The ____ Amendment guarantees every person within the U.S. equal protection under the law.
Select ALL of the TRUE statements that apply to minimizing tension and encouraging cooperation (during a traffic stop).
The officer should simply explain the observations and the violation, if any.
Allow the driver to talk.
Whether or not you issue a warning or citation, listening respectfully will help many people calm down and accept the situation.
Eliminate the racially-charged stereotypes, racial jokes, and epithets from your speech.
Do not argue with the violator.
Heighten the importance of the enforcement action by not lecturing the violator but rather explaining the seriousness of the violation by mentioning the risk of a crash or other circumstance.
End the interaction with a "thank you" in a courteous, non-sarcastic manner.
Law enforcement officers should remain polite and focused, conveying to the driver that they are hearing him or her.
Provide the person with your complete name and badge number upon request
Maintain a non-confrontational interview stance.
Establish a commanding presence by using words that convey professionalism and demand respect.
Describe the violation in terms of what you saw the vehicle, not the driver, do.
Maintain a calm tone of voice.
Greet the driver (and passengers) politely, introducing yourself and immediately explaining why you made the stop.
Maintain a pleasant expression.
Courts have ruled that people are entitled to know why they were stopped before any further discussion or requests are made.
According to Title 18, Section 242 of the United States Code, anyone who "under color of any law, statute, ordinance, regulation, or custom, willfully subjects any person...to the deprivation of any rights, privileges, or immunities secured or protected by the Constitution or laws...or to different punishments, pains, or penalties, on account of such person being an alien, or by reason of color, or race...shall be fined under this title or imprisoned for no more than one year, or both, and if bodily injury results...shall be fined under this title or imprisoned for no more than 10 years or both...and if death results...shall be fined under this title, or imprisoned for any term of years or for life or both, or may be sentenced to _____."
Racially-charged stereotypes, racial jokes, and epithets in your speech __________ the likelihood of insensitive behavior or the perception that you are biased.
Various laws and court rulings require traffic data from agencies to
detect and eliminate unfair policing.
In addition to considering ethnicity, color, national origin, or ancestry, the characteristics of bias-based profiling are often extended to address groups of individuals defined by gender, sexual orientation, religion, age, occupational status, socioeconomic status, or ability to ______.
Whether or not their perception is accurate, minorities frequently believe that they are unfairly treated by law enforcement officers, particularly with regard to ______.
During the investigation of the Los Angeles Police Department following the ______ case, investigators downloaded hundreds of racially inappropriate messages that were exchanged on mobile data terminals in Los Angeles Police Department cruisers.
Some agencies require officers to report traffic data, which assists in
investigating possible allegations of bias-based policing.
Some observers consider bias-based profiling to include
any law enforcement action-not merely traffic stops-that targets an individual based on a variety of group characteristics.
In Mapp v. ________ (1961), the Supreme Court declared that no state can limit the constitutional right of equal protection; every person is entitled to be treated the same under similar circumstances.
A traffic stop can be tense, but by conducting a proper and __________ stop, an officer can minimize negative and potentially unsafe results.
__________ describes the smaller segment of a population that differs from the majority by one or more characteristics.
When stopped, traffic violators typically react with embarrassment, anger, fear, and __________.
Law enforcement work is stressful, but officers sworn to uphold the Constitution and laws must consistently
heed the laws they enforce.
It is always wrong, __________, to use race, ethnicity, gender, or sexual orientation as the sole basis for stopping a person.
both legally and ethically
Because of past unequal treatment of minorities, most law enforcement agencies across the country
now require officers to report traffic data, which may include race and gender data on their traffic stops.
An officer may properly focus attention on a person of a particular race or background if the officer has
specific suspect information.
Upon seeing a violation or other cause for a traffic stop, the officer must decide whether it is necessary, prudent, and ______ to stop the vehicle.
The officer should initiate a traffic stop in an area that gives the driver a place to stop _______.
Consider requesting an interpreter for a
Florida driver if the language barrier makes it difficult for you to be understood.
What are some justifications for conducting a traffic stop?
to assist a motorist whose vehicle has mechanical trouble
to investigate a vehicle or occupant matching a BOLO description
to assist a motorist who is obviously lost
to investigate suspicious behavior
Florida is becoming increasingly diverse; it is up to individual officers to
avoid giving even the perception of discriminatory profiling in their actions.
A reckless driver who is immediately endangering the lives of other motorists and pedestrians may
justify a stop, even if stopping means abandoning an earlier call.
What are considered unsafe conditions to make a traffic stop?
roadway conditions that do not allow room to pull over, such as a long bridge
Officers may stop a vehicle if ________ exists that a crime was, is being, or is about to be committed.
