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99 True/False questions

  1. Mark Loading PointThe purpose of the ___ is to prevent injury or damage to motorists and protect the crash scene.

          

  2. Encroachment___ occurs when two objects begin to enter the same space at the same time. This is where the first injury or damage may occur. Damage will occur when
    contact is made between vehicles or objects entering the same space. Evasive action may also occur here if no contact is made between vehicles or objects.

          

  3. Evasive Action___ is the length of time between the point of possible perception and the start of the evasive action.

          

  4. Fatal Injury___ is defined as an injury resulting in an individual's death within a 12-month period after the traffic crash.

          

  5. Step 1: Respond to the traffic crash scene safely.
    Step 2: Assess the scene of the crash.
    Step 3: Secure a safe work environment at the crash scene.
    Step 4: Provide emergency medical assistance to injured people, if necessary.
    Step 5: Obtain pertinent information.
    Step 6: Investigate the crash to determine how and why it occurred.
    Step 7: Return the scene to normal as quickly as possible, if appropriate.
    Step 8: Complete driver exchange of information.
    Step 9: Take enforcement action.
    Step 10: Document the crash.
    The traffic crash management process involves the following ten steps:

          

  6. RecordedA ___ is a broad area of a hard surface covered with many scratches, striations, or streak marks made without great pressure by a sliding metal part.

          

  7. ScrapeBe aware of the possible dangers and hazards that you may encounter at the crash site, ___ being one of them.

          

  8. AttentionMany secondary crashes happen because of lack of ___.

          

  9. Point of PerceptionThe ____ is when the driver becomes aware of a danger or hazard.

          

  10. State Road___ is defined as any highway designated as a state-maintained road by the Department of Transportation.

          

  11. Environmental Conditions___ may affect the placement and number of traffic warning devices.

          

  12. Skid MarkA ___ is the black mark left by a tire sliding while not free to rotate.

          

  13. Motor Vehicle(s. 316.003(21), F.S.) defined ___ as a self-propelled vehicle not operated upon rails or guideway, but not including any bicycle, motorized scooter, electric personal assistive mobility device, swamp buggy, or moped.

          

  14. Squeegee MarkThe term ___ refer to the marks created by vehicle's tires at a crash scene.

          

  15. Bicycle Path___ any road, path, or way that is open to bicycle travel, which road, path, or way is physically separated from motorized vehicular traffic by an open space or by a barrier and is located either within the highway right-of-way or within an independent right-of-way.

          

  16. Investigate the crash to determine how and why it occurred.What is step 6 of the traffic crash management process.

          

  17. Point of no escapeAs stated earlier, the ___ is the first available equipment that you can use to protect the crash scene.

          

  18. Vehicle Dynamics___ in relation to a crash: the officer can consider the movement of vehicles during and after collision when determining the path of travel and assisting in locating the area of collision. Basic physics teaches that an object in motion continues to remain in motion until acted upon by an external force. In a crash
    investigation, external force is normally another moving vehicle or a stationary object such as a tree or building.

          

  19. Skip Skid Marks___ are a series of skid marks usually short in length with irregular intervals between them. This pattern appears when a vehicle has a sudden load shift while braking hard. The weight shift causes a bouncing, which results in the skip skid mark. This is more typical of trailer vehicles. A car skidding on a bumpy road also makes this mark.

          

  20. Area of Collision (AOC)Often, a second impact known as ___ occurs in chain reaction collisions or when one vehicle glances off another into the path of a third vehicle, property, or person(s).

          

  21. Limited Access Facility___ is defined as a street or highway especially designed for through traffic and over, from, or to which owners or occupants of abutting land or other persons have no right or easement, or only a limited right or easement, of access, light, air, or view by reason of the fact that their property abuts upon such limited access facility or for any other reason; such highways or streets may be parkways from which trucks, buses, and other commercial vehicles are excluded; or they may be freeways open to use by all customary forms of street and highway traffic.

          

  22. Area of Collision (AOC)The ___ (disengagement) is the point when the vehicles separate, either naturally or artificially.

          

  23. Traffic Crash Management___ is defined as law enforcement's responsibility to control and normalize a traffic crash scene.

