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  1. In the immediate aftermath of a critical incident (within a couple of hours), officers may engage in bragging or boastful comments motivated by the sympathetic nervous system. At times, officers who are in a state of high arousal later regret or do not recall the things they said during this period of anxiousness. This phenomenon is commonly referred to as "__________" which reflects a series of statements brought on by a euphoric feeling of accomplishment the officer experiences after prevailing in the critical incident.
  2. Due to physiological changes in the eye, vision may become distorted. This is called __________. Officers may see darkness around the edges of their vision (tunnel vision). Officers may also lose the ability to see close objects with detail (foresightnedness).
  3. During a critical incient, intense focus on some particular aspect of the event often leads to
  4. _________ is a controlled, non-emotional communication between an officer and a subject aimed at problem solving and communication. Used as a strategy, it is intentionally designed to gain rapport and exchange information.
  5. When experiencing extreme anxiety, you may experience physical changes within your body. What symptoms of survival stress may occur?
  6. The following are instructions for performing the __________ pressure point technique: Approach the subject safely. Use loud, repetitive verbal commands to let the subject know what you want him to do. Stabilize the subject's head and locate the pressure point in the vicinity of the hollow behind the ear. Apply pressure inward and toward the nose until compliance. Decrease the pressure when the subject complies. Do not release control, just the pressure. If the subject begins to resist again, reapply the pressure. Follow up with an appropriate technique(s).
  7. The chest area can be struck with an empty hand. The expected effect when striking this area with an empty hand will be to __________.
  8. When confronting a subject with unusual symptoms, an officer should
  9. When approaching a subject, you may use the following __________ technique: Maintain an appropriate reactionary gap. Visually scan the area for potential threats. Assume an appropriate stance. Identify yourself as an officer, if appropriate. Use clear, concise verbal commands. Tell the subject to expose both palms.
  10. __________ is the tendency of your eyes to fixate to one location. When an officer focuses on the perceived threat, this focus may cause the officer to not see other details of the event.
  11. During periods of high arousal, cognition often changes from deliberate thoughtful analysis to a short, concise, thought process known as __________. These are mental shortcuts that allow people to solve problems and make judgments quickly and efficiently. They shorten decision-making time and allow people to function without constantly stopping to think about the next decision or course of action.
  12. The center of the abdomen can be struck with an empty hand. The expected effect when striking this area will be to disable or cause __________ or temporary motor dysfunction.
  13. ________ stress is sometimes called fear-induced stress or combat stress. It is a measure of anxiety caused by an appraisal or a stimulus that leads to an extreme state of arousal.
  14. With __________ distortion, occurrences seem to be faster or slower than they actually are.
  15. Subjects' and onlookers' reactions toward you depend on their
  16. ________: It is a subject's response to a combination of pain and verbal commands to stop resisting.
  17. In Condition __________, the officer recognizes that a threat exists. He or she has awareness of a specific threat which encourages pre-planning and more intense focus. Physical indicators of stress may become evident. Examples: A patrol officer observes a vehicle backed into a parking space at a convenience store with the engine running, considers the possibility of a robbery in progress, and begins tactical planning. A correctional officer observes an inmate with possible contraband and begins formulating a plan of action.
  18. _________ presence is the way you carry yourself. Your presence can determine whether a subject's resistance escalates or de-escalates.
  19. __________ principle is the amount of time it takes for the brain to process a physical threat and the body to respond. During this process, the officer sees the threat, figures out what to do, and then takes action.
  20. With __________ distortion, objects appear to be closer or farther than they actually are.
  21. _________: An officer may gain control over a subject by applying pressure or leverage on a joint by locking it up so that no movement of the joint is possible, causing the subject to comply with verbal direction.
  22. The _________ is usually effective because you hyperextend the subject's fingers, bending them in a direction they are not meant to go. The subject's pain usually leads to compliance.
  23. __________ is when blood flow is restricted from the extremities and skin. The body pulls the blood away from the arms and legs into the torso. This keeps the blood near vital organs in case of emergency and also protects the arms and legs (our weapons) from losing blood in case of injury.
  24. In Condition __________, the officer has a general awareness of possible threats. Attention is focused, and the officer scans the environment for potential threats. Example: While on the job, an officer is in a state of relaxed awareness and notices what is going on around him or her.