When watching an intersection for traffic light violators, the officer should
position the patrol vehicle where it does not obstruct traffic flow but can enter the roadway quickly and safely to make a necessary stop.
If immediately stopping a dangerous, reckless driver may endanger you or other motorists,
you should not make the stop.
______ may dictate priority when an officer is en route to an emergency call but encounters a dangerous, reckless driver that may justify a stop.
To avoid communication barriers, an officer must consistently exhibit professionalism and remember to do what?
Listen carefully and explain fully what is expected and what you are doing.
Refer the motorist, if necessary, to an appropriate source within the department if unable to answer all questions.
Take adequate time when speaking.
Avoid talking down to anyone or being demeaning.
Courteous, professional officers may issue hundreds of citations without
generating a citizen complaint, often receiving a verbal "thank you" from the cited motorists.
If working in a stationary mode, the officer should
choose a safe parking place for the patrol vehicle from which to monitor vehicle movement and watch for traffic violations.
Because language barriers can impede your communication ability,
you must determine the driver's ability to understand you (when making a traffic stop).
A(n) __________ refers to a stop in which the potential risk of the situation is not known.
unknown risk traffic stop
Sometimes a standardized approach or script minimizes officer/violator conflict and can become a habit,
ultimately assisting an officer if ever testifying in court about interactions with a violator.
When an officer needs backup to initiate a traffic stop, he or she
may need to follow the violator's vehicle for an extended period before help arrives.
What roadway and traffic conditions may increase the potential for particular traffic violations?
Once the decision has been made to initiate a traffic stop, what information must be provided to dispatch?
vehicle tag number and state of issue
the need for backup or other assistance as required
a description of the violator's vehicle including color, make, approximate year (newer or late model)
the number of occupants and descriptions if possible
the officer's current location, such as the street, plus a cross street or a house number; this is crucial on interstate and divided highways. If the situation escalates and the officer is injured or cannot use the radio, dispatch can pinpoint the officer's location.
the officer's identification number
the officer's direction of travel: north, south, east, or west
When initiating a traffic stop, providing complete and accurate information to dispatch is especially important for __________.
When you signal a driver to stop, you must
be ready to adjust and react quickly to developments in the situation after the driver stops the vehicle.
When initiating a traffic stop, the officer should use ________ driving techniques to catch up to the vehicle to be stopped and follow at a safe distance.
If other drivers slow down to see what is going on during a traffic stop, this can
cause a traffic jam or hazard.
When initiating a traffic stop, providing complete and accurate information to dispatch allows time for a criminal justice database check on the tag before the __________.
officer talks to the driver
Except in emergencies in which a traffic stop must immediately be made, choose a
location where the violator can be stopped out of the flow of traffic, where you and violator can avoid the danger of passing vehicles.
After deciding to make a traffic stop, move the patrol vehicle into a
position to catch up with the violator, initiate the stop, and maintain a safe following distance until the violator pulls over.
When initiating a traffic stop, the officer should note the
vehicle's description, including its type, make, model, year, color, tag number, and state where the tag was issued.
When initiating a traffic stop, the _________ description (glasses, hat, beard, etc.) and any information about passengers should be noted, as well as any vehicle descriptors, such as condition, bumper stickers or decals, dents, or the presence of a toolbox.
In an assigned zone, an officer must be
familiar with normal traffic flow, speed limits and where they change, and changes to traffic flow at different times of day.
Passing traffic is not the only risk when initiating a traffic stop-stopping a violator in an area populated by his or her __________ may create a volatile and dangerous scene.
Any suspicious activity by the driver or passengers can
increase the level of risk of a traffic stop.
If you see the occupants of the violator's vehicle acting suspiciously (when initiating a traffic stop), you may
immediately be able to request backup.
Weather conditions, school zones, construction zones, and neighborhood activities may all affect traffic flow by slowing drivers and causing _______.
To ensure the correct vehicle is being stopped when initiating a traffic stop, the officer should __________ observe the vehicle from the time of the violation until the stop is completed.
The takedown lights on the patrol vehicle illuminate the interior of the violator's vehicle and prevent the driver from
seeing into the patrol vehicle.
What are indicators that show a violator's awareness and anticipation of a traffic stop?
He or she may suddenly slow down.
He or she may look into the rear-view mirror and make eye contact with the officer.
He or she may signal a lane change to pull over
Take special caution when conducting traffic stops in areas where ______ are present, such as school parking lots.
If a driver ignores flashing emergency lights during a traffic stop, the officer should
tap the siren for one or two seconds.