          

  24. Pre-existing Damage_____ is define as any damage to a vehicle resulting from the direct pressure of any object in a collision or rollover. It usually appears as scrape marks or striations on the body of the vehicle, material rub-off, such as paint from the other vehicle (called paint transfer), rubber, or tree bark, or as a puncture to or imprint on a bumper, guard rail, or other fixed object.

          

  25. Complete driver exchange of information.What is step 8 of the traffic crash management process.

          

  26. DriverA ___ is any person who drives or is in actual physical control of a vehicle on a highway or who is exercising control of a vehicle or steering a vehicle being towed by a motor vehicle.

          

  27. 30Based on s. 320.0605, F.S., an operator of a vehicle must possess and present, upon demand of a law enforcement officer, a certificate of registration (or an alternative stated in the statute) for the vehicle he or she operates, except during the first ___ days after purchase of a vehicle.

          

  28. Serious Bodily Injury___ is defined as an injury resulting in an individual's death within a 12-month period after the traffic crash.

          

  29. Document the crash.___ are skid marks indicating an abrupt change in the direction of a tire due to collision forces. The only item of evidence that pinpoints the exact AOC on the roadway is offset skid marks. It is the direct result
    of the movement of the vehicle by the force of collision and occurs at the moment of collision.

          

  30. Type; ExtentUpon approaching the crash scene, view it from a distance to determine its ___ and ___.

          

  31. Contact Damage_____ is define as any damage to a vehicle resulting from the direct pressure of any object in a collision or rollover. It usually appears as scrape marks or striations on the body of the vehicle, material rub-off, such as paint from the other vehicle (called paint transfer), rubber, or tree bark, or as a puncture to or imprint on a bumper, guard rail, or other fixed object.

          

  32. Intersection___ is defined as any person afoot.

          

  33. Patrol VehicleSection 320.01(1), F.S., defines ___ as a recreational vehicle-type unit primarily designed as temporary living quarters for recreational, camping, or travel use, which either has its own motive power or is mounted on or drawn by another vehicle. Recreational vehicle-type units, when traveling on the public roadways of this state, must comply with the length and width provisions of s. 316.515, F.S., as that section may hereafter be amended.

          

  34. Rounded; SharpGlass on the roadway for some time has a tendency to become ___ on the edges. New glass, on the other hand, has ___, well-defined edges.

          

  35. Crosswalk___ is defined as that portion of a street between the curb line, or the lateral line, of a roadway and the adjacent property lines, intended for use by pedestrians.

          

  36. Pedestrian___ is defined as any person afoot.

          

  37. Area of Collision (AOC)The ___ is the location of the first harmful event, or the first damage-producing event in a traffic crash. It shows the officer where the collision occurred.

          

  38. Traffic CrashA ___ is a collision, involving one or more vehicles, that causes property damage, personal injury, or death and is the result of an unintentional act.

          

  39. Acceleration Scuff Marks___ result from rapid acceleration and a sudden stop, causing the tires to produce gradually fading dark tire marks.

          

  40. Assess the scene of the crash.What is step 10 of the traffic crash management process.

          

  41. FrontBe aware of the possible dangers and hazards that you may encounter at the crash site, ___ being one of them.

          

  42. Roadblock___ is defined as that portion of a highway improved, designed, or ordinarily used for vehicular travel, exclusive of the berm or shoulder; in the event a highway includes two or more separate roadways, the term as used here refers to any such roadway separately, but not to all such roadways collectively.

          

  43. GougeThe registration is considered current if it reflects the information for the vehicle being driven by the driver and if the effective date includes the period in which the crash occurred. Example: In Florida, a certificate of registration is issued with each renewal of the registration license tag and reflects the period of ___ year from the birth date of the owner or from January 1 for vehicles registered under s. 320.08, F.S.

          

  44. Laned Highway___ is defined as that portion of a highway improved, designed, or ordinarily used for vehicular travel, exclusive of the berm or shoulder; in the event a highway includes two or more separate roadways, the term as used here refers to any such roadway separately, but not to all such roadways collectively.

          

  45. RunoffsWhile not pinpointing the exact location of the AOC, ___ do give the general location.

          

  46. FireBe aware of the possible dangers and hazards that you may encounter at the crash site, ___ being one of them.

          

  47. Runoffs___ do not only serve as effective warning devices at night; they are also visible warning devices to motorists during the day.