  25. Throughout periods of arousal, the __________ nervous system dominates the __________ system for the purpose of self-protection. This has the effect of calling upon the body's survival resources to ensure a positive outcome. During this period certain mind-body changes may become evident.
  26. If the available timeframe for making a decision decreases, the potential for error __________.
  27. What are the instinctual reactions to survival stress?
  28. The __________ pressure point technique is usually used for thwarting an attack by balance displacement.
  29. The ability to give __________ is usually the first step in controlling the subject's actions. Establish yourself as a criminal justice officer. Give clear and concise commands. Make sure that your commands are loud enough for the subject to hear.
  30. ________: An officer may gain control over a subject by using an incapacitation technique that causes temporary impairment of muscular control.
  31. The distance you must keep between you and the subject in order to react effectively against a sudden threat is the ________ gap.
  32. Striking the side of the neck with an empty hand can cause
  33. Clothed searches of inmates can be conducted at random by officers during the course of
  34. For the __________ area block, the arm should be used in a motion to deflect a strike to the neckline up to the top of the head.
  35. What can officers do to increase their coping skills and better prepare for the effects of stress?
  36. Applying pressure to the sensitive area in the hollow behind the __________ is a good technique to use on a seated or prone subject or a subject who is holding onto a fixed object.
  37. The effects (of survival stress) in the body may lead to
  38. ________ motor skills are the movements of the large or major muscles of the body, which are used in tasks such as running, punching, or kicking.
  39. Maintain a balanced stance with head, hips, and feet aligned. Step with your lead foot. Slide your trailing foot forward. Keep your feet shoulder-width apart. These are instructions for the __________ step.
  40. Officers who are exposed to an extremely stressful situation, such as an officer-involved shooting, may experience short and long-term memory loss. This is a temporary or sometimes permanent condition known as ________ amnesia.
  41. What are some nonverbal cues that indicate the possibility of subject aggression or posturing?
  42. ________ motor skills refer to the muscle control required to make small, precise movements, such as unlocking handcuffs with a key.
  43. _________ is the exchange of information through verbal and nonverbal methods which provides valuable insight into the likelihood of cooperation and compliance of a subject.
  44. When using the hollow of the neck (pressure point) technique, apply pressure inward and downward toward the stomach for __________.
  45. A __________ technique is used when a subject is taken into custody in an unsecured environment. Unlike the pat down, this is a complete search of the subject.
  46. _________ is touching the location of a nerve or sensitive area and applying continual, uninterrupted pressure with the tip of the finger(s) or thumb until the subject complies.
  47. When a stimulus exceeds an officer's coping mechanisms, the stimulus will now be perceived as a threat and leads to
  48. An officer can choose to display a higher level of force by elevating voice commands and drawing an immediate weapon (___________). The subject may back down (__________) and follow the officer's verbal directions with no force used. However, if the subject does not submit to the officer's authority, his posturing may indicate that he is about to fight or is preparing to run (flee).
  49. __________ is the officer's evaluation and assignment of challenge or threat value to a stimulus.
  50. Threats may be fluid and constantly changing, so officers should
  51. When using the hollow of the neck (pressure point) technique, apply pressure inward and __________ toward the back of the neck for gag reflex.
  52. A custodial search of a subject should be done in a systematic and predetermined pattern using the __________ approach, which is dividing the body into four sections horizontally and vertically.
  53. Identify the target areas (for empty-hand strikes) in which the effect is to disable or cause temporary motor dysfunction.
  54. _________ is the use of proper, clear, and concise commands to let a subject know what you need or expect him or her to do.
  55. The __________ transporter transitions from the escort position when the subject tries to resist by pulling his arm away. Effective joint manipulation causes pain compliance, making the subject move in the direction you are leading.
  56. To __________ is to completely relinquesh control to another.
  57. With __________, hearing may be diminished or amplified.
  58. During an encounter, the officer might __________ by displaying a show of force without actually using force. The officer might choose to disengage from an overwhelming threat or decide to engage and take control of the subject.
  59. Cursing is emotional speech that may demonstrate that an officer is in a state of __________ arousal during or immediately following a critical incident.
  60. Select ALL of the TRUE statements that apply to conducting a pat down.
  61. The expected effect of striking the groin with an empty hand, knee, or leg is to
  62. _________ is your ability to convey to subjects and onlookers that you are able and ready to take control.
  63. During an encounter, survival stress may occur in the
  64. ________: An officer may gain control over a subject by bending or twisting a joint in a direction that will cause pain or discomfort to the joint.
