___ is a system of controlled defensive and offensive body movements used by criminal justice officers to respond to a subject's aggression or resistance.
CMS Criminal Justice Defensive Tactics
The ___ course provides basic recruits with training in the physical skills necessary for the use of force in controlling subjects and for self-defense.
Because ___ reduces the risk of injuries, stretching exercises should be conducted every day.
A ___ session elevates the heart rate and increases blood circulation to the muscles, which saturates the muscles with oxygen.
A ___ after physical activity redistributes the blood flow, causing the metabolic rate to decrease.
___ is any exercise that elevates the heart rate to a range between 60 to 85 percent of the maximum rate.
___ is the leading cause of premature death for both men and women, cardiovascular fitness is extremely important.
To apprehend a subject/ Make an arrest; To defend self or others.
The statute identifies two general areas in which an officer's use of force is justified: ___ and ___.
The courts have used the term ___ to describe the process for evaluating the appropriateness of an officer's response to a subject's resistance.
___ is the verbal and/or physical yielding to an officer's authority without apparent threat of resistance or violence.
The ___ provide a framework for making decisions involving the reasonable use of force by criminal justice officers. The structure is based on constitutional considerations and case law and describes appropriate decision making in a fluid and dynamic situation. The Guidelines consider the relationship between subject resistance and various situational factors in determining the officer's response options.
___ is a subject's verbal and/or physical refusal to comply with an officer's lawful direction causing the officer to use physical techniques to establish control.
___ is a subject's use of physically evasive movements directed toward the officer such as bracing, tensing, pushing, or pulling to prevent the officer from establishing control over the subject.
___ is a subject's attacking movements toward an officer that may cause injury but are not likely to cause death or great bodily harm to the officer or others.
Deadly Force Resistance
___ is a subject's hostile, attacking movements with or without a weapon that create a reasonable perception by the officer that the subject intends to cause and has the capability of causing death or great bodily harm to the officer or others.
___ is achieving compliance or custody through the use of empty-hand or leverage-enhanced techniques, such as pain compliance, transporters, restraint devices, takedowns, and striking techniques.
A ___ is a weapon that is not fundamentally designed to cause death or great bodily harm.
___ refers to the subject having the means to carry out his or her intent to cause death or great bodily harm.
___ means the subject is capable of acting on a plan to cause death or great bodily harm to the officer or others.
___ is a reasonably perceived, imminent threat to an officer or another person based on the subject's actions, behaviors, words, or other indicators. It is a perception derived from the totality of the circumstances.
Totality of Circumstances
___ is a term the court uses to refer to all facts and circumstances known to the officer at the time, or reasonably perceived by the officer as the basis for, a use of force decision.
___ is a measure of anxiety caused by an appraisal of a stimulus that leads to an extreme state of arousal.
___ is the officer's evaluation and assignment of challenge or threat value to a stimulus.
___ is the officer's elevated mind-body state that occurs in the presence of a perceived challenge or threat. When the stimulus exceeds an officer's coping mechanisms, the stimulus will now be perceived as a threat and lead to extreme ___.
Fight; Flight; Posture; Submit
There are four instinctual reactions to survival stress: ___, ___, ___, and ___.
Central Nervous System
The ___ is composed of the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system.
Sympathetic Nervous System
The ___ is the part of the autonomic nervous system that is concerned especially with preparing the body to react to situations of stress or emergency. This system activates what is often called the fight or flight response.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
The ___, sometimes called the rest and digest system, is the part of the autonomic nervous system that is concerned with controlling the body during normal, routine situations.
___ is when blood flows into the larger muscle groups providing oxygen to power flight and aid in escape.
___ is when blood flow is restricted from the extremities and skin. The body pulls the blood away from the arms and legs into the torso. This keeps the blood near vital organs in case of emergency and also protects the arms and legs (our weapons) from losing blood in case of injury.
___ is due to physiological changes in the eye, vision may become distorted. Officers may as see darkness around the edges of their vision (tunnel vision). Officers may also lose the ability to see close objects with detail (farsightedness).
___ is the tendency of your eyes to fixate to one location. When an officer focuses on the perceived threat, this focus may cause the officer to not see other details of the event.
___ skills refer to the muscle control required to make small, precise movements, such as unlocking handcuffs with a key.
___ skills are the movements of the large or major muscles of the body, which are used in tasks such as running, punching, or kicking.
___ skills combine fine and gross motor skills using hand and eye coordination timed to a single event, such as driving a vehicle.
