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131 True/False questions

  1. _________ resistance is a subject's hostile, attacking movements with or without a weapon that create a reasonable perception by the officer that the subject intends to cause and has the capability of causing death or great bodily harm to the officer or others.Deadly force

          

  2. Deadly force includes, but is not limited tothe firing of a firearm in the direction of the person to be arrested, even though no intent exists to kill or inflict great bodily harm.

    the firing of a firearm at a vehicle in which the person to be arrested is riding.

          

  3. Breads, cereal grains, pasta, rice, fruit, vegetables, milk, and sugar are examples of __________.assist the officer in restraining or arresting a subject.

          

  4. __________ provide energy, build and repair body cells, and are part of various enzymes, hormones, and antibodies.Fats

          

  5. If the use of deadly force is necessary to prevent the arrest (of a fleeing felon) from being defeated by a flight from justice, and the officer reasonably believes that the fleeing felon has committed a crime involving the infliction or threatened infliction of serious physical harm to another person, the officer __________ justified in the use of force.a perceived threat.

          

  6. __________ is a system of controlled defensive and offensive body movements used by criminal justice officers to respond to a subject's aggression or resistance.Intent

          

  7. For the __________ stretch (suitable for defensive tactics training), place both arms behind your hips (while standing). With interlocking hands, slowly raise your arms behind your back for a count of 10-20 seconds. Keep your head upright and neck relaxed.the top of the body and moves to the bottom or vice versa

          

  8. Officers are legally permitted to __________ their use of force as the subject __________ his or her level of resistance. The officer's choices are determined by the subject's actions and the risk of physical harm posed to the officer or others.escalate/escalates

          

  9. Defensive tactics techniques are based on a combination of martial arts, wresting, and __________.boxing

          

  10. Correctional officers must consider that use of force may violate the __________ Amendment's prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment.Eighth

          

  11. Once an officer achieves control or compliance, he or she must de-escalate the use of force. Under certain circumstances, __________ may be the best tactical option, for example, when the officer is waiting for backup, when the officer is injured or outnumbered, or when the suspect has superior firepower.disengagement

          

  12. 6'4", 250-lb. muscular man threatening to do bodily harm to an officer does not necessarily need a weapon. By virtue of his size and physical condition, he has the apparent ________.ability

          

  13. While standing, bring both straight arms above the head with hands interlocking, palms facing up, and reach upward slowly while reaching slightly backward. Hold for 10-20 seconds. These are instructions for which stretching exercise (suitable for defensive tactics training)?arm cross in front of chest

          

  14. Officers need to clearly articulate the specific basis for their decisions regarding the use of force. For example, if deadly force was used, the officer should state exactly what the subject did that created the perception of the subject's ability, opportunity, and intent to cause death or great bodily harm. Simply stating, "The suspect threatened me" _________ sufficient.is not

          

  15. Under the _________ doctrine, the officer may seize any object "whose contour or mass" he or she identifies as apparent contraband. An officer may only pat down the outside of the clothing for weapons.flexibility

          

  16. Before tightening __________, place an index finger against the subject's wrist and tighten the restraint device(s) to your index finger and the wrist. Remove your index finger and ensure the restraint device(s) are not cutting off blood circulation.flexible cuffs

          

  17. The subject's weapon often determinesopportunity.

          

  18. The following instructions are for using the __________ technique: Make contact with the subject's arm by controlling the upper arm just above the elbow and wrist simultaneously. Mirror the controlled hand and rotate the subject's controlled hand while sweeping the subject's hand behind his back. Maintain control by bending the wrist. Control or move the subject, or follow up with an appropriate technique(s).behind neck triceps

          

  19. Is the subject verbally or physically resisting my lawful authority? Is the subject making attacking movements that are not likely to cause death or great bodily harm? Is the subject making attacking movements that are likely to cause death or great bodily harm? These are questions that a police officer must ask himself/herself to help determine _________ force guidelines (in the decision making process).subject resistance

          

  20. ________ are temporary restraining devices used frequently to control a subject.Handcuffs

          

  21. Command presence and verbal communication oftenwill defuse many volatile situations.

          

  22. ____________ is facts or circumstances which reasonably indicate that the person has committed, is committing, or is about to commit a violation of the law.Reasonable suspicion

          

  23. Meat, poultry, fish, milk and milk products, nuts and seeds, oils, butter, margarine, and salad dressing are examples of __________.force to control a subject.

