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108 True/False questions

  1. Totality of circumstancesA term the court uses to refer to all facts and circumstances reasonably perceived by the officer as the basis for a use of force decision

          

  2. Touch pressureTouching the location of a nerve or sensitive area and applying continual, uninterrupted pressure with the tip of the finger(s) or thumb until the subject complies

          

  3. Physical controlIncreasing the use of force or resistance

          

  4. Reasonable suspicionThe facts or circumstances that reasonably indicate that a person has committed, is committing, or is about to commit a violation of the law

          

  5. Perceptual time distortionOccurrences seem to be faster or slower than they actually are

          

  6. Pat downTechniques used to bring a resisting subject from a standing position to the ground, making it easier to control him or her

          

  7. StallingThe use of body mechanics to control a subject

          

  8. HandcuffsTemporary restraining devices used frequently to control a subject

          

  9. Officer presenceAn officer's ability to convey to subjects and onlookers that he or she is ready and able to take control

          

  10. PosturingBehavior in which a subject acts verbally and physically as if he or she may resist

          

  11. ArousalThe officer's elevation and assignment of challenge or threat value to a stimulus

          

  12. Weapon of opportunityA subject's capacity for carrying out an intention to cause death or great bodily harm to others

          

  13. Custodial search techniqueA complete search of the subject used when a subject is taken into custody in an unsecured environment

          

  14. Active resistanceLying on the back face up

          

  15. DialogueReactionary techniques using the arms, legs, or body to deflect or redirect a subject's impending strike to other certain areas of the body

          

  16. Excited deliriumLying on the stomach face down

          

  17. Motor dysfunctionA method of gaining control over a subject by using an incapacitation technique that causes temporary impairment of muscular control

          

  18. Body movementRefers to how an officer approaches a subject or enters a scene

          

  19. Cardiovascular trainingBehavior in which a subject acts verbally and physically as if he or she may resist

          

  20. EscalationDecreasing the use of force or resistance

          

  21. Interview stance with an impact weaponA tool used when empty-handed control is ineffective, but the subject's level of resistance does not merit deadly force; baton, OC spray, dart-firing stun gun

          

  22. Tunnel visionImmobilizing the subject's head so the subject cannot move or escape

          

  23. Joint manipulationA method of gaining control over a subject by bending or twisting a joint in a direction that will cause pain or discomfort to the joint

          

  24. Aggressive resistanceA subject's attacking movements toward an officer that may cause injury but are not likely to cause death or great bodily harm to the officer or others

          

  25. Temporary motor dysfunctionA type of incapacitation that causes temporary impairment of muscle control

          

  26. Pain complianceA method used to gain control over a subject by applying pressure or leverage on a joint by locking it up so that no movement of the joint is possible, causing the subject to comply with verbal direction

          

  27. CSNonthreatening, noncustodial physical contact that can be used to support or emphasize a verbal command

          

  28. Perceptual space distortionLying on the back face up

          

  29. Quadrant search approachDividing the body into four sections horizontally and vertically during a search

          

  30. DisengagementThe discontinuing of commands or the physical use of force; breaking away from a subject

          

  31. Eye gazeThe tendency of your eyes to fixate to one location

          

  32. Gross motor skillsThe muscle control required to make small, precise movements

          

  33. Foot stompA distraction technique applied with a downward thrust to the subject's foot to inflict pain, temporarily divert the subject's attention, and redirect the physical power of the subject's attack

          

  34. Vascular neck restraintA physical restraint compressing certain veins and arteries in the neck to cause a subject to lose consciousness for a brief period of time

          

  35. Head buttA distraction technique using the frontal lobe or back of the head to make contact with the subject's face, head, or other target area to inflict pain, temporarily divert a subject's attention, and redirect the physical power of the subject's attack

          

  36. IntentA reasonably perceived, imminent threat to an officer or another person

          

  37. StrobingThe movement in a hip escape; moving from side to side while avoiding or defending against an attack

          

