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  • supervisor

    A visitor may threaten to harm staff members or their family, or to report the staff member to


    Part of the officer's job is to _________ when other staff is being manipulated and deceived as well.

    Active listing

    is a learned skill that officers use to quickly determine the context, threat, and relevance of events unfolding around them by paying attention to volume, pitch, tone, and inflection.

    Can inhibit an officer's ability to protect him- or herself as well as coworkers

    Lack of stamina, agility and mobility

    Officers should always project a

    confident, competent and capable demeanor.

    Inmates may challenge an officer's authority by

    committing minor infractions.


    Is an officer's worst enemy


    can affect an officer's focus and attention to detail, which can negatively influence decision making.

    Four categories of stress

    Environmental, Personal, Work-related and Self-induced.

    Environmental Stress

    weather, noise levels, lighting conditions, crowded areas

    Personal Stress

    family issues, health, lack of sleep, poor eating habits, financial situation, and academic demands

    Work-related Stress

    shift work, supervisors, coworkers, contact with the general public, court appearances, and performance standards

    Self-induced Stress

    personal attitudes toward work, perception of others, and work or academic goals

    Situational awareness

    is an officer's knowledge and understanding of the totality of circumstances, which helps facilitate effective decision making.

    Three stages of situational awareness

    Being alert, identifying a potential threat and responding to a threat.

    Being alert:

    Officers must be aware of what is going on around them at all times. Paying attention to sights and sounds helps with maintaining a high level of alertness.

    Identifying a potential threat:

    Officers should concentrate on possible threats while remaining aware of their surroundings. This stage can occur several times during a shift.

    Responding to a threat:

    Officers should focus their attention on potential threats while exhibiting intense concentration and avoiding tunnel vision, which is the narrowing of the attention field due to stress. In response to an actual threat, an officer should be mentally ahead of the threat and take appropriate action.


    is placing yourself in a tactically advantageous location to observe what is occurring in an area.

    positioning, posture, observing, and listening

    Officers may use _____________. when evaluating a situation.


    is holding your body in such a way as to show your strength, confidence, interest and control.

    command presence

    Your presence can determine whether a subject's resistance escalates or de-escalates. Command presence projects an image of confidence in your skills and abilities. If you appear to lack confidence, inmates will attempt to manipulate or deceive you.

    Controlled behavior

    the officer demonstrates confidence and control by avoiding such distracting behaviors as foot tapping, nail biting, and fidgeting.


    is another skill of situational awareness. Officers should be aware of any occurrence or activity, erratic mood changes, emotional outbursts, acting out, threatening behavior, and changes in inmate energy levels that may signify safety and security problems.


    Correctional officers are tasked with the ______, control and disposal of contraband.

    Systematic identification checks

    provide an accurate account of everyone entering and leaving a facility, which minimizes the potential for escapes, mistaken releases, and unauthorized entry.

    automated and manual

    There are two main categories of valid identification:

    Facial Recognition Software:

    recognizes distinct facial features and links to a database which may contain all information listed below in Types of Valid Personal Identification.

    Personal knowledge or recognition of a person is

    not acceptable as an official method of identification.

    Automated Visitor Registration (AVR) hand scanner:

    recognizes distinct fingerprint features and links to a database, which may contain identifying information for visitors and vendors. This system links authorized visitors to specific inmates they are allowed to visit.

    Automated Barcode Scanner:

    reads barcodes located on the wristband, armband or identification card and verifies information

    Rapid Identification System:

    fingerprint recognition system

    Biometric Identification Solution (BIS)

    formerly known as AFIS

    Some of the common information contained in the automated and manual identification systems includes:

    photograph, identification number, height, weight, date of birth, Social Security number, address, race, gender, age, charge, aliases, identifying marks, receipt/release date, facility location, barcode and magnetic strip.


    a hidden image that is visible when viewed at certain angles or with appropriate lighting, like on a driver's license


    a recognizable image or pattern in paper that appears lighter or darker when held up to the light

    Raised seal

    an embossed seal

    Magnetic strip or Bar code

    a dark stripe on the back of the identification card that contains all information on the card

    Expiration dates

    the date the identification is no longer valid

    Examine the identification, looking for obvious alterations or inconsistencies, such as

    missing vital information, missing security features, raised lettering or photo re-lamination, use of different fonts, or variations in background

    In order to ensure a positive identification, compare the individual's physical appearance to his or her photo identification. Features to compare include:

    skin color, eye color, hair, facial structure, and any other distinctive features like scars or birthmarks

    Inmate manipulation

    is when an inmate attempts to get something he or she wants by influencing the officer or staff to do something they would not ordinarily do.


    is lying to, misleading, tricking, or fooling another person.

    Attempting to create bonds with staff members

    an inmate going above and beyond expected job duties in an attempt to get a favor or special consideration

    Circumventing or disobeying rules

    testing the boundaries of the supervising officer

    Using special circumstances or situations

    using a disability or illness to gain preferential or special treatment

    Distracting staff

    creating a diversion to avert the officer's attention

    Attempting to engage staff in casual non-job related conversation

    requesting personal information regarding staff, asking where the officer is from, what school the officer attended, the officer's age or marital status, the number of children the officer has, or asking about the officer's favorite ball team

    Spreading rumors about staff or attempting to turn one staff member against another

    discussing information about staff members with an officer. "I heard Sgt. Doe talking about you yesterday and he said that you were lazy."

