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  1. Stopping Problems:
  2. Varying Speed
  3. Slow Speed
  4. the impaired driver tends to concentrate on only the
    most important or critical parts of driving and disregard the
  5. The examinations that an officer
    can conduct to assess possible medical impairment include noticing the following
  6. Tracking ability
  7. Slow Response to Traffic Signals:
  8. Weaving Across Lane Lines
  9. Weaving:
  10. Sight-Some specific DUI clues detectable by sight include
  11. Straddling a Lane Line:
  12. The second task is to observe the stopping sequence. The following questions may be helpful:
  13. Smel:l There are things you might smell during the interview that would be describable clues or evidence of alcohol and other drug influence. Typically these include the following examples:
  14. Certain medical conditions may mimic drug- or alcohol-induced impairment:
  15. The signal to stop creates a new situation with which the driver must
  16. A diabetic driver's behavior may be impacted, for instance, when
  17. Once a vehicle is stopped, an officer should NOT ask a suspected impaired driver to
  18. 0.10
  19. Unusual questions require the driver to process information; this can be especially difficult when the driver does not expect to have to process information. For example, a driver may respond to the question about the middle name by giving
  20. Phase One: Vehicle in motion
    Question:
  21. Officers must be able to recognize evidence of impairment and describe that evidence clearly and
  22. observation and interview of the driver—begins as soon as
  23. 0.08
  24. A driver's eyes can be examined for medical impairment. If his or her pupils are noticeably unequal in size, if the eyes are jerking as the subject looks straight ahead (resting nystagmus), or if the eyes do not track together, there is a chance that
  25. Divided attention impairment can
    be observed during the following
  26. Failure to Signal or Signal Inconsistent with Action:
  27. The observed vehicle almost strikes a stationary
    object or another moving vehicle.
  28. Accelerating or Decelerating Rapidly
  29. The questions you ask and the way in which you ask them can constitute simple divided attention tasks.Three (3) techniques are particularly pertinent:
  30. An example of the first technique, asking for two things in one request, is requesting that the driver produce
    both the
  31. Following Too Closely:
  32. 0.03
  33. Slow or Failure to Respond to Officer's Signal
  34. DUI Detection Phase One begins when an officer
  35. Stopping in Lane for No Apparent Reason:
  36. Hearing
    You might hear these things during the interview, which would be describable clues or evidence of alcohol and
    other drug influence:
  37. Stopping Inappropriately in Response to an Officer
  38. PRE-EXIT INTERVIEWS These techniques are not as reliable as the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests,
  39. At this point, there are three choices: (face-to-face)
  40. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration sponsored research to identify the
    most common and reliable initial indicators of DUI. This research identified ____ cues,
    each with a high probability that the driver exhibiting the cue is impaired
  41. The common effects of alcohol on the driver's mental and physical faculties lead to
    predictable driving violations and vehicle operating characteristics. These include:
  42. Face-to-face observation and interview of the driver allow you to use
  43. The second technique, asking interrupting or distracting questions, forces the driver to divide attention between searching for the license or registration and
  44. . After you give the command to stop, the impaired driver may exhibit additional important evidence of DUI. These observations may include the following:
  45. Use the third technique, asking unusual questions, after you have obtained the driver's license and registration.
    With this technique, you seek verifying information through
  46. in phase two the major decision is to
  47. The first task in Phase Two is a
  48. Inappropriate or Unusual Behavior:
  49. Drifting
  50. An impaired driver may
    have difficulty in
  51. Driving in Opposing Lanes or Wrong Way on a One-way Street:
  52. Improper or Unsafe Lane Change:
  53. " Possible evidence of impairment may be disclosed by the interrupting or distracting question. Be alert for the driver who:
  54. Appearing to Be Impaired:
  55. Driving on Other than a Designated Roadway:
  56. Your attention may be drawn to the vehicle by things such as it committing a traffic violation,
  57. While under the influence of alcohol and other drugs, a driver's ability to divide attention is
  58. 5. Post-Stop Cues
    An officer may observe any of the following behaviors in the driver after he or she stops the vehicle:
  59. 0.05
  60. Swerving
  61. Turning with Wide Radius:
  62. DUI Detection Phase ______ comprises two major evidence gathering tasks and one major decision
  63. The first task in Phase One is to observe the vehicle in
  64. Driving Without Headlights
  65. (phase 2) The second task is to observe the driver's exit and walk from the vehicle. Ask
    yourself the following questions:
  66. divided attention task (driver still behind wheel)
  67. 6. Visual Detection of DUI Motorcyclists
    NHTSA has also developed research identifying driving impairment cues for motorcyclists.