  38. Balance displacementA controlling technique used to break the subject's balance through the use of leverage principles

          

  39. Auditory distortionA method of gaining control over a subject by using an incapacitation technique that causes temporary impairment of muscular control

          

  40. ComplianceSupporting the balance of the body using a limb

          

  41. Visual distortionWhen experiencing survival stress and physiological changes in the eye, vision may become distorted

          

  42. Command presenceThe way an officer carries him or herself

          

  43. Restraint devicesIncreasing the use of force or resistance

          

  44. Slide stepA distraction technique applied with a downward thrust to the subject's foot to inflict pain, temporarily divert the subject's attention, and redirect the physical power of the subject's attack

          

  45. Passive resistanceA subject's hostile, attacking movements, with or without a weapon, that create a reasonable perception by the officer that the subject intends to cause and has the capability of causing death or great bodily harm to the officer or others

          

  46. CommunicationThe exchanging of information through verbal and nonverbal methods; provides valuable insight into the likelihood of cooperation and compliance of a subject

          

  47. Verbal directionThe use of proper, clear, and concise commands to let a subject know what an officer needs or expects him or her to do

          

  48. Relative positioningA subject's use of physically evasive movements directed toward the officer; examples include bracing, tensing, pushing, or pulling to prevent the officer from establishing control over the subject

          

  49. Scoville heat unitA measure of the heat properties (burning sensation) of capsicum in OC spray

          

  50. Danger zoneThe area within the reactionary gap

          

  51. Direct line of attackTools such as handcuffs designed to temporarily restrain a subject's movements

          

  52. Nonlethal weaponAny object used for striking

          

  53. Force GuidelinesTechniques used to control resistant behavior by utilizing pain compliance

          

  54. Intermediate weaponA tool used when empty-handed control is ineffective, but the subject's level of resistance does not merit deadly force; baton, OC spray, dart-firing stun gun

          

  55. TakedownsTechniques used to bring a resisting subject from a standing position to the ground, making it easier to control him or her

          

  56. RedirectionIncreasing the use of force or resistance

          

  57. TelegraphingSmall eye, hand, or foot movements in the direction that an officer plans to move

          

  58. Evasion techniqueShifting one's body or side stepping to avoid an attack

          

  59. Critical incident amnesiaA temporary or sometimes permanent condition, following an extremely stressful situation, where short and long-term memory loss may occur

          

  60. Deadly force resistanceA subject's hostile, attacking movements, with or without a weapon, that create a reasonable perception by the officer that the subject intends to cause and has the capability of causing death or great bodily harm to the officer or others

          

  61. HeuristicsMental shortcuts that allow people to solve problems and make judgments quickly and efficiently

          

  62. Plain feel doctrineThe area within the reactionary gap

          

  63. SearchA government intrusion into a place in which a person has a reasonable expectation of privacy

          

  64. Parasympathetic nervous systemThe part of the autonomic nervous system that is concerned with controlling the body during normal, routine situations

          

  65. StabilizationImmobilizing the subject's head so the subject cannot move or escape

          

  66. Reactionary gapA technique used to move a subject from one point to another without using pain compliance; provides minimal control of the subject through leverage

          

  67. Shin scrapeUsed when preparing to engage or disengage from a subject in close proximity

          

  68. Visual controlThe ability to see both the subject's hands and to know that those hands hold no weapons

          

  69. Electronic control deviceA device that uses a high voltage, low power electrical charge to induce involuntary muscle contractions to temporarily incapacitate a non-compliant subject (also known as electronic immobilization device, conducted energy weapon (CEW), or conducted energy device (CED))

          

  70. Offensive ready stance with an impact weaponA weapon that is not fundamentally designed to cause death or great bodily harm

          

  71. ShrimpingThe movement in a hip escape; moving from side to side while avoiding or defending against an attack

          

  72. DeescalationDecreasing the use of force or resistance

          