Vehicles parked far enough off the road (during a traffic stop) prevents ________, especially in a congested area where other drivers may not be able to change lanes to give an officer extra room.
Once the officer signals a driver to stop, the officer has __________ control over where the driver will stop.
If the patrol vehicle is equipped with __________, activate them during a traffic stop; these are the white lights facing forward on the light bar.
Each driver reacts differently to flashing emergency lights used by officers during traffic stops. Some drivers might
panic and stop in the left lane, skid to a stop, or swerve. Others ignore the lights.
What are major considerations that you should have when selecting the safest proper location to make a traffic stop?
level of visibility
width of road and shoulder
presence of hills and curves
Section 316.216, F.S. explains the ______ to use lights and sirens to get the violator's attention during a traffic stop.
When selecting a safe location for a traffic stop, officers should
try to pull off onto a level spot or a slight downgrade.
When selecting a safe location to conduct a traffic stop, you should check the width of the road and the shoulder to ensure that both you and the violator are far enough off the road so that __________.
other vehicles can pass
Where should officers should not make a traffic stop?
where road conditions could cause other vehicles to hit the patrol vehicle
on a curve
close to an exit ramp
on a ramp
When conducting a traffic stop, officer-driver interaction begins when the officer
signals the driver to stop.
Begin communicating a traffic stop to the violator, pulling directly behind the violator's vehicle. Once in a safe location to make the stop, turn __________ the emergency equipment.
Emergency __________ include(s) emergency lights, siren, headlights, PA system, and horn.
The patrol vehicle's high beam, spotlight, and takedown lights conceal an officer from the violator's view (during a traffic stop) and are important for officer _______.
safety and survival
When conducting a traffic stop, activate the patrol vehicle's __________, unless they interfere with oncoming traffic or restrict your vision by reflecting off the violator's rear bumper or another object.
When backup is used during a traffic stop, the backup officer should approach along the __________ officer's patrol vehicle.
passenger side of the primary
If needed for a traffic stop, you can use the PA system to verbally direct the violator to move his or her vehicle further to the __________ to improve your safety and minimize the stop's obstruction of traffic.
With a more dramatic turn of the nose of the patrol vehicle in either direction, angling __________ to incorporate the offset position (when parking for a traffic stop).
does not have
If the violator stops on the right side of the road (when pulling over for a traffic stop), assume the __________ position in which you align the center of the patrol vehicle's hood with the left taillight of the violator's vehicle.
If a traffic stop escalates, having the patrol car in a(n) __________ position may provide cover from potential skipping rounds shot from the violator's vehicle.
Because of roadway conditions, traffic, and other environmental factors,
each traffic stop is unique.
Depending on the location of the traffic stop and its environmental conditions,
the backup patrol vehicle may be offset to the left or the right of the primary patrol vehicle.
Sometimes due to environmental conditions, roadway obstacles, or agency policy and procedure, the officer may decide to make a traffic stop on the _____ side of the roadway.
When assisting in a traffic stop, backup officers
must limit their use of emergency lighting that may blind or silhouette the primary officer.
After stopping the violator in a safe location (during a traffic stop), park the patrol vehicle a safe distance __________ the violator's vehicle.
Upon exiting the patrol vehicle (during a traffic stop),
make sure your equipment belt is free of the seat belt and that the seat belt does not hinder your exit of the vehicle.
As a general rule, the patrol vehicle should be positioned __________ car lengths behind the violator's vehicle (when conducting a traffic stop).
one and a half to two
If a traffic stop occurs on the __________ side of the road, the officer will align the center of the patrol vehicle's hood with the right taillight of the violator's vehicle. The wheels should be turned __________ the road.
If you sense any danger while assessing the violator's vehicle and all occupants (during a traffic stop),
In less than optimum conditions (construction, sinkhole, city streets as opposed to major highways),
it may be necessary to make a traffic stop in a roadway.
If an officer has requested backup (during a traffic stop), the backup officers' vehicles should be parked a safe distance ______ the primary patrol vehicle.
During a traffic stop, the overhead emergency lights should be left activated to
warn oncoming traffic.
During a traffic stop, what practices are involved with continued officer safety when positioning the patrol vehicle?
ensuring you are a safe distance from the roadway
adhering to agency policy and procedure
offsetting and/or angling the patrol vehicle in relation to the violator's vehicle
maintaining a safe reactionary distance between the violator's vehicle and the patrol vehicle
During a traffic stop, the violator's vehicle and all occupants should be __________ observed when exiting the patrol vehicle.