  68. Possible evidence of impairment may come to light as the driver responds to this dual request. Be alert for the driver who:
  69. The cues were developed from a list of more than _____ driving cues that have been found to predict alcohol concentrations of 0.08 or greater
  1. a • When I approach the vehicle, what do I see?
    • When I talk with the driver, what do I hear, see, and smell?
    • How does the driver respond to my questions?
    • Should I instruct the driver to exit the vehicle?
    • How does the driver exit?
    • When the driver walks toward the side of the road, what do I see?
  2. b asking for two things in one request
    • asking interrupting or distracting questions
    • asking unusual questions
  3. c occurs when the vehicle alternately moves toward one side of the roadway and then the other, creating a zigzag course. The pattern of lateral
    movement is relatively regular as one steering correction is closely followed
    by another.
  4. d • What is the vehicle doing?
    • Do I have grounds to stop the vehicle?
    • How does the driver respond to my signal to stop?
    • How does the driver handle the vehicle during the stopping sequence?
  5. e The observed vehicle is being driven without headlights during a period of
    the day when headlights are required.
  6. f : have the driver
    exit, continue to interview the driver while observing for additional evidence, or conclude the interview if you
    don't observe any impairment.
  7. g • slowed reactions
    • impaired judgment as evidenced by a willingness to take risks
    • impaired vision
    • poor coordination (See Figure 11-2, below)
  8. h • ignores the question and concentrates only on the license or registration search
    • stops searching to answer question, then forgets to resume the search after answering the question
    • supplies a grossly incorrect answer to the question
  9. i Stopping problems may include stopping abruptly or too far
    from a curb, at an inappropriate angle, too short or beyond the intersection limit
    line, or with a jerking motion.
  10. j Almost Striking Object or Vehicle:
  11. k is the ability of the eyes to track together when the subject attempts to follow a stimulus
    moving side-to-side. The driver may have a medical condition or injury if the two eyes do not track together;
    for example, if one eye has full range of motion, but the other moves only slightly or not at all.
  12. l • alcoholic beverages
    • marijuana
    • cover up odors like breath sprays
    • cigarette or cigar
  13. m Slowed reaction
  14. n Extreme cases of weaving occur when the vehicle's wheels cross the lane lines before correction is made.
  15. o decide whether or not to ask the suspect to step out of the vehicle
  16. p The driver maneuvers onto an area other than the designated roadway. Examples include driving at the edge of the roadway, on the shoulder, off the roadway entirely, or straight through turn-only lanes or areas.
  17. q During a turn, the radius defined by the distance
    between the turning vehicle and the center of the turn is greater than normal. The
    vehicle may drive wide in a curve.
  18. r The vehicle is heading into opposing or
    crossing traffic by driving in the opposing lane, backing into traffic, failing to yield the right-of-way, or
    driving the wrong way on a one-way street.
  19. s slurred speech
    • admission of drinking
    • inconsistent responses
    • abusive language
    • unusual statements
  20. t unusual questions.
  21. u three Phases of DUI Detection.
  22. v The driver takes risks or endangers others by frequently or abruptly
    changing lanes without regard to other motorists.
  23. w an equipment violation, having an expired registration, or making unusual driving actions such as weaving within a lane or moving at slower than normal speed.
  24. x operation.
  25. y Drifting is a straight-line movement of the vehicle at a slight angle to the
    roadway. As the driver approaches a marker or boundary (lane marker, center line,
    edge of the roadway), the direction of drift might change. Drifting can occur within
    a single lane, across lanes, across the center line, or onto the shoulder
  26. z Excellent Cues (50% or greater probability that the driver is impaired)
    • drifting during turn or curve
    • trouble with dismount
    • trouble with balance at a stop
    • turning problems (e.g., unsteady, sudden corrections, late braking, improper lean angle)
    • inattentive to surroundings
    • inappropriate or unusual behavior (e.g., carrying or dropping object, urinating at roadside, disorderly
    conduct)
    • weaving
    Good Cues (30 to 50 percent probability that the driver is impaired)
    • erratic movements while going straight
    • operating without lights at night
    • recklessness
    • following too closely
    • running stop light or sign
    • evasion
    • going the wrong way
  27. aa • difficulty with motor vehicle controls
    • difficulty exiting the vehicle
    • fumbling with driver's license or paperwork
    • repeating questions or comments
    • swaying, unsteady, or having balance problems
    • leaning on the vehicle or other object
    • slurred speech
    • slow to respond to officer/officer must repeat questions
    • provides incorrect information, changes answers
    • odor of alcoholic beverage from the driver
  28. ab cope
  29. ac The observed vehicle exhibits a longer than normal response to a change
    in traffic signal.
