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  • robbery

    occurs when a suspect TAKES property from a person by using force, violence, or assault. places victim in fear.

    A robbery is a

    theft plus violence

    to establish probable cause for robbery

    document that the suspect took the money or property from the person or custody of the victim by using force, violence, and assault, or by placing the victim in fear during the course of taking it.Add that the property
    taken was of some value and whether the suspect took the property with the intent to
    deprive the victim of his or her right to it or any benefit from it, permanently or
    temporarily.

    Common targets of robberies are

    people at home, retail stores,
    convenience stores, banks, and ATMs, including situational victims, senior citizens,
    drunken people, drug suspects/participants, homeless persons, and prostitutes.

    to establish probable cause for robbery by sudden
    snatching

    document that the suspect took the money or property from the person of the victim and in the course of the taking, the victim was or became aware of the taking.
    The property taken was of some value and the taking was with the intent to deprive the victim or the owner, permanently or temporarily, of his or her right to the property.

    Carjacking

    is the robbing of a person of his or her vehicle by the use of force, violence, assault, or by putting them in fear during the course of the robbery, as defined
    in s. 812.133, F.S.

    To establish probable cause for carjacking,

    document that the suspect took the motor
    vehicle from the person or custody of the victim using force, violence, assault, or by
    placing the victim in fear during the course of the taking.

    Home invasion robbery

    is a robbery that occurs within the victim's dwelling while
    the victim is present and aware that a robbery is taking place. This is often confused with
    burglary to an occupied residence or vacant residence, which differs in that there is no
    use or threat of violence against the occupant, as defined in s. 812.135, F.S.

    To establish probable cause for home-invasion robbery

    document that the suspect
    entered the dwelling of the victim and that at the time the suspect entered the dwelling,
    the suspect intended to commit robbery. While inside the dwelling, the suspect did
    commit robbery.

    dwelling is a

    building or conveyance of any kind, including any attached porch, whether such building or conveyance is temporary or permanent, mobile or immobile,
    which has a roof over it and intended for people to lodge in at night, together with the
    enclosed space of ground and outbuildings immediately surrounding it.

    There are three broad categories of
    causes of death:

    natural, accidental, and criminal

    Criminal includes

    suicides.

    Always approach the scene as a crime scene and consider it a homicide until

    the information gathered consistently points to elements of a death by natural or
    accidental causes.

    Scan the area surrounding the body for potential hazards or evidence by performing a

    360-degree visual sweep of the perimeter.

    If the scene is in a public location, place a visual barrier such as a

    crime scene tape) between the scene and the public without cross contaminating
    any evidence.

    There are several physical indicators that a person is deceased and will not respond to
    CPR. Some of these indicators include obvious signs of

    decapitation and decomposition

    After death and over time, the body temperature will adjust to that of the

    surrounding environment and may be cold to the touch.

    The skin may be

    pale, waxy, and translucent.

    The fingernails may be

    pale.

    The eyes may have become

    milky or cloudy, and the eyelids

    may remain open if they

    were open at the time of death.

    While observing the body, look for obvious signs of trauma, such as the

    presence of blood, cuts, gashes, or bruising.

    Look for an obvious fatal injury such as

    a bullet hole in the head or chest, and notify
    your supervisor or investigator of any signs of trauma or obvious fatal injury.

    rigor mortis

    the stiffening of body muscles after death;

    lividity

    the color change due to settling of blood according to gravity;

    algor mortis

    the postmortem cooling of the body.

    putting the body in the mortuary refrigerator until the autopsy

    the body will change over time and will be
    altered by

    The time of death is particularly difficult to estimate in

    infants and small children.

    The investigator may also use rigor and lividity to help determine the

    position of the body at death and whether the body was moved after death.

    LEO cannot make a final determination as to the

    cause or manner of death.

    Only a medical examiner can
    make a

    final determination after the completion of his or her investigation, which can take weeks to conclude.

    When any person dies in Florida by criminal violence, accident, suicide, suddenly in apparent good health, or through any suspicious or unusual circumstance, law
    enforcement must

    notify the medical examiner (ME).

    DO NOT disturb the body

    until authorized by the ME, pursuant to multi-agency
    agreements.

    If there are no signs of foul play or trauma,

    contact the deceased person's physician and
    inform him or her of the death.

    M.E

    Medical Examiner

    S.U.I.D

    Sudden Unexpected Infant Death

    Sudden Unexpected Infant Death is

    the sudden and unexpected death of an infant
    due to natural or unnatural causes.

    Unnatural causes can include

    suffocation (asphyxia),
    drowning, electrocution, hyperthermia,
    hypothermia, carbon monoxide poisoning, and
    homicide. These causes of infant death can be
    easily overlooked at first; however, they can be
    explained after a careful and thorough
    investigation.

    (SIDS)

    Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    is one of several causes of SUID and is the most
    common cause of death in infants aged one
    month to one year in the United States. SIDS
    occurs most commonly in infants two to four
    months of age and rarely after eight months of
    age. It occurs more frequently in African
    Americans, American Indians, and Alaska
    Natives than in Caucasians. It occurs suddenly and without warning, often during periods of sleep.

    Ninety percent (90%) of the cases occur during a

    critical period of rapid growth and brain development in the first six months
    of life.

    SIDS is a diagnosis that should be
    given only after

    all other possible causes of sudden, unexplained death have been ruled out by a thorough
    investigation.

    A complete death scene investigation is often the only way to make a distinction
    between

    SIDS and suffocation as a cause of death.

    Suffocation can be caused by

    choking, constriction of the chest or abdomen, strangulation, narrowing of the
    airways due to an allergic reaction or some other disorder, inhalation of toxic gases, immersion in water,
    wedging or entrapment, or neck compression.

    Common objects in the child's immediate environment often involved in suffocation include

    plastic bags, soft pillows, bedding, or stuffed animals.

    In many cases of SUID, the infant usually appears healthy before death, but occasionally there is evidence of
    a

    mild upper respiratory infection or recent physical stress.

    Parents or caregivers may have placed the infant in a bed or crib for a nap and returned to find the infant not breathing or apparently dead. This may occur

    This may occur 10-20 minutes or up to several hours after
    the parent places the child in bed.

    Observe witness reactions during the (infant death)

    first minutes after your arrival

    Interview the person who last saw the infant alive and the person who

    found the infant dead, asking about the
    infant's exact position and anything observed or heard.

    The position of the infant is ______ to the investigation.

    crucial

    Centers for Disease Control SUID Investigative model, should conduct

    doll re-enactments of the placed, last seen alive,
    and found position of the infant at the scene.

    Some stress indicators you may experience include (infant death)

    anger, recurring dreams,
    physical illness, depression, changes in eating and sleeping patterns, mood swings, and
    concentration problems.

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