    Over-familiarization with staff

    knowing enough about an officer to notice a change in his or her routine

    Attempting any illegal activity

    bribery, blackmail, or offering sex


    observe correctional officers who use inmate jargon, ignore minor rule infractions, play favorites, enforce rules for some and not others, or are easily distracted


    supply information about the correctional officer's work habits, likes and dislikes


    usually the only paid members of the team because they must expose themselves to the correctional officer by asking for small items like candy, cigarettes, pencils, etc.


    befriend the correctional officer and use the friendship to ultimately coerce the officer into engaging in rule infractions. Least suspected by the correctional officer


    stand guard when the correctional officer is in the process of granting illegal favors, violating institutional rules, or being compromised or harmed

    To avoid inmate manipulation and deception:

    an officer should refrain from being overly friendly or giving out personal information.


    is any unauthorized article or any authorized article in excessive quantities or altered from its original state

    Nuisance contraband

    is any authorized item found in excessive amounts or altered from its original state that does not pose an immediate threat to the safety or security of the staff, inmates and facility

    Hard/hazardous contraband

    is any item that poses a serious threat to the safety and security of the staff, inmates and facility.

    Hard/hazardous contraband

    Firearms, homemade knives (shanks), other weapons, drugs, intoxicating beverages, toxic materials, prescription medication, inhalants, cell phones and electronic devices that store or receive data are examples of?

    visual search

    visually scanning for contraband items

    Pat down

    a physical frisk of a subject in a predetermined pattern to locate weapons or other types of contraband

    Clothed search

    utilizes the quadrant search approach in an institutional setting, by physically patting and squeezing the clothing of a person in a systematic pattern

    Custodial search

    used when a subject is taken into custody in an unsecured environment by physically patting and squeezing the clothing of a person in a systematic pattern

    cell/area search

    visually and physically inspecting an area in a systematic manner

    metal detection

    use of electronic devices to detect a metal object on or within a person or concealed within an item

    strip search

    visually searching an unclothed person and physically searching their clothing

    vehicle search

    visually and physically inspecting a vehicle to locate contraband

    body cavity search

    visually and physically inspecting body openings; such searches are to be conducted by medical staff only

    Chain of custody

    is the witnessed written record of all individuals who have maintained unbroken control of the evidence since its collection.

    Common types of contraband stored as evidence

    may include weapons, illegal drugs, or items used in a serious incident or to commit a crime.

    Items that require special disposal

    money, medication, illegal drugs, weapons and bio hazardous materials.

    Spiral search pattern

    usually used by one person. The searcher begins at a central point and moves in increasingly larger circles to the outermost boundary of the search area.

    Strip/line search pattern

    usually used in a predetermined area by several people. The search area is divided into lanes that are searched by one or more people in both directions until the entire area has been examined.

    Grid search pattern

    a variation of the strip/line search pattern. It overlaps a series of lanes in a cross pattern.

    Zone/quadrant search pattern

    used for an area that is large. The area should be divided into four different sections and searched using one of the patterns above


    used to illuminate dim or unlit areas.


    used to remove panels or covers.


    used for viewing areas not easily seen, such as under or behind bunks, sinks, toilets and other areas.

    Probing devices

    any item used to search holes, cracks, or hollow areas. One such method is using a wire to check grills, door tracks, faucets, and drains.

    Metal detectors (hand-held or walk through)

    devices, often found at entrance and exit points of the facility, used to detect metallic objects or materials. When searching a bunk, the officer can scan the mattress instead of physically handling it. Using this method will protect the officer from possible injury and prevent the destruction of property

    X-ray scanners

    used to detect contraband in articles like shoes and clothes.

    Canines and their handlers

    specially trained to detect certain types of contraband such as drugs, other chemicals, and cell phones.

    being in good physical shape

    Another aspect of an officer's preparation is


    should always project a confident, competent and capable demeanor.

    minor infractions

    Inmates may challenge an officer's authority by committing?


    is a comfortable or relaxed state of mind, which lulls the officer into a false sense of safety and security.

    Stressful situation

    being the only officer assigned to a dormitory which houses 80 inmates is a?


    may use positioning, posture, observing, and listening when evaluating a situation.

    lack confidence

    If you appear to __________, inmates will attempt to manipulate or deceive you.

    listening abilities

    Never allow personal judgment and prejudice toward an inmate to obscure your

    automated or manual resources.

    The verification process may include the use of

    Valid identification

    is unexpired, unaltered, and may contain security features.

    Counterfeit identification

    appears to be valid, but may be missing some or all of the essential features and information.


    When manipulation and deception occurs, the officer is being


    if the officer succumbs to inmate manipulation and deception, he or she may face disciplinary action, _________ and criminal charges.

    participants of the team

    may consist of, but are not limited to, observers, contacts, runners, turners and pointmen.


    To ________ inmate manipulation and deception, an officer should refrain from being overly friendly or giving out personal information.


    should never taste or smell any material found in a facility, or handle suspected contraband more than is absolutely necessary.

    Lack of stamina

    can inhibit an officer's ability to protect him- or herself as well as coworkers

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