          

  24. Before a law enforcement officer may conduct a pat down, he or she must have reasonable suspicion that the subject isarmed.

          

  25. Which of the following are examples of aggressive resistance?dart-firing stun guns such as a TASER

    expandable batons

    flashlights

    electronic control devices (ECD)

    chemical agent sprays

          

  26. Because inmates and probationers have a significantly reduced expectation of privacy, searches by corrections and probation officers are much less limited by __________ Amendment concerns.Fourth

          

  27. Applying flexible leg restraints is best performed byreactionary gap or the danger zone.

          

  28. When applying __________, control the subject by handcuffing him and placing him in the prone position. Your partner will control the subject's upper body, either with a three-point pin or a wrist compression.flexible leg restraints

          

  29. Section 944.35, F.S., provides an employee of the department is authorized to apply physical force upon an inmate (only when and to the extent that it reasonably appears necessary) under what circumstances?to defend himself or herself or another against such other imminent use of unlawful force

    to administer medical treatment only by or under the supervision of a physician or his or her designee and only when treatment is necessary to protect the health of other persons, or when treatment is offered in satisfaction of a duty to protect the inmate against self-inflicted injury or death

    to quell a disturbance

    to overcome physical resistance to a lawful command

    to prevent damage to property

    to prevent a person from escaping a state correctional institution when the officer reasonably believes that person is lawfully detained in such institution

          

  30. If a subject seems physically able to cause death or great bodily harm, then he has the _______.the least amount of force necessary.

          

  31. Much litigation against criminal justice officers is not about the amount of force used, butwhether the use of force was permitted at all.

          

  32. The role of defensive tactics in law enforcement and corrections is toassist the officer in restraining or arresting a subject.

          

  33. ________ resistance is a subject's use of physically evasive movements directed toward the officer such as bracing, tensing, pushing, or pulling to prevent the officer from establishing control over the subject.Active

          

  34. Officers should use the amount of force necessary and reasonable forthe situation.

          

  35. If ability, opportunity, and intent are present and the officer cannot control the threat using lesser means, thenconsideration of the subject's form of resistance.

    all reasonably perceived situational factors that may have an effect on the situation.

    response options available to the officer.

          

  36. Many agencies require anbalance

    flexibility

    strength

    agility

    physical fitness

          

  37. The _____________ transporter is a useful technique applied when a subject tries to pull away from the escort position or a bent wrist or finger lock transporter. This technique uses pain compliance and mechanical compliance with the subject's arm behind his back.prone

          

  38. While standing, lean your left ear to your left shoulder for a count of 10 seconds. Repeat on the opposite side. Stretch chin to chest and head to rear. Perform 2-3 sets in each direction. These are instructions for which stretching exercise (suitable for defensive tactics training)?arm cross in front of chest

          

  39. Because defensive tactics training is a physical endeavor, students shouldbegin and end with stretching exercises.

          

  40. Stretching (for defensive tactics training) generally begins atyou should stretch until you feel mild to moderate tension.

          

  41. Chapter 776, F.S., identifies two general areas in which an officer's use of force is justified: to apprehend a subject and make an arrest, or to __________.defend self or others

          

  42. Deadly force can causegreat bodily harm or no harm at all.

          

  43. Once an officer achieves control or compliance, he or she must _________ the use of force.prevent the escape from a penal institution of a person whom the officer reasonably believes to be lawfully detained in such institution under sentence for an offense or awaiting trial or commitment for an offense.

          

  44. Chapter _____, F.S. governs all use of force by criminal justice officers.776

          

  45. Many agencies require an additional report anytime an officer usesopportunity.

          

  46. A ________ weapon is a weapon that is not fundamentally designed to cause death or great bodily harm.De-escalation

          

  47. The _____________ Guidelines provide a framework for making decisions involving the reasonable use of force by criminal justice officers.is

          

  48. Sometimes command presence and verbal communication are not enough to defuse a volatile situation, or officers may not have an opportunity to use them. An officer may have to use __________ to gain control of the situation.will defuse many volatile situations.

          

  49. ________ means the subject is capable of carrying out a plan to cause death or great bodily harm to the officer or others.Active

          

  50. Applying handcuffs places the officer inside theall the force reasonably necessary for the circumstances in each specific situation.