___ are mental shortcuts that allow people to solve problems and make judgments quickly and efficiently.
Critical Incident Amnesia
Officers who are exposed to an extremely stressful situation, such as an officer-involved shooting, may experience short and long-term memory loss. This is a temporary or sometimes permanent condition known as ____.
Maintaining a balanced posture is essential in performing any technique. Your head and hips must be aligned and your weight distributed evenly between your feet. If any one of these points is misaligned, you are not in ___.
___ is a controlling technique used to break the subject's balance through the use of leverage principles.
___ is using a great force against a weaker resistance. It is used in conjunction with joint manipulation and/or pain and mechanical compliance in order to gain control.
___ is a subject's response to a combination of pain and verbal commands to stop resisting.
An officer may gain control over a subject by applying pressure or leverage on a joint by locking it up so that no movement of the joint is possible, causing the subject to comply with verbal direction.
An officer may gain control over a subject by bending or twisting a joint in a direction that will cause pain or discomfort to the joint.
An officer may gain control over a subject by using an incapacitation technique that causes temporary impairment of muscular control.
Fluid Shock Principle
For maximum effectiveness, most strikes are delivered utilizing penetration so that the striking object stays on or indented in the target for an instant allowing for energy transfer. When a major muscle mass is struck this way, it displaces the water content in the muscle and penetrates the nerves within, creating a shock wave. The effect on the subject will be greatly multiplied. This is known as the ____. When delivering a strike, an officer strikes a muscle so that the striking object penetrates the muscle and nerves of the target area. This is a full transfer f kinetic energy that increases the power of the strike.
____ cues may include abnormal stuttering, serious and specific swearing, and specific verbal threats.
___ cues may include the following:
โข increased breathing and pulse rates
โข cessation of all movement
โข clenched fists and quivering hands
โข refusal to show palms of hands
โข reddened or flushed face
โข expanding veins showing prominently on face and forearms
โข shifting of shoulders or change of stance
โข target glance
โข ignoring the officer
โข rapid, angry movements
___ is a state of extreme mental and physiological excitement characterized by exceptional agitation and hyperactivity, overheating, excessive tearing of the eyes, hostility, superhuman strength, aggression, acute paranoia, and endurance without apparent fatigue".
___ is your ability to convey to subjects and onlookers that you are able and ready to take control. Subjects' and onlookers' reaction toward you depends on their perceptions of how you present yourself.
___ is the way you carry yourself. Your presence can determine whether a subject's resistance escalates or de-escalates.
___ is the exchanging of information through verbal and nonverbal methods which provides valuable insight into the likelihood of cooperation and compliance of a subject.
___ is a controlled, non-emotional communication between an officer and a subject aimed at problem solving and communication. Used as a strategy, it is intentionally designed to gain rapport and exchange information.
___ is the use of proper, clear, and concise commands to let a subject know what you need or expect him or her to do. It is usually the first step in controlling the subject's actions. Establish yourself as a criminal justice officer. Give clear and concise commands. Make sure that your commands are loud enough for the subject to hear.
___ is a nonthreatening, noncustodial physical contact and can be used to support or emphasize a verbal command. It can be effective to enhance your communication; however, you must evaluate carefully so as not to escalate a subject's resistance.
___ is touching the location of a nerve or sensitive area and applying continual, uninterrupted pressure with the tip of the finger(s) or thumb until the subject complies.
___ immobilizing the subject's head so the subject cannot move or escape. Be careful not to apply too much pressure or torque on the neck or spine when stabilizing the head.
On all pressure point techniques, applying pressure longer than ___ seconds without a response may result in an adrenaline surge.
___ are tools designed to temporarily restrain a subject's movements, such as handcuffs.
A ___ is a government intrusion into a place in which a person has a reasonable expectation of privacy.
A ___ is a physical frisk of a subject conducted in a predetermined pattern to locate weapons. Before a law enforcement officer may conduct it, he or she must have reasonable suspicion that the subject is armed. (See F.S. ยง901.151, Florida Stop and Frisk Law.)
___ is facts or circumstances which reasonably
indicate that the person has committed, is committing, or is about to commit a violation of the law
Plain Feel Doctrine
Under the ___, the officer may seize any object "whose contour or mass" he or she identifies as apparent contraband.
Custodial Search Technique
A ___ is used when a subject is taken into custody in an unsecured environment. Unlike the pat down, this is a complete search of the subject.
Quadrant Search Approach
A custodial search