  65. Strike the head with an empty hand. The expected effect is to __________.
  66. _________ is nonthreatening, noncustodial physical contact and can be used to support or emphasize a verbal command. It can be effective to enhance your communication; however, you must evaluate carefully so as not to escalate a subject's resistance.
  67. A(n) ______________ position may be your first physical contact with a subject. You apply pressure or leverage on a joint to lock it and the subject complies.
  68. The __________ pressure point technique works well to bring a seated, kneeling, or prone subject to a standing position.
  69. _________: For maximum effectiveness, most strikes are delivered utilizing penetration so that the striking object stays on or indented in the target for an instant allowing for energy transfer. When a major muscle mass is struck this way, it displaces the water content in the muscle and penetrates the nerves within, creating a shock wave. The effect on the subject will be greatly multiplied. When delivering a strike, an officer strikes a muscle so that the striking object penetrates the muscle and nerves of the target area. This is a full transfer of kinetic energy that increases the power of the strike.
  70. After every block, an officer should be prepared to
  71. Stand with your head, hips, and feet aligned. Plant your feet slightly wider than shoulder-width apart with the knees in a deep crouch. Your body is angled to the subject with the strong side away. Place your hands at your face level and towards your center. These are instuctions for __________.
  72. ________, sometimes called come-along holds, are techniques used to move a subject from one point to another with pain compliance and/or mechanical compliance.
  73. In Condition __________, the officer is unaware that a threat exists. Attention is unfocused or preoccupied, and the officer is oblivious to potential danger in his or her environment. Example: A person drives to work and does not remember the drive (automatic pilot).
  74. Heuristics are based on
  75. _______ are reactionary techniques using the arms, legs, or body to deflect or redirect an impending strike from a subject to areas of the body.
  76. An officer's assessment of a perceived threat is critical for
  77. When preparing to approach a subject, an officer must place him- or herself in the safest possible position. _________ describes an officer's position in relation to the subject.
  78. Sleep plays a vital role in an officer's recovery from a
  79. In Condition __________, a specific threat is identified and appropriate actions are taken. The threat is assessed and managed through intensified cognitive and physical reactions. Survival stress functions become optimum. Examples: The patrol officer
  80. The __________ nervous system is the part of the autonomic nervous system that is concerned especially with preparing the body to react to situations of stress or emergency. This system activates what is often called the fight or flight response.
  81. On all pressure point techniques, applying pressure longer than ___________seconds without a response may result in an adrenaline sure. This may cause the subject to exhibit symptoms similar to survival responses, inability to feel pain, extraordinary strength, or auditory exclusion.
  82. The following instructions are for the __________ technique: Use loud, clear verbal commands throughout the application of the technique. Assume the offensive ready stance. Sidestep the direct line of attack to either the strong or supporting side. As the subject passes, redirect the subject by pushing the subject away and off balance. Striking the upper back or side of the subject's shoulder will cause the subject to spin off balance. Maintain an offensive ready stance. Follow up with an appropriate technique(s).
  83. __________ is using the hands to move the subject away.
  84. A subject in a state of excited delirium could die suddenly and without explanation, a death sometimes referred to as ________. Unfortunately, the death may be wrongly attributed to the actions of an officer or his or her use of certain levels of force.
  85. During an encounter, some subjects may
  86. __________ is when blood flows into the larger muscle groups providing oxygen to power flight and aid in escape.
  87. A constriction of the vocal cords leads to a __________ pitch in the voice and sometimes cracking or garbled sounds result. This can affect the clarity of an officer's radio communications.
  88. The following are instructions for performing the __________ pressure point technique: Approach the subject safely. Use loud, repetitive verbal commands to let the subject know what you want him to do. Stabilize the subject. Locate the pressure point under the base of the nose. Apply pressure upward toward the center of the brain until compliance. Decrease the pressure when the subject complies. Do not release control, just the pressure. If the subject begins to resist again, reapply the pressure. Follow up with an appropriate technique(s).
  89. ________ is a controlling technique used to break the subject's balance through the use of leverage principles.
  90. Before a strip/unclothed search can be conducted, the inmate must be
  91. Immediately after an extremely stressful incident, critical incident amnesia will often result in the
  92. A __________ memory is a brief mental visualization of a past experience, a mental "snap-shot".
  93. The area within the reactionary gap is the _________ zone. Anytime an officer is in this zone, the potential for physical harm increases.
  94. The __________ pressure point technique should be used when you want a standing subject to sit, lie down, or move to another location. You can employ this technique from either the front or the side of the subject.