          

  48. Non-incapacitating Injury___ is defined as visible or non-visible signs of injury or complaint of injury, not requiring transport from the scene.

          

  49. ScrapeBased on s. 320.0605, F.S., an operator of a vehicle must possess and present, upon demand of a law enforcement officer, a certificate of registration (or an alternative stated in the statute) for the vehicle he or she operates, except during the first ___ days after purchase of a vehicle.

          

  50. Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) scuff marks___ are skid marks indicating an abrupt change in the direction of a tire due to collision forces. The only item of evidence that pinpoints the exact AOC on the roadway is offset skid marks. It is the direct result
    of the movement of the vehicle by the force of collision and occurs at the moment of collision.

          

  51. Department of Transportation's Emergency Response Guide (ERG)Before approaching the scene, determine if the vehicle's contents are hazardous. Locate the placard on the vehicle and refer to the ___ to verify the contents.

          

  52. Take enforcement action.What is step 9 of the traffic crash management process.

          

  53. Final Rest___ is the point when all activities from the crash come to a halt.

          

  54. Flares; Fuses___ or ___ are very important warning devices at a crash scene.

          

  55. SidewalkA ___ is the black mark left by a tire sliding while not free to rotate.

          

  56. Post-Collision PhaseThe ___ begins with the time of initial impact or contact.

          

  57. Obtain pertinent information.What is step 5 of the traffic crash management process.

          

  58. Respond to the traffic crash scene safely.A ___ is a collision, involving one or more vehicles, that causes property damage, personal injury, or death and is the result of an unintentional act.

          

  59. Induced DamageA ___ is a strip of dry pavement remaining after a vehicle skids on a wet roadway. The locked tire
    acts similarly to a window squeegee by removing water from the skid path. Due to the way these marks are
    made, they disappear quickly and are temporary evidence.

          

  60. Motor VehicleAn example is when a bolt on the underside of a vehicle cuts into the pavement, leaving a ___ or gouge in the road surface at the area of collision.

          

  61. First Harmful EventThe crash should be investigated by the jurisdiction where the ___ (first damage or injury producing event) occurred.

          

  62. Debris___ do not only serve as effective warning devices at night; they are also visible warning devices to motorists during the day.

          

  63. Scuff or Yaw MarkA ___ occurs when a vehicle loses tire traction as a result of entering a curve too fast or over steering. The tires in this case continue rotating but slide sideways at the same time. Marks are left from the tires slipping across the roadway once the adhesion limit of the tires is exceeded. The tires produce a screeching sound and leave rubber marks on the roadway. The scuff or yaw marks may be evidence of when the driver began to lose control of the vehicle. They will always be curved and will show a sideways striping or striation from the side motion of the tires.

          

  64. Private Road or Driveway______: except as otherwise provided in paragraph (53)(b), any privately owned way or place used for vehicular travel by the owner and those having express or implied permission from the owner, but not by other persons.

          

  65. RoadwayThe purpose of the ___ is to prevent injury or damage to motorists and protect the crash scene.

          

  66. Return the scene to normal as quickly as possible, if appropriate.What is step 7 of the traffic crash management process.

          

  67. Autonomous Vehicle___ is defined as any vehicle equipped with autonomous technology.

          

  68. Incipient Skid; Impending Skid___ are a series of skid marks with long gaps (more than 15 feet) between heavy skid marks. This pattern is caused by rapidly applying and releasing the brakes.

          

  69. Offset Marks___ are skid marks indicating an abrupt change in the direction of a tire due to collision forces. The only item of evidence that pinpoints the exact AOC on the roadway is offset skid marks. It is the direct result
    of the movement of the vehicle by the force of collision and occurs at the moment of collision.

          

  70. "Unintentional"; "Causes property damage, personal injury or death"What is step 7 of the traffic crash management process.

          

  71. Contact; Induced; Pre-existingVehicle damage falls into three types: ___, ___, and ___.

          

  72. 24However, the law enforcement agency may void the citation if the driver, within ___ hours of the crash, provides the proof of insurance which was valid at the time of the crash.

          

  73. Incapacitating Injury___ is defined as visible or non-visible signs of injury, such as a bleeding wound or distorted member, usually requiring transportation to a medical facility and hospitalization.