To make a traffic stop __________, move the patrol vehicle as far to the outside of the driving lane as possible without offsetting its angle position.
in the roadway
Select ALL of the TRUE statements that apply to directing a driver on where to stop during an unknown risk traffic stop.
If uncomfortable with the initial stopping place, use the PA system to direct the violator to a safer location.
A safe distance is staying far enough behind the violator to be able to react to the situation at hand.
Follow the violator's vehicle at a safe distance.
As the driver changes lanes, follow smoothly.
Use safety precautions, such as avoiding traffic lanes, watching for pedestrians, and protecting the violator.
The officer might say, "Driver, drive into the parking lot ahead" or "Driver, pull your vehicle farther to the right."
The officer should be firm but respectful.
When approaching the violator's vehicle (during a traffic stop), if a situation seems dangerous,
request backup and wait for its arrival before taking any further action.
If a trunk lid is unlatched, you
should push it down when he or she approaches a violator's vehicle.
A popped trunk lid on a vehicle indicates that
someone hammered out the keyhole, allowing entry into the trunk without a key.
Select all of the true statements that apply to making a safe approach to the violator's vehicle on the driver's side (during an unknown risk traffic stop).
Touching the rear of the
violator's vehicle ensures that the trunk lid/hatch is closed and
transfers the officer's fingerprints to the vehicle as evidence of
At night, only hold a flashlight in your support hand.
If, when approaching on the violator's side, you see a passenger in the backseat, stop at the back of the rear window and instruct the driver to open the window.
Stay close to the vehicle, stopping at the back edge of the driver's door.
Take advantage of light and shadows at night.
If, when approaching on the violator's side, no one occupies the backseat, remain behind the front passenger's doorpost for cover to take advantage of body armor.
Standing behind the driver's doorpost gives an officer a position of advantage while maintaining a safe distance when talking with the driver.
Remain behind the vehicle's doorpost for cover.
Approach the vehicle cautiously and remain vigilant for dangerous traffic situations.
When observing a violator's vehicle, you might see a
hole in the trunk where the lock should be, which is a common sign of a stolen vehicle.
Before exiting the patrol vehicle (during a traffic stop), the officer should
assess the violator's vehicle for signs of danger.
__________ exiting the patrol vehicle (at a traffic stop), check for oncoming traffic in the rear and side-view mirrors.
If any occupant attempts to exit the violator's vehicle (during a traffic stop), the officer's discretion and agency policy will
determine whether the officer should immediately order the subjects back into the vehicle
What are indications that a license plate may not belong to a vehicle?
age of attachment relative to the plate (e.g., Are there shiny, new bolts on a dirty plate?)
paint or dark film on the license plate
the presence of dead insects on the tag, suggesting it was the front plate of another vehicle
expired expiration sticker or sticker that looks like it was removed from another plate
the way the plate is attached (bolts, wire) may suggest the license plate was removed from another vehicle
If a violator's vehicle appears to be heavily weighed down in the rear, the vehicle could be carrying
stolen merchandise, drugs, tools, a person, or a corpse.
During a traffic stop, one clue of possible danger is if the occupants are
nervously watching the officer.
What driver activities should be considered suspicious by an officer viewing the violator's vehicle (before approaching his or her vehicle in a traffic stop)?
rigid, wooden posture
moving towards the floorboard or backseat
excessive motion that seems beyond natural curiosity
When approaching the violator's vehicle, touch the
trunk lid during every traffic stop, even if the lid appears closed.
If you decide to approach the violator's vehicle on the __________ side (during a traffic stop), begin by walking behind the patrol vehicle to avoid crossing in front of the headlights and betraying your location
In all approach situations, an officer should
exit the patrol vehicle and make use of available cover.
During a traffic stop, check the
trunk lock and trunk lid alignment to determine if someone is possibly in the trunk.
When approaching the violator's vehicle (during a traffic stop), do not fix your full attention on
any one part of the scene, but rather scan the vehicle and its occupants for suspicious movements.
After exiting the patrol vehicle (at a traffic stop), the officer should
close the door quietly and keep the portable radio just loud enough to hear the radio traffic.
When approaching the violator's vehicle (at a traffic stop), examine the __________ of the vehicle while looking through the __________ window into the rear seat, if possible, noting the number of passengers, position of the rear seat, and the presence of any contraband or potential weapons.
After exiting the patrol vehicle (at a traffic stop), securely __________ the vehicle door so it will not blow open and possibly be struck by a passing vehicle
When conducting a traffic stop, a silent exit from the patrol vehicle gives the
officer time to approach the violator's vehicle and assess the situation before the driver reacts.