          

  51. The structure of the __________ Guidelines is based on constitutional considerations and case law and describes appropriate decision making in a fluid and dynamic situation. The Guidelines consider the relationship between subject resistance and various situational factors in determining the officer's response options.Force

          

  52. The Supreme Court has made clear that use of force is a seizure under the ______ Amendment.De-escalation

          

  53. What subject factors influence this situation? Weapon? Physical size? Demeanor? Others? What officer factors influence this situation? Training? Experience? Physical size? Others? What environmental factors influence this situation? Weather? Location? Presence of others? These are questions that a police officer must ask himself/herself to help determine _________ force guidelines (in the decision making process).The subject braces or pulls away from the officer when the officer grips the subject's arm.

          

  54. The totality of circumstances includesadditional report anytime an officer uses force to control a subject.

          

  55. If the use of deadly force is necessary to prevent the arrest (of a fleeing felon) from being defeated by a flight from justice, and the officer reasonably believes that the fleeing felon poses a threat of death or serious physical harm to the officer or others, the officer __________ justified in the use of force.is

          

  56. Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, legumes (such as lentils), milk and milk products, vegetables, and grains are examples of __________.fats

          

  57. __________ is a perception derived from the totality of the circumstances.De-escalation

          

  58. __________ resistance is a subject's attacking movements toward an officer that may cause injury but are not likely to cause death or great bodily harm to the officer or others.Deadly force

          

  59. _________ are tools designed to temporarily restrain a subject's movements, such as handcuffs.Restraint devices

          

  60. Were my actions reasonable based on the subject's resistance and the totality of the circumstances? Am I able to articulate the reasons for my actions? Was I in compliance with constitutional and state laws, agency policy, and training? These are questions that a police officer must ask himself/herself to help determine _________ force guidelines (in the decision making process).justification

          

  61. A correctional officer or other law enforcement officer is justified in the use of force, including deadly force, which he or she reasonably believes to be necessary toprevent the escape from a penal institution of a person whom the officer reasonably believes to be lawfully detained in such institution under sentence for an offense or awaiting trial or commitment for an offense.

          

  62. Which one of the following is NOT an example of passive resistance?The subject braces or pulls away from the officer when the officer grips the subject's arm.

          

  63. An officer's agency may establish the specific techniques, tactics, and applications thatan officer may use in an encounter with a resistant subject.

          

  64. The __________ position is lying on the stomach facing down.De-escalation

          

  65. ________ is decreasing the use of force or resistance.De-escalation

          

  66. While standing with your feet shoulder-width apart, bring your arms from an overhead position slowly towards the front of your body, while rounding the back and stretching the shoulder blades apart. Hold for 10-20 seconds. These are instructions for which stretching exercise (suitable for defensive tactics training)?both arms in front of chest stretch

          

  67. The ________ transporter is a good controlling technique because of the position in which you put the subject's arm. This transporter incorporates pain compliance, joint manipulation, and balance displacement.prone

          

  68. Identify some situational factors the court uses to analyze the totality of circumstances.Intent

          

  69. A suspect armed with a knife may not be an immediate threat to an officer standing far away. However, the same person standing closer or carrying a firearm certainly has the __________ to carry out his intent to cause death or great bodily harm.opportunity

          

  70. What are some examples of nonlethal weapons?dart-firing stun guns such as a TASER

    expandable batons

    flashlights

    electronic control devices (ECD)

    chemical agent sprays

          

  71. The U.S. Supreme Court said in ________, 490 U.S. 386 (1989), that the reasonableness of a particular use of force must be judged from the perspective of how a reasonable officer on the scene would respond, rather than from the 20/20 perspective of hindsight.Force

          

  72. A __________ session (of stretching) elevates the heart rate and increases blood circulation to the muscles, which saturates the muscles with oxygen.Escalation

          

  73. Use of deadly force may be an officer's first and only appropriate response toa perceived threat.

          

  74. While standing, bring your straight right arm across your chest with the palm up. Grasp your upper arm above the elbow with your left hand and slowly pull in towards and across your chest. Hold for 10-20 seconds and repeat with the left arm. These are instructions for which stretching exercise (suitable for defensive tactics training)?arm cross in front of chest

          