          

  74. 1Front tire skid marks tend to be darker than rear tire marks (officers should remember that when braking, weight shifts toward the ___ of the vehicle) and the outside edges of the mark may be darker than the inside area, due to over deflection of the tire (weight shift, again).

          

  75. Surface MarksA ___ is a strip of dry pavement remaining after a vehicle skids on a wet roadway. The locked tire
    acts similarly to a window squeegee by removing water from the skid path. Due to the way these marks are
    made, they disappear quickly and are temporary evidence.

          

  76. Street or Highway___ is defined as a highway the roadway of which is divided into two or more clearly marked lanes for vehicular traffic.

          

  77. LowHowever, the law enforcement agency may void the citation if the driver, within ___ hours of the crash, provides the proof of insurance which was valid at the time of the crash.

          

  78. Secondary ContactOften, a second impact known as ___ occurs in chain reaction collisions or when one vehicle glances off another into the path of a third vehicle, property, or person(s).

          

  79. Primary Factor; Primary Collision FactorThe ___, or ___, is what the first injury element or driving action was. It describes the main or primary cause of the crash.

          

  80. Debris___ is loose material strewn about the road as the result of a traffic collision and can be composed of dirt, liquids, vehicle parts, and other materials from the involved vehicles. Checking the scene for debris on the roadway may help to indicate the AOC. Finding where the debris started may help to locate the area of initial collision.

          

  81. Flares___ do not only serve as effective warning devices at night; they are also visible warning devices to motorists during the day.

          

  82. Asymmetrical BrakingTraffic crashes attract motorists' attention and cause gawking or ___, which slows the traffic flow.

          

  83. Secure a safe work environment at the crash scene.What is step 3 of the traffic crash management process.

          

  84. Public Works DepartmentA ___ is a mark left by a tire rolling over a soft material such as sand, dirt, or a liquid on a hard surface, such as oil, and which leaves an identifiable pattern matching the tread of the tire.

          

  85. Provide emergency medical assistance to injured people, if necessary.The ___, or ___, is what the first injury element or driving action was. It describes the main or primary cause of the crash.

          

  86. TrenchAn example is when a bolt on the underside of a vehicle cuts into the pavement, leaving a ___ or gouge in the road surface at the area of collision.

          

  87. Furrow MarkA ___ is a type of trench dug by locked tires moving across a soft surface such as gravel, sand, grass, or dirt. The furrow is shallow at the beginning of the skid and deepens with a piling of the surface material in
    front of the tire at the place where the vehicle finally rests.

          

  88. HazardousBefore approaching the scene, determine if the vehicle's contents are ___.

          

  89. Pre-collision Phase; Point of Possible PerceptionThe ___ (disengagement) is the point when the vehicles separate, either naturally or artificially.

          

  90. Intermittent Skid Marks___ are a series of skid marks with long gaps (more than 15 feet) between heavy skid marks. This pattern is caused by rapidly applying and releasing the brakes.

          

  91. Tire PrintAn example is when a bolt on the underside of a vehicle cuts into the pavement, leaving a ___ or gouge in the road surface at the area of collision.

          

  92. At-Collision PhaseThe ___ begins with the time of initial impact or contact.

          

  93. Rubbernecking___ is a liquid pool, fluid trail, or line of flow from fluids escaping from a vehicle as a result of impact. Quite often, hard impacts will make radiators, hoses, and brake lines burst. When this occurs, the liquid will run out of the vehicle onto the roadway. Often, these liquids will leave a trail from near the area of collision to final rest.

          

  94. RoadblockWhen there is no safe way to protect the scene, place a ____.

          

  95. Motor VehicleSection 320.01(1), F.S., defines ___ as a recreational vehicle-type unit primarily designed as temporary living quarters for recreational, camping, or travel use, which either has its own motive power or is mounted on or drawn by another vehicle. Recreational vehicle-type units, when traveling on the public roadways of this state, must comply with the length and width provisions of s. 316.515, F.S., as that section may hereafter be amended.

          

  96. DisengagementThe post-collision phase is also known as ___.

          

  97. Maximum Engagement___ is the point at which the vehicles or other objects are crushed together to the greatest extent.

          

  98. Autonomous Technology___ is defined as any vehicle equipped with autonomous technology.

          

  99. Reaction Time___ is the length of time between the point of possible perception and the start of the evasive action.