  30. ad Poor
    Coordination
  31. ae The driver or occupants display inappropriate or unusual behavior such
    as throwing objects from the vehicle, drinking in the vehicle, or urinating on the roadside.
  32. af This cue encompasses any acceleration or
    deceleration that is significantly more rapid than that required by the traffic
    conditions. Rapid acceleration might be accompanied by breaking traction; rapid
    deceleration might be accompanied by an abrupt stop.
  33. ag observes the vehicle in motion.
  34. ah The vehicle is moving straight ahead with the center or
    lane marker between the left-hand and right-hand wheels.
  35. ai Impaired Vision
  36. aj The vehicle stops in an inappropriate location, such as
    a prohibited zone, crosswalk, intersection, or sidewalk, or under inappropriate conditions such as a green
    or flashing yellow traffic signal.
  37. ak Increased Risk Taking
  38. al A driver may alternate between speeding up and slowing down.
  39. am such as epilepsy, diabetes, injury to the head, or cognitive problems (dementia or Alzheimer's).
  40. an The critical element in this cue is that there is no observable justification for the vehicle to stop in the traffic lane.
  41. ao A swerve is an abrupt turn away from a generally straight course. Swerving might occur after a period of drifting when the driver discovers the
    approach of traffic in an oncoming lane or discovers that the vehicle is going off the road. It may also occur as the driver executes an abrupt turn to return the
    vehicle to the traffic lane.
  42. ap pupil size
    • resting nystagmus
    • tracking ability
  43. aq • an attempt to flee • no response
    • a slow response • an abrupt swerve
    • a sudden stop • striking the curb or another object
  44. ar less important parts, often creating unexpected or dangerous situations for other drivers.
  45. as steering, controlling the accelerator, signaling, and making decisions
    (whether to stop, turn, speed up, slow down, etc.).
  46. at a medical disorder or injury is causing the nystagmus.
  47. au but they can still be useful for obtaining evidence of impairment to establish probable cause.These techniques and the following Pre-Exit Tests do not replace the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests
  48. av bloodshot eyes
    • soiled clothing
    • fumbling fingers
    • alcohol containers
    • drugs or drug paraphernalia
    • bruises, bumps, or scratches
    • unusual action
  49. aw This cue occurs when you observe inconsistencies such
    as failing to signal a turn or a lane change, signaling opposite to the turn or lane change executed, signaling
    constantly with no accompanying driving action, and driving with four-way hazard flashers on.
  50. ax impaired
  51. ay answering a new question.
  52. az both the subject
    vehicle and the patrol vehicle have come to complete stops.
  53. ba Two(2)
  54. bb face-to-face observation and interview of the driver
    to determine if the driver may be impaired
  55. bc sugar levels are too high. At this time, his or
    her breath could emit an odor similar to that of an alcoholic beverage or the driver could demonstrate a
    comprehension or awareness problem
  56. bd convincingly
  57. be The driver is unusually slow to respond to an officer's lights, siren, or hand signals.
  58. bf driver's license and the vehicle registration.
  59. bg move to a safer location
  60. bh require
    the driver to concentrate on two or more things at the same time. They include both questioning techniques
    and psychophysical tasks
  61. bi a first name
  62. bj three senses to gather evidence of alcohol
    and other drug influence: sight, hearing, and smell.
  63. bk The observed vehicle is traveling at a speed that is 10 mph or more below the speed limit.
  64. bl • forgets to produce both documents
    • produces documents other than the ones requested
    • fails to see the license, registration, or both while searching through wallet or purse
    • fumbles or drops wallet, purse, license, or registration
    • is unable to retrieve documents using fingertips
  65. bm 100
  66. bn should I stop the vehicle
  67. bo The vehicle is following another vehicle while not maintaining the legal minimum
    separation
  68. bp This cue is actually one or more indicators related to the personal behavior or
    appearance of the driver. Examples of specific indicators might include eye fixation, tightly gripping the
    steering wheel, slouching in the seat, gesturing erratically or obscenely, holding face close to the
    windshield, or protruding head from the vehicle.
  69. bq 24