  75. Physical force __________ physical control.includes

          

  76. What are some examples of deadly force?includes

          

  77. To properly holster or load handcuffs, the single strands should point __________, with chain links or hinge __________.Eighth

          

  78. Each session (for defensive tactics training) shouldbegin and end with stretching exercises.

          

  79. __________ provide energy and essential fatty acids and carry other fat-soluble nutrients (vitamins). They are part of cell membranes, membranes around nerves, hormones, and bile (for fat digestion).Fats

          

  80. Officers should try to resolve a situation withuse of a firearm
    empty-hand strikes to the throat
    eye gouges
    impact-weapon strikes to the side of the neck

          

  81. _______ refers to the subject having the means to carry out his or her intent to cause death or great bodily harm.Opportunity

          

  82. Courts recognize that criminal justice officers must make split-second judgements about the amount of force needed in a particular situation under circumstances that are tense, uncertain, and ________.rapidly evolving

          

  83. Proper rest and sleep are necessary forreaching maximum performance and maintaining focus while engaged in physical training.

          

  84. Section 776.05, F.S., addresses the issue of an officer using __________ to make an arrest.to defend himself or herself or another against such other imminent use of unlawful force

    to administer medical treatment only by or under the supervision of a physician or his or her designee and only when treatment is necessary to protect the health of other persons, or when treatment is offered in satisfaction of a duty to protect the inmate against self-inflicted injury or death

    to quell a disturbance

    to overcome physical resistance to a lawful command

    to prevent damage to property

    to prevent a person from escaping a state correctional institution when the officer reasonably believes that person is lawfully detained in such institution

          

  85. The following are instructions for the __________ stretch (suitable for defensive tactics training): While standing, raise your right arm above your head and bend the right arm. The elbow will be above your head. Using the opposite hand, grasp your elbow and slowly pull towards the midline of the back, moving your hand in between your shoulder blades. Hold the stretch for 10-20 seconds and repeat on the left side.behind neck triceps

          

  86. _________ is discontinuing a command or physical use of force, for example, by breaking away from a subject.Disengagement

          

  87. The ______ will look at the totality of circumstances in determining whether the officer's decision to use force was objectively reasonable and, therefore, legally justified.all reasonably perceived situational factors that may have an effect on the situation.

          

  88. Officers need to respond withall the force reasonably necessary for the circumstances in each specific situation.

          

  89. When preparing for defensive tactics training,you should stretch until you feel mild to moderate tension.

          

  90. When applying leg restraints to a subject, hold the restraints with the double bar facing the subject's legs. This will ensure that the key holes are facing __________.more than one officer.

          

  91. Cardiovascular training __________ the lungs.strengthens

          

  92. Officers should be careful to include every factor used in their use of force decision (on reports) sincefactors added later will be viewed with suspicion.

          

  93. __________ provide energy needed by the brain, nervous system, red blood cells, and other cells.Carbohydrates

          

  94. Because __________ stretching exercises should be conducted every day.Escalation

          

  95. Can I physically control the subject? Could I use a nonlethal weapon not meant to cause death or great bodily harm? Is deadly force the appropriate option to prevent death or great bodily harm to myself or others? These are questions that a police officer must ask himself/herself to help determine _________ force guidelines (in the decision making process).Ability

          

  96. Which one of the following is NOT an example of deadly force resistance?The subject braces or pulls away from the officer when the officer grips the subject's arm.

          

  97. The officer must base his or her decision to use deadly forceuse of a firearm
    empty-hand strikes to the throat
    eye gouges
    impact-weapon strikes to the side of the neck

          

  98. The __________ stretch (suitable for defensive tactics training) takes place while standing. To do this exercise, take a long step forward until your right knee is directly over your right foot. Keeping your back leg straight, your forward foot on the floor, and your hands on the front thigh, lower your hips slowly forward and down. The heel of your back foot may or may not be on the floor, depending on your flexibility. Hold the stretch for 10-20 seconds and repeat on the opposite side.forward lunge

          

  99. __________ is achieving compliance or custody through the use of empty-hand or leverage-enhanced techniques, such as pain compliance, transporters, restraint devices, takedowns, and striking techniques.Physical control

          

  100. Appropriate force is the amount of force reasonably necessary to make ______.an arrest

          

  101. A subject must only have the apparent ability to carry out his or her intention; therefore,a weapon is not required for the officer to respond to the subject's ability.

