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  1. The mind, like all body systems, strives
  2. The Force Guidelines recognizes that officers
    make use of force decisions based on the
  3. submit
  4. Simply stating "The suspect threatened
  5. Perceptual Time Distortion:
  6. When experiencing extreme anxiety, you may experience physical changes within your body. One or more of
    the following symptoms of survival stress may occur:
  7. Totality of circumstances
  8. Auditory Distortion
  9. Survival stress is sometimes called
  10. An officer in Condition Yellow can quickly
  11. Signs of stress are often indicated in
  12. higher anxiety
    results in
  13. If ability, opportunity, and
    intent are present and the officer cannot control the threat using lesser means,
  14. Appraisal
  15. Subjects might
    also become verbally and physically threatening, indicating they may resist by
  16. The Threat Awareness Spectrum
  17. Psychological Changes Under Stress
  18. Opportunity
  19. Vasoconstriction:
  20. Cursing is emotional speech that may
    demonstrate that an officer is in a
  21. Perceptual Space Distortion:
  22. four instinctual reactions to survival stress:
  23. Factors for Deciding the Use of Deadly Force
  24. Vasodilation:
  25. Arousal
  26. parasympathetic nervous system,
  27. preparing to run
  28. The sympathetic nervous system
  29. As anxiety increases or decreases it creates a
  30. Eye gaze
  31. Lower anxiety results in a
  32. Intent
  33. Some situational factors may include the following:
  34. drawing an
    intermediate weapon
  35. The subject may back down
  36. Ability
  37. The central nervous system is
  38. "exhilaration speech"
  39. A subject postures when
  40. Heuristics
  41. limbic system
  42. Officers should remember that whatever is written on a use of force incident report will
  43. Survival stress
    is a
  44. Visual Distortion:
  45. The ability to manage stress is based upon a person's
  46. Gross motor skills
  47. Officers need to clearly articulate the specific basis for their decisions regarding
  48. Complex motor skills
  49. Fine motor skills
  50. challenges or threats are separated by the person's
  1. a state of high arousal during or immediately following a critical incident.
  2. b an officer gives him a command. The subject expands his chest and begins to speak
    loudly, shouting, "You're not taking me!" He strikes his chest with his open hands while stepping back and
    forth, side to side as he yells the same words over and over.
  3. c lower arousal
  4. d sometimes called the rest and digest system, is the part of the autonomic
    nervous system that is concerned with controlling the body during normal, routine situations.
  5. e composed of the
    sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system.
  6. f means the subject is capable of acting on a plan to cause death or great bodily harm to the
    officer or others. The subject's weapon often determines opportunity. For example, a suspect armed with a
    knife may not be an immediate threat to an officer standing far away. However, the same person standing
    closer or carrying a firearm certainly has the opportunity to carry out his intent to cause death or great
    bodily harm.
  7. g is
    the part of the autonomic nervous system that is concerned especially with preparing the body to react to
    situations of stress or emergency. This system activates what is often called the fight or flight response.
  8. h combine fine and gross motor skills using hand and eye coordination timed to a single event, such
    as driving a vehicle
  9. i posturing.
  10. j are mental shortcuts that allow people to solve problems and make judgments
    quickly and efficiently.
  11. k the parts of the brain that are especially focused on emotion and motivation) that
    provides a survival response to the central nervous system.
  12. l Objects appear to be closer or farther than they actually are.
  13. m is a reasonably perceived, imminent threat to an officer or another person based on the subject's
    actions, behaviors, words, or other indicators. It is a perception derived from the totality of
    the circumstances.
  14. n fight, flight, posture, and submit.
  15. o are the
    movements of the large or major muscles of the body, which are used in tasks such as running,
    punching, or kicking.
  16. p for balance.
  17. q fear-induced stress or combat stress.
  18. r is not sufficient.
  19. s (flee).
  20. t seen by not only supervisors but also by a prosecutor, defense attorney, judge, and
    potentially many others.
  21. u coping mechanisms.
  22. v Hearing may be diminished or amplified.
  23. w measure of anxiety caused by an appraisal of a stimulus that leads to an extreme state
    of arousal.
  24. x Increase in heart rate and respiration.
    • Vasodilation
    • Vasoconstriction:
    • Auditory Distortion:
    • Visual Distortion:
    • Loss of bladder and bowel control.
    • Increased Reaction Time:
    • Motor Performance Changes:
    • Perceptual Time Distortion:
    • Perceptual Space Distortion:
  25. y vocal quality and speech pattern.
  26. z limbic system, sympathetic nervous system, parasympathetic nervous system
  27. aa move to Condition
    Orange or Condition Red based on the appraisal of a given situation. Condition White and Condition Black
    are not optimum states of readiness for officers on duty.
  28. ab Due to physiological changes in the eye, vision may become distorted. Officers may
    as see darkness around the edges of their vision (tunnel vision). Officers may also lose the ability to see
    close objects with detail (farsightedness).
  29. ac is to completely relinquish control to another.
  30. ad officers who are in a state of
    high arousal later regret or do not recall the things they have said during this period of anxiousness. which reflects a series of statements brought on by a euphoric feeling of accomplishment the officer experiences after prevailing in the critical incident.
  31. ae Blood flows into the larger muscle groups providing oxygen to power flight and aid
    in escape.
  32. af then deadly force is justified.
  33. ag higher arousal.
  34. ah Ability, Opportunity, Intent,
  35. ai the use of force.
  36. aj (submit)
  37. ak refer to the muscle control required to make small, precise movements, such as unlocking
    handcuffs with a key.
  38. al is the officer's elevated mind-body state that occurs in the
    presence of a perceived challenge or threat.
  39. am severity of the crime
    • subject is an immediate threat
    • subject's mental or psychiatric history, if known to the officer
    • subject's violent history, if known to the officer
    • subject's combative skills
    • subject's access to weapons
    • innocent bystanders who could be harmed
    • number of subjects versus number of officers
    • duration of confrontation
    • subject's size, age, weight, and physical condition
    • officer's size, age, weight, physical condition, and defensive tactics expertise
    • environmental factors, such as physical terrain, weather conditions, etc.
  40. an is the officer's evaluation and assignment of challenge or threat
    value to a stimulus.
  41. ao Blood flow is restricted from the extremities and skin. The body pulls the blood away
    from the arms and legs into the torso. This keeps the blood near vital organs in case of emergency and
    also protects the arms and legs (our weapons) from losing blood in case of injury.
  42. ap psychological imbalance.
  43. aq is a term the court uses to refer to all facts and
    circumstances known to the officer at the time, or reasonably perceived by the officer
    as the basis for, a use of force decision.
  44. ar (posturing)
  45. as refers to the subject having the means to carry out his or her intent to cause death or great bodily harm.
    An officer must determine whether the subject has the necessary means to cause death or great bodily harm
    to the officer or others. A weapon is not required; a subject must only have the apparent ability to carry out
    his or her intention. If the subject seems physically able to cause death or great bodily harm, then he has the
    ability. For example, a 6'4", 250-lb. muscular man threatening to do bodily harm to an officer does not
    necessarily need a weapon. By virtue of his size and physical condition, he has the apparent ability.
  46. at Occurrences seem to be faster or slower than they actually are.
  47. au is the tendency of your eyes to fixate to one location.
  48. av perception of self-harm.
  49. aw is a color-coded illustration of how survival stress may affect an officer's reaction to a perceived challenge or threat. The desired state of awareness and readiness of an officer while on routine duty is Condition Yellow.
  50. ax totality of circumstances at the time of the