  73. OCA type of chemical agent commonly used by law enforcement, usually in the form of hand-held canisters and chemical projectiles

          

  74. VasoconstrictionBlood flow is restricted from the extremities and skin

          

  75. Supine positionLying on the back face up

          

  76. Distraction techniqueA technique that interrupts the subject's concentration so that energy is redirected from the current focus

          

  77. VasodilationBlood flows into the larger muscle groups providing oxygen to power flight and aid in escape

          

  78. EscortA technique used to move a subject from one point to another without using pain compliance; provides minimal control of the subject through leverage

          

  79. Objective reasonablenessA term the courts have used to describe the process for evaluating the appropriateness of an officer's response to a subject's resistance

          

  80. Binocular visionA survival stress reaction in which both eyes remain open, and it is very difficult to close just one eye

          

  81. Mechanical complianceA subject's response to a combination of pain and verbal commands to stop resisting

          

  82. LeverageA government intrusion into a place in which a person has a reasonable expectation of privacy

          

  83. AppraisalSupporting the balance of the body using a limb

          

  84. Complex motor skillsThe exchanging of information through verbal and nonverbal methods; provides valuable insight into the likelihood of cooperation and compliance of a subject

          

  85. OpportunityA subject's capacity for carrying out an intention to cause death or great bodily harm to others

          

  86. Sympathetic nervous systemThe part of the autonomic nervous system that is concerned especially with preparing the body to react to situations of stress or emergency

          

  87. TouchA type of chemical agent commonly used by law enforcement, usually in the form of hand-held canisters and chemical projectiles

          

  88. Survival stressA measure of anxiety caused by an appraisal of a stimulus that leads to an extreme state of arousal (also known as fear-induced stress)

          

  89. Prone positionA loss of peripheral vision and depth perception that often occurs during survival stress situations

          

  90. Reaction time principleThe amount of time it takes for the brain to process a physical threat and for the body to respond

          

  91. Limbic systemA distraction technique applied with a downward thrust to the subject's foot to inflict pain, temporarily divert the subject's attention, and redirect the physical power of the subject's attack

          

  92. Pressure pointsBehavior in which a subject acts verbally and physically as if he or she may resist

          

  93. TransportersA reasonably perceived, imminent threat to an officer or another person

          

  94. Fine motor skillsThe muscle control required to make small, precise movements

          

  95. Snap backA strike that is retracted very quickly, thus enabling multiple strikes, creating distance, setting up the next techniques, and causing distraction to the subject

          

  96. SubmitTo completely relinquish control to another

          

  97. AbilityThe capacity a subject has to carry out his or her intent

          

  98. Defensive tacticsA system of controlled defensive and offensive body movements used by criminal justice officers to respond to a subject's aggression or resistance

          

  99. Deadly forceForce that is likely to cause death or great bodily harm

          

  100. BlockReactionary techniques using the arms, legs, or body to deflect or redirect a subject's impending strike to other certain areas of the body

          

  101. BalanceA position in which the head is over the hips, and the hips are over and between the feet; necessary for performing defensive tactics

          

  102. Fear induced stressA measure of anxiety caused by an appraisal of a stimulus that leads to an extreme state of arousal (also known as fear-induced stress)

          

  103. Pepper sprayMental shortcuts that allow people to solve problems and make judgments quickly and efficiently

          

  104. GrapplingThe use of body mechanics to control a subject

          

  105. Fluid shock principleA distraction technique applied by raising the foot and applying downward pressure on the subject's shin to inflict pain and temporarily divert an attacking subject's attention

          

  106. Empty hand striking techniqueAny impact technique using hands, arms, elbows, feet, legs, knees, or head to strike a subject in an offensive or defensive situation

          

  107. PostingBehavior in which a subject acts verbally and physically as if he or she may resist

          

  108. Impact weaponA weapon that is not fundamentally designed to cause death or great bodily harm