Vehicle Operations Ch.1 VOCAB flashcards |

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• ### PSI

Pounds per square INCH

### acuity

sharpness of vision

### depth perception

ability to judge DISTANCE and percieve space to determine how far away an object is

### peripheral vision

ability to see above, below and to the sides (a person who is in a stationary vehicle and who has good peripheral vision can see about 180 degrees from side to side)

### color vision

ability to distinguish COLORS

### night vision

ability to see clearly in DARKNESS

### The three types of vehicular motions:

roll, yaw, pitch

### pitch

occurs during acceleration or braking and causes the transfer of a vehicle's weight from FRONT TO REAR or REAR TO FRONT

### roll

occurs when TURNING! this shifts the vehicle's weight from side to side.

### yaw

is the transfer of a vehicle's weight causing an END-FOR-END motion resulting in the vehicle turning 180 degrees on a horizontal plane

### Stability

affects the degree of pitch,roll, and yaw that a vehicle experiences

### the higher the vehicle's center GRAVITY the loiwer its

stability

the distance from the center of a circle to the outside of the circle. A turn or curve is a portion of a circle.

is a turn that gets WIDER during the turn much like a circle getting larger

is a turn that gets TIGHTER during the turn much like a circle getting smaller

is a turn that remains the SAME throughout, getting neither wider nor smaller. EX: 90 degree turn at an intersection.

### safely negotiating a tight turn requires

less speed and more steering input

### apex

is the center point of ANY CURVE

### apex technique

is how the vehicle is steered in relation to a curve's apex while maintaining your lane

### the vehicle's position in relation to the curve defines the

early, late, or center apexing techniques.

### Early apex

is when the vehicle is steered so it is CLOSEST to the INSIDE of the curve BEFORE reaching the apex

### Center apex

is when the vehicle steered closest to the MIDDLE of the curve

### Late apex

is when the vehicle steered so it PASSES closest to the inside of the curve AFTER reaching the apex

late

centrifugal

### the late apex _________ __________________ force, reducing the potential for loss of control

Decreases centrifugal

### This technique allows for the most room for driver error.

late apex (more room)

### centripetal force

(tire traction) is the force that is necessary to keep a vehicle moving in a curved path and is directed INWARD toward the center of rotation

### centrifugal force

is the force enacted on a vehicle moving in a curved path that acts OUTWARD away from the center rotation

### steering has a directed relationship on

vehicle dynamics, vehicle handling, and traction control

### under steer

is the tendency of a vehicle to turn LESS sharply than the dricer intends.

### over steering

is the tendency of a vehicle to steer into a SHARPER turn than the driver intends, sometimes with a loss of traction of the rear to the outside

### how to correct under steering?

remove the foot from the accelator, MAINTAIN steering input but do not apply brakes, and if necessary steer the car to a safe place and stop

### how to correct over steering?

remove the foot from the accelerator and/or brake, steer the car where DESIRED (when the front tires have not lost traction), refrain from applying the brakes and if necessary, steer the car to a safe place and stop

### wheel tracking

is an occurrence that causes the rear wheels to follow a TIghter path than the path the front wheels traveled in a turn

### hold the steering wheel with a

firm yet relaxed grip

thumb

### holding the steering wheel too tight will cause the driver to

tire more quickly

### facing the steering wheel, the top center of the wheel is in the

12 o'clock position

### facing the steering wheel, the bottom center of the wheel is in the

6 o'clock position

### RIGHT hand on the

4'oclock position

### LEFT hand on the

8 o'clock position

right

left

### caster effect

is the forward motion that causes a vehicle to straighten from a turn when releasing the steering wheel.

### eye-targeting

optical driving is looking in the desired direction of travel to avoid an obstacle and steering in that direction

### anti-lock braking system (ABS)

is now standard equipment on LATE MODEL vehicles. this type of motor vehicle braking system electronically monitors and controls each of the wheels during braking to keep them from LOCKING

### incipient spin

occurs just before the drive tires lose traction during ACCELERATION

### drive tires

are the front tires on a front- wheel drive vehicle or rear tires on a rear-wheel drive vehicle

traction

### Traction

is the result of the friction a vehicle's tires create on the ROAD SURFACE

rolling

### skid

results when the wheels LOCK and do not TURN while the vehicle is moving. rolling friction and traction are lost.

### slide

results from loss of both rolling friction and traction. the wheels still rotate, but they do not control the vehicle's movement.

### power slide

happens when a driver over-acceleratess, and the tires sping, the wheels are NOT locked but the driver has lost traction

### counter steering

turn the vehicle's front tires in the direction you want to go.

### cornering reqiures entering an intersection safely and properly at normal

driving speeds and making a 90 degree turn to the right or left.

### proper braking is an important element of

negotiating a turn

overdrive

450 feet

150 feet

### reaction time-

remains the same whether driving during the day or night.

### field of vision- at night peripheral vision

decreases. less light narrows the field of vision

### at night, it is easy to lose many

visual cues that are available during the day, which lowers the ability to judge distance and the speed of oncoming traffic.

### glare from oncoming vehicles, or other outside sources can

temporarily BLIND A DRIVER.

night vision

glare

### pursuit

is an active attempt by an officer, driving an authorized emergency vehicle (emergency equipment activated), to aprehend occupants of a moving vehicle if the offender increases vehicle speed, takes other evasive action, or refuses to stop in an apparent attampt to avoid apprehenssion.

is the use of vehicles, barricades, cones or other objects to block traffic flow COMPLETELY.

### Immobilization Technique (PIT)

the purpose of this technique is to stop a violator's vehicle by using the police vehicle to apply force to either the rear right or left side of the violator's vehicle to end the pursuit.

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