  95. In Condition __________, the threat is mismanaged, due to a panicked stress response. Survival stress functions break down. Submission or freezing may occur. Examples: The patrol officer or correctional officer panics and may not respond effectively.
  96. On scene comments and post-incident interviews may result in
  97. What is generally the reactionary gap if you cannot see the subject's hands?
  98. _______ is immobilizing the subject's head so the subject cannot move or escape.
  99. What are some verbal cues that indicate the possibility of subject aggression or posturing?
  100. ________ simply means the direction that the subject comes from.
  101. What are some movements and gestures that are clues to escalating aggression?
  102. For the __________ area block, the arm should be used in a motion to deflect a strike to the center chest/stomach area and the face.
  103. Officers tend to continuously speak while in an anxious state,
  104. During an encounter, subjects might become verbally and physically threatening, indicating they may resist by __________.
  105. Stand with head, hips, and feet aligned. Place your feet shoulder-width apart with the knees slightly bent. Angle your body to the subject with the strong side away. Place your hands above waist level. These are instructions for __________.
  106. The Threat Awareness Spectrum is a color-coded illustration of how _________ stress may affect an officer's reaction to a perceived challenge or threat.
  107. Due to the inability to accurately remember information (from an extremely stressful incident),
  108. Striking the eyes is an act of __________ force, and gouging the eyes is an act of __________ force.
  109. Officers are most vulnerable to formal investigations and intense questioning that occur
  110. For the __________ area block, the arm and/or leg should be used in a motion to deflect a strike to the area below the beltline.
  111. ________ is a state of extreme mental and physiological excitement characterized by exceptional agitation and hyperactivity, overheating, excessive tearing of the eyes, hostility, superhuman strength, aggression, acute paranoia, and endurance without apparent fatigue.
  112. _________ motor skills combine fine and gross motor skills using hand and eye coordination timed to a single event, such as driving a vehicle.
  113. What is generally the reactionary gap if you have visual control of the subject's hands?
  114. ________: Maintaining a balanced posture is essential in performing any defensive tactics technique. To achieve this, your head and hips must be aligned and your weight distributed evenly between your feet. If any one of these points is misaligned, you are not in balance.
  115. _______ of the hands is the ability to see both the subject's hands and to know that those hands hold no weapons.
  116. __________ points are techniques used to control resistant behavior by utilizing pain compliance.
  117. On the threat awareness spectrum, Condition ________ and Condition __________ are not optimum states of readiness for officers on duty.
  118. When using the hollow of the neck technique, locate the pressure point in the hollow of the __________ of the neck, just __________ the sternum.
  119. A strike using a _________ delivery method is retracted very quickly, thus enabling multiple strikes, creating distance, setting up the next techniques, and causing distraction to the subject.
  120. __________ is the officer's elevated mind-body state that occurs in the presence of a perceived challenge or threat.
  121. The __________ nervous system, sometimes called the rest and digest system, is the part of the autonomic nervous system that is concerned with controlling the body during normal, routine situations. During periods of calm these systems dynamically hold each other in balance.
  122. A(n) ________ technique is any impact technique using hands, arms, elbows, feet, legs, knees, or head to strike a subject in an offensive or defensive situation.
  123. Officers who experience high levels of arousal may perceive a stimulus as a threat. This may cause an activation of the __________ (the parts of the brain that are especially focused on emotion and motivation) that provides a survival response to the central nervous system.
  124. __________ is simply shifting your body or side stepping to avoid the attack.
  125. A subject __________ when an officer gives him a command. The subject expands his chest and begins to speak loudly, shouting, "You're not taking me!" He strikes his chest with his open hands while stepping back and forth, side to side as he yells the same words over and over.
  126. _________ refers to how you approach a subject or enter a scene. The manner and direction from which you approach a subject and the distance you maintain from the subject throughout the interaction are based on your assessment of the threat and potential harm present.
  127. The clothed search (of an inmate) utilizes the
  128. Officers who have experienced an extremely stressful situation, such as an officer-involved shooting, may later show signs of
  129. The _______ step is used when preparing to engage or disengage from a subject in close proximity.
  130. _________ is using a great force against a weaker resistance. It is used in conjunction with joint manipulation and/or pain and mechanical compliance in order to gain control.
  131. Important aspects of __________ presence include personal appearance (uniform and personal grooming), erect posture, and alertness and attention to surroundings.
  1. a submit
  2. b Conduct the pat down in a predetermined manner.

