set forth by judgment on a specific case

    Define: Statutory/Criminal Law

    A law created by the acts of legislature

    Define: Procedural Law

    A law which prescribes a method of enforcing rights or obtaining redress for their violation

    Define: Civil Law

    Laws concerned with civil or private rights and rememdies

    Define: Administrative Law

    Laws in the form of rules and regulations to carry out regulatory powers

    Define: Interview

    A conversation held to generate information from a person who has knowledge of a crime, so an investigation can be continued or concluded.

    Define: Interrogation

    Questioning a person suspected of having committed an offense or who is reluctant to make full disclosure of information that is pertinent to an investigation.

    Define: Custody

    Deprivation of freedom in any significant manner as it relates to interviews and interrogations.

    Define: Confession

    An acknowledgement of the commission of all elements of a crime and the individuals involvement in their commission.

    Define: Admission

    An acknowledgement of certain facts which tend to be incriminating with respect to a specific crime, but not complete enough to constitute a confession.

    Describe the basic elements of the beginning of the interview process.

    Warm-up period when the interviewer establishes rapport.

    Describe the basic elements of the main portion of the interview process.

    The interviewer acquires the desired information about the case.

    Describe the basic elements of the end portion of the interview process.

    The interviewer concludes the interview and expresses appreciation.

    Describe Miranda v. Arizona 1996

    Whenever a person is taken into custody or otherwise deprived of freedom of action, and is questioned or interviewed, he/she must be given warnings of specific rights regarding self-incrimination or any statements made will be inadmissible.

    Describe Brown v. Illinois 1975

    Confessions or statements obtained as a result of an illegal arrest will not be admissible even though Miranda warnings are given.

    Describe Oregon v. Mathiason 1977

    Miranda warnings are not necessarily required simply because questioning takes place in a police station or because the questioned person is a suspect; there must be some restriction of freedom to place the suspect "in custody".

    What two things are necessary before the Miranda warnings must be given?

    1. Custody
    2. Interrogation

    Describe Brown v. Mississippi 1936

    Use of force in obtaining a confession will make the confession inadmissible.

    Describe Chanbers v. Florida

    Confessions will be inadmissible when intimidation or coercion are employed through brutality, deprivation, extended incommunicado interrogation, or questioning above the IQ and age of a suspect.

    Describe Massiah v. the United States, 1964

    Trickery cannot be used to obtain incriminating statements

    Describe Escobedo v. Illinois, 1964

    When investigative questioning and/or focus shifts to the subject with the purpose of obtaining a confession; the accused must be permitted to consult with a lawyer or any statements made will be inadmissible.

    Ten Deadly Errors

    1. Missing the Danger Signs
    2. Taking a bad position
    3. Improper mindset
    4. Failure to watch hands
    5. Relaxing too soon
    6. Poor equipment maintenance
    7. Sleepy or asleep on-duty
    8. Poor search or no search
    9. Improper or no handcuffing
    10. Tombstone courage


    Deliberately violating accepted principles of right and wrong, What is considered immoral by most people, Situational morality.


    Being either moral nor immoral; not belong in or caring for morality and immorality. A person can be amoral in area and not amoral in another area.

    Intelligence Liaison Officer Program (ILO)

    The ILO program is designed to ensure appropriate communication between all local and state law enforcement agencies and the Fusion Center.


    When a person by means of fire or explosives unlawfully and intentionally damages any property with intention of defrauding an insurer; or the property of another.

    Dog's Ears laid back on Skull

    Dog is feeling submissive or frightened

    Dog's lips curled to expose it's teeth

    Dog is attempting to get the approaching officer to move away

    Dog's eyes are wide open showing white part of eye

    Dog is feeling uneasy

    Dog's body posture is "recoiled away from the officer" or "straining at at the end of the leash" towards the officer. Or Dog's hackles are standing up (fur on the back is sticking up like goosebumps)

    It is risky to approach the dog or allow it to come closer.

    Clues that a dog is present.

    Dog Food, Food/water bowels, dog toys, Dog droppings, leashes and constraints etc.

    How to employ non-lethal strategies to a dog when owner or animal control specialist is not present and advanced notice is not possible.

    Distract dog with food, toys, fire extingquisher, noise makers (like an air horn), chemical agents or weapons, or electronic devices.

    Mental health

    The ability to integrate to ones environment and is reflected solid personal relationships, satisfaction in living, success and achievements, flexibility and coping skills, and maturity. Can affect people of any age in any family but may not permanent.

    Mental Disability

    Mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activity, permanent.

    Controlled Substance

    A substance that alters yours thinking, state of mind.

    Schedule I Controlled Substances

    Most illegal drugs, have almost not legal medical use, Ex. Marijuana

    Schedule II Controlled Substances

    Illegal drugs that have some medical purposes, doctors can write a prescription. Ex Cocaine

    Schedule III Controlled Substances

    Illegal drugs have more uses that Schedule II and lower chance of addiction.

    Schedule IV Controlled Substances

    Lowest Chance of addiction and most medical uses.

    Schedule V Controlled Substances

    Over the counter drugs, legal but can be abused. ex Pain meds.

    Describe Arizona vs Gant

    the Supreme Court held that police may search the passenger compartment of a vehicle, incident to a recent occupant's arrest (and therefore without a warrant) only if it is reasonable to believe that the arrestee might access the vehicle at the time of the search, or that the vehicle contains evidence of the offense of arrest.

    Inevitable Discovery

    Evidence is admissible if the law can articulate that the evidence would have been discovered by lawful means.

    What is the Utah State Criminal Justice Information System? (UCJIS)

    A computerized system which maintains Utah records and verifications for NCIC, NLETS and UCCH.
    (National Crime Information Center) (National Law Enforcement Telecommunications System) (Utah Computerized Criminal History)

    What are all of the available files on the UCJIS System?

    -Drivers License Division (DLD)
    -Division of Motor Vehicles (DMV)
    -Statewide Warrants/Protective Orders (SWW)
    -National Law Enforcement Telecommunications System (NLETS)
    -National Crime Information Center (NCIC)
    -Utah Computerized Criminal History (UCCH)

    Difference between leadership in the agency and leadership in the community.

    Leadership in agency: Like you're a sergeant or lieutenant.
    Leadership in Community: You are the police officer on the scene which makes you the one in charge.


    Someone 14 years of age or younger.

    Excited Delirium

    Manic state that results into cardiac arrest, usually associated with in custody death.

    One Percenters

    Motorcycle gangs, main 4 : Hell's angels, Pagans, Outlaws, Banditos, and Mongols.

    Are female gangsters just as dangers and violent males?

    Yes, if not more dangerous and violent.

    See More

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