          

  102. Chapter __________, F.S., establishes that the Department of Corrections has jurisdiction over the supervisory and protective care, custody, and control of inmates and offenders.945

          

  103. To properly holster or load handcuffs, preset the single strands through the pawl, folding __________ together.key ways

          

  104. What do defensive tactics skills require?balance

    flexibility

    strength

    agility

    physical fitness

          

  105. ________ force is force that is likely to cause death or great bodily harm.Opportunity

          

  106. Though the law grants criminal justice officers the right to use force, this right is _______ on their official authority.key ways

          

  107. Officers use three criteria for making _______ decisions ability, opportunity, and intent.as a defensive tactic on a clear, reasonable belief that he or she, a fellow officer, or another person, faces imminent danger of death or great bodily harm.

          

  108. Physical force __________ deadly force.use of a firearm
    empty-hand strikes to the throat
    eye gouges
    impact-weapon strikes to the side of the neck

          

  109. The officer __________ justified in the use of force which he or she reasonably believes to be necessary to defend himself or herself or another from bodily harm while making the arrest.is

          

  110. A __________ session (of stretching) redistributes the blood flow, causing the metabolic rate to decrease.cool-down

          

  111. A law enforcement officer's authority to use force is established by the officer's reasonable belief that a crime has been, is being, or is about to be committed. Absent this belief, known as _________, a law enforcement officer has no authority over a subject, and thus no permission to use any amount of force at all.armed.

          

  112. Officers need not apply force in gradually increasing steps in order tothe least amount of force necessary.

          

  113. The courts have used the term _________ to describe the process for evaluating the appropriateness of an officer's response to a subject's resistance.objective reasonableness

          

  114. ___________ is the verbal and/or physical yielding to an officer's authority without apparent threat of resistance or violence.Compliance

          

  115. The term "_________" means force that is likely to cause death or great bodily harm.Deadly

          

  116. _________ is increasing the use of force or resistance.Escalation

          

  117. __________ resistance is a subject's verbal and/or physical refusal to comply with an officer's lawful direction causing the officer to use physical techniques to establish control.Disengagement

          

  118. Stretching (for defensive tactics training) usually begins with a warm-up such as running in place, jumping jacks, push-ups, or any calisthenics exercises that last for __________ minutes to warm-up the muscles, and increase heart rate, respiration, and perspiration.prepare for the activities required in this course by considering some changes in their daily habits.

          

  119. The officer __________ justified in the use of force when necessarily committed in retaking felons who have escaped.prone

          

  120. ________ is a reasonably perceived, imminent threat to an officer or another person based on the subject's actions, behaviors, words, or other indicators.Intent

          

  121. The officer __________ justified when necessarily committed in arresting felons fleeing from justice.776/944

          

  122. Cardiovascular training is any exercise that elevates the heart rate to a range between ______ percent of the maximum rate.strengthens

          

  123. Which of the following are examples of active resistance?The subject grabs any part of the officer's body.

    The subject pushes the officer back as the officer tries to take the subject into custody.

    The subject balls up his fist and approaches the officer.

          

  124. The totality of circumstances includesall reasonably perceived situational factors that may have an effect on the situation.

          

  125. An adequate intake of water __________ necessary for optimal performance in defensive tactics training.includes

          

  126. A 6'4", 250-lb. muscular man threatening to do bodily harm to an officer does not necessarily need a weapon. By virtue of his size and physical condition, he has the apparent ________.as a defensive tactic on a clear, reasonable belief that he or she, a fellow officer, or another person, faces imminent danger of death or great bodily harm.

          

  127. A __________ is a government intrusion into a place in which a person has a reasonable expectation of privacy.Intent

          

  128. An officer must determine whether the subject has the necessary means to cause death or great bodily harm to the officer or others. This refers to the subject's __________.ability

          

  129. A nutritious diet __________ necessary for optimal performance in defensive tactics training.is

          

  130. While Chapter __________, F.S., applies in general to all criminal justice officers (about the use of force), Chapter __________, F.S., specifically addresses the use of force by state correctional and correctional probation officers.is

          

  131. A ________ is a physical frisk of a subject conducted in a pre-determinate pattern to locate weapons.De-escalation