    Use loud, clear verbal commands throughout the application of the technique.

    Have the subject lift his arms to tighten clothing so you can visually search potential concealment areas.
    Have the subject place his hands in a way so they can be controlled.

    Visually scan the subject while assuming the interview stance.

    If you find a weapon, take possession of it and place it beyond the subject's reach in a safe location.

    Be aware of verbal and nonverbal cues that indicate the probability of aggressive behavior.

    Physically control the subject's hands.
  3. c temporary respiration dysfunction
  4. d Pressure
  5. e front/above
  6. f postures
  7. g flight
  8. h distract or incapacitate
  9. i Body movement
  10. j auditory distortion
  11. k Transporters
  12. l under the nose
  13. m escort
  14. n danger
  15. o critical incident.
  16. p Leverage
  17. q Officer presence
  18. r Verbal direction
  19. s Yellow
  20. t Red
  21. u White
  22. v White/Black
  23. w sympathetic
  24. x slide
  25. y rapid, angry movements

    refusal to show palms of hands

    increased breathing and pulse rates

    shifting of shoulders or change of stance

    target glance

    ignoring the officer

    cessation of all movement

    reddened or flushed face

    expanding veins showing prominently on face and forearms

    clenched fists and quivering hands
  26. z parasympathetic
  27. aa Dialogue
  28. ab maintain proficiency in physical and mental skills


    anticipate the possibility of resistance with every subject encounter

    rely on techniques that involve gross motor movements rather than fine motor skills

    stay physically fit

    use controlled breathing techniques

    train under realistic environmental conditions designed to mirror high-stress scenarios

    get adequate rest

    maintain proficiency with firearms and other issued equipment

    eat a nutritious diet
  29. ac ear
  30. ad redirection
  31. ae immediately seek medical attention.
  32. af Arousal
  33. ag moved out of view of the inmate population.
  34. ah subject, the officer, or both.
  35. ai flash
  36. aj Fine
  37. ak Redirection
  38. al reactionary
  39. am an officer speaking without deliberate forethought, usually reflecting the emotional state of the officer.
  40. an Orange
  41. ao posture
  42. ap officers are more vulnerable to false memories and unintentional fabrications that they use to link flash memories of the critical incident.
  43. aq Stabilization
  44. ar command
  45. as posturing/submit
  46. at inability to remember information observed during the incident.
  47. au Pain compliance
  48. av Black
  49. aw Visual control
  50. ax increases
  51. ay quadrant search
  52. az exhileration speech
  53. ba serious and specific swearing

    specific verbal threats

    abnormal stuttering
  54. bb perceptual time
  55. bc finger lock transporter
  56. bd Communication
  57. be post-traumatic stress disorder.
  58. bf Balance displacement
  59. bg Reaction time
  60. bh vasodilation

    increase reaction time

    increase in heart rate and respiration

    auditory distortion

    motor performance changes

    loss of bladder and bowel control


    visual distortion
  61. bi perceptions of how you present yourself.
  62. bj Motor dysfunction
  63. bk profound changes in physical ability and cognitive decision making.
  64. bl top of calf

    outside of thigh

    inside of forearm

    inside of thigh

    front of shoulder

    top of forearm
  65. bm empty-hand striking
  66. bn high
  67. bo posturing
  68. bp hollow behind the ear
  69. bq Sudden Death Syndrome
  70. br Vasoconstriction
  71. bs Balance
  72. bt Vasodilation
  73. bu visual distortion
  74. bv nondeadly/deadly
  75. bw Relative positioning
  76. bx snap-back
  77. by Blocks
  78. bz hand-clearing
  79. ca pain compliance
  80. cb immediately after a critical incident.
  81. cc Touch
  82. cd bent wrist
  83. ce 3-5
  84. cf Joint manipulation
  85. cg the interview stance
  86. ch Touch pressure
  87. ci survival
  88. cj Survival
  89. ck past training and experience.
  90. cl Mechanical compliance
  91. cm 25 feet
  92. cn hollow behind the collarbone
  93. co Evasion
  94. cp Excited delirium
  95. cq hollow of the neck
  96. cr Command
  97. cs incapacitation and/or temporary motor dysfunction.
  98. ct upper
  99. cu low
  100. cv safety and influences his or her actions when dealing with a situation.
  101. cw Direct line of attack
  102. cx perceptual space
  103. cy their daily routine.
  104. cz Appraisal
  105. da the offensive ready stance
  106. db upward
  107. dc mid
  108. dd incapacitate the subject
  109. de limbic system
  110. df counter with an appropriate technique designed to end the attack.
  111. dg quadrant search approach.
  112. dh continuously analyze situations for their threat potential.
  113. di extreme arousal.
  114. dj Complex
  115. dk hidden hands

    shifting feet

    clenched fists
  116. dl incapacitate.
  117. dm 6-9 feet
  118. dn a diminshed ability to process other information.
  119. do under the jaw
  120. dp verbal direction
  121. dq custodial search
  122. dr critical incident
  123. ds sympathetic/parasympathetic
  124. dt slide step
  125. du Eye gaze
  126. dv Gross
  127. dw higher
  128. dx heuristics
  129. dy fight or flee while other subjects, given the same set of circumstances, may decide to submit.
  130. dz which may erode the officer's integrity during an internal investigation.

    which can erode their command presence in front of a suspect.
  131. ea Fluid shock principle