Vehicle Operations Ch.1 VOCAB flashcards |

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  • PSI

    Pounds per square INCH

    acuity

    sharpness of vision

    depth perception

    ability to judge DISTANCE and percieve space to determine how far away an object is

    peripheral vision

    ability to see above, below and to the sides (a person who is in a stationary vehicle and who has good peripheral vision can see about 180 degrees from side to side)

    color vision

    ability to distinguish COLORS

    night vision

    ability to see clearly in DARKNESS

    The three types of vehicular motions:

    roll, yaw, pitch

    pitch

    occurs during acceleration or braking and causes the transfer of a vehicle's weight from FRONT TO REAR or REAR TO FRONT

    roll

    occurs when TURNING! this shifts the vehicle's weight from side to side.

    yaw

    is the transfer of a vehicle's weight causing an END-FOR-END motion resulting in the vehicle turning 180 degrees on a horizontal plane

    Stability

    affects the degree of pitch,roll, and yaw that a vehicle experiences

    the higher the vehicle's center GRAVITY the loiwer its

    stability

    radius

    the distance from the center of a circle to the outside of the circle. A turn or curve is a portion of a circle.

    increasing radius

    is a turn that gets WIDER during the turn much like a circle getting larger

    decreasing radius

    is a turn that gets TIGHTER during the turn much like a circle getting smaller

    constant radius

    is a turn that remains the SAME throughout, getting neither wider nor smaller. EX: 90 degree turn at an intersection.

    safely negotiating a tight turn requires

    less speed and more steering input

    apex

    is the center point of ANY CURVE

    apex technique

    is how the vehicle is steered in relation to a curve's apex while maintaining your lane

    the vehicle's position in relation to the curve defines the

    early, late, or center apexing techniques.

    Early apex

    is when the vehicle is steered so it is CLOSEST to the INSIDE of the curve BEFORE reaching the apex

    Center apex

    is when the vehicle steered closest to the MIDDLE of the curve

    Late apex

    is when the vehicle steered so it PASSES closest to the inside of the curve AFTER reaching the apex

    in most cases the ________ apex is the best cornerning or turning method

    late

    the early apex INCREASES __________________ force and can cause lause of control

    centrifugal

    the late apex _________ __________________ force, reducing the potential for loss of control

    Decreases centrifugal

    This technique allows for the most room for driver error.

    late apex (more room)

    centripetal force

    (tire traction) is the force that is necessary to keep a vehicle moving in a curved path and is directed INWARD toward the center of rotation

    centrifugal force

    is the force enacted on a vehicle moving in a curved path that acts OUTWARD away from the center rotation

    steering has a directed relationship on

    vehicle dynamics, vehicle handling, and traction control

    under steer

    is the tendency of a vehicle to turn LESS sharply than the dricer intends.

    over steering

    is the tendency of a vehicle to steer into a SHARPER turn than the driver intends, sometimes with a loss of traction of the rear to the outside

    how to correct under steering?

    remove the foot from the accelator, MAINTAIN steering input but do not apply brakes, and if necessary steer the car to a safe place and stop

    how to correct over steering?

    remove the foot from the accelerator and/or brake, steer the car where DESIRED (when the front tires have not lost traction), refrain from applying the brakes and if necessary, steer the car to a safe place and stop

    wheel tracking

    is an occurrence that causes the rear wheels to follow a TIghter path than the path the front wheels traveled in a turn

    hold the steering wheel with a

    firm yet relaxed grip

    the ____________ should rest on the rim of the steering wheel and never hold the wheel too tight

    thumb

    holding the steering wheel too tight will cause the driver to

    tire more quickly

    facing the steering wheel, the top center of the wheel is in the

    12 o'clock position

    facing the steering wheel, the bottom center of the wheel is in the

    6 o'clock position

    RIGHT hand on the

    4'oclock position

    LEFT hand on the

    8 o'clock position

    if officers turn right they should move the __________ hand into the 12 o'clock positon at the top of the steering wheel and pull the steering wheel down in a smooth motion into a right turn.

    right

    if officers turnleft they should move the __________ hand into the 12 o'clock positon at the top of the steering wheel and pull the steering wheel down in a smooth motion into a left turn.

    left

    caster effect

    is the forward motion that causes a vehicle to straighten from a turn when releasing the steering wheel.

    eye-targeting

    optical driving is looking in the desired direction of travel to avoid an obstacle and steering in that direction

    anti-lock braking system (ABS)

    is now standard equipment on LATE MODEL vehicles. this type of motor vehicle braking system electronically monitors and controls each of the wheels during braking to keep them from LOCKING

    incipient spin

    occurs just before the drive tires lose traction during ACCELERATION

    drive tires

    are the front tires on a front- wheel drive vehicle or rear tires on a rear-wheel drive vehicle

    control of a vehicle depends on

    traction

    Traction

    is the result of the friction a vehicle's tires create on the ROAD SURFACE

    The best traction is ____________ friction

    rolling

    skid

    results when the wheels LOCK and do not TURN while the vehicle is moving. rolling friction and traction are lost.

    slide

    results from loss of both rolling friction and traction. the wheels still rotate, but they do not control the vehicle's movement.

    power slide

    happens when a driver over-acceleratess, and the tires sping, the wheels are NOT locked but the driver has lost traction

    counter steering

    turn the vehicle's front tires in the direction you want to go.

    cornering reqiures entering an intersection safely and properly at normal

    driving speeds and making a 90 degree turn to the right or left.

    proper braking is an important element of

    negotiating a turn

    the most common night driving error is to ________ the distance the vehicle's headlights project.

    overdrive

    vehicle headlights should reveal a person ___________ away with the HIGH BEAMS

    450 feet

    vehicle headlights should reveal a person ___________ away with the LOW BEAMS

    150 feet

    reaction time-

    remains the same whether driving during the day or night.

    field of vision- at night peripheral vision

    decreases. less light narrows the field of vision

    at night, it is easy to lose many

    visual cues that are available during the day, which lowers the ability to judge distance and the speed of oncoming traffic.

    glare from oncoming vehicles, or other outside sources can

    temporarily BLIND A DRIVER.

    when driving at night , human eyes adjust to the lack of light and uses

    night vision

    when driving in emergency mode, emergency lights can increase the amount of _____________ encountered.

    glare

    pursuit

    is an active attempt by an officer, driving an authorized emergency vehicle (emergency equipment activated), to aprehend occupants of a moving vehicle if the offender increases vehicle speed, takes other evasive action, or refuses to stop in an apparent attampt to avoid apprehenssion.

    roadblock

    is the use of vehicles, barricades, cones or other objects to block traffic flow COMPLETELY.

    Immobilization Technique (PIT)

    the purpose of this technique is to stop a violator's vehicle by using the police vehicle to apply force to either the rear right or left side of the violator's vehicle to end the pursuit.

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