ch8 part 3 flashcards |

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  • Types of computer equipment and media may include

    tablets, laptops, desktops, thumb drives, external drives, network systems, removable disks, tapes, digital cameras, and other data storage equipment.

    DO NOT touch any part of the
    equipment to avoid (electronic device)

    possible damage to it.

    You may also find cell phones at crime scenes; however, you cannot access information contained in a cell
    phone unless you have a

    search warrant.

    it is unconstitutional to search a cell phone without a search warrant unless there are

    officer safety concerns or exigent circumstances.

    The toxicology section of a laboratory analyzes

    samples of blood, to determine chemical and alcohol content, and urine, to detect chemical content.

    Toxicology also analyzes alcoholic beverages for suspected
    chemicals, such as

    date-rape drugs or alcoholic levels.

    You should be able to identify a wide variety of controlled substances and drug paraphernalia by

    sight or odor.

    When collecting drug paraphernalia, package
    sharp objects such as

    needles or syringes in puncture-proof packages clearly labeled with the words "WARNING: SHARPS." Personal protective equipment is essential for an
    officer who encounters any chemical or biological substances.

    A document is anything

    containing a mark to convey a message.

    Document analysts use
    a variety of scientific methods to examine documents for

    alterations, obliterations, handwriting analysis, indentations, ink comparisons, and machine impressions.

    Questioned documents may also contain

    latent fingerprints and DNA.

    Should you suspect that the money is counterfeit currency, document it as such and

    forward it to the United States Secret Service.

    The United States Secret Service maintains

    a database of counterfeit currency with information such as any suspects that may have already been under investigation; any information that may lead to the apprehension of the counterfeiters; and the denomination, serial number, and the location that the
    suspect passed or transacted the money.

    When you recover evidence of any kind, begin a

    chain of custody for the evidence.

    chain of custody

    is a documentation of everyone who handled the evidence as well as when, why, and what changes, if any, were made to it.

    A chain of custody documentation
    also proves

    the evidence submitted in court is the same evidence you collected at the crime scene.

    A property receipt, written or electronic, typically records

    the chain of custody.

    Florida Statute s. 918.13

    states that it is a felony to alter, destroy,
    conceal, or remove any record, document, or thing with the purpose to impair its truth or availability in a criminal trial or investigation.


    is the process of making detailed and systematic inquiries and observations about a criminal complaint.

    The purpose of an investigation is to

    recreate what happened during the incident, identify and locate the suspect, and develop enough evidence to establish probable cause to make an arrest.

    responsibility for follow-up investigations may fall to the

    primary patrol officer dispatched to the call.

    The preliminary investigation focuses on

    establishing whether a criminal act has been
    committed and, if so, what type and when and where it was committed.

    After reviewing the report, a follow-up investigation can include

    contacting witnesses,victims, and suspects, reviewing evidence, locating additional evidence, and writing a
    capias request, arrest affidavit, or arrest warrant.

    A capias

    is a legal order for an arrest issued by the clerk of courts at the request of the state attorney's office.

    a capias is ISSUED by the

    clerk of courts

    a capias is REQUESTED by the

    state attorney's

    The first steps in a follow-up investigation are establishing a

    case file, reviewing the information gathered during the preliminary investigation, and identifying and pursuing leads. Locate and interview individuals who may have additional information pertinent to the investigation.

    The investigative case file is the repository of all

    information derived from both the preliminary investigation and the follow-up investigation

    There are several ways to perform surveillance on a suspect's location: 3

    moving, stationary, and electronic.

    Moving surveillance

    is following a person of interest on foot or in a police vehicle. It requires a safe distance, more than one police officer, more than one police vehicle, and a coordinated approach, none of which can draw undue attention to the officers' presence.

    A drive-by at a specific location involves

    an officer behaving as though passing by this area is just a part of a normal driving routine. A patrol officer looking for a wanted person often performs this surveillance.

    Stationary surveillance

    involves parking your vehicle some distance away in a location that allows an approach
    to the area on foot in a covert manner.
    From a concealed position, conduct the spot checks or set up a fixed location and maintain it

    Electronic surveillance

    involves monitoring a person of interest through tracking devicesโ€”cell phone or credit
    card useโ€”which typically requires a court order.

    Leads may be

    physical evidence, further suspect information, witness statements, anonymous tips, and information gained while interviewing and processing existing information.

    A lead is valuable when it

    corroborates or disproves the physical evidence, statements,and/or confessions.


    is a door-to-door inquiry of all possible sources of information in a given area. It may require additional officers, depending on the size of the area

    Walk the perimeter of the crime scene to identify places where people may have been
    able to see or hear what happened; consider which houses have a clear view of the crime
    scene and are within

    hearing distance.

    Do not reveal the details of
    the crime

    names, seriousness, or how the crime was committed.

    Document what witnesses were able to say about the crime; even if a person reports knowing nothing about the crime, it will be important if the person later claims to have

    been a witness

    Be sure to document when a residence is either vacant or there is no
    response to your inquiry; a non-responsive house may require

    a follow-up.

    An address is essential to

    verifying that the witness actually lives at the location where you the contact, and is not just a guest.

    Without the address and the occupants'
    phone numbers,

    you will lose time locating the witness again.

    develop suspect with the :

    who, why and how?!

    The Department of Corrections (DOC) lists

    inmates released or the supervision status
    of former inmates and provides web-based information on all incarcerated and supervised offenders.

    Private records,
    such as a company's employment records, employees' medical, dental, or financial
    records, or the records of any private organization, business, or another type, are not

    necessarily available.

    A subpoena is necessary to gain access to these

    private records.

    Modus operandi,

    meaning mode of operating or MO, refers to how someone does something, usually repetitive in nature.

    People are creatures of


    Be On the Look Outs


    When comparing modus operandi, consider the following:

    โ€ข Does this appear to be a well-planned incident or one committed impulsively?
    โ€ข If entry to a building or vehicle is involved, was it forcible, or was a key or
    lock pick used?
    โ€ข Were tools used? If so, what kind of tools?
    โ€ข If this was a crime against a person, what weapon, if any, did the suspect use?
    What verbal commands did the suspect give? What was the physical description
    of the suspect?
    โ€ข If theft was involved, what, and how much, property did the suspect take?
    โ€ข What damage was done, and why? Did the suspect do malicious damage to items
    he or she could not take away? Did the suspect do careless damage to things that
    got in the way, or purposeful damage to gain access to a door or fence?
    โ€ข What was the motivation for the crime? Profit, revenge, fun, opportunity,
    hate, etc.
    โ€ข Were any other resources used in the crime?
    โ€ข Were any unexplained items left at the scene?
    โ€ข Were there eyewitness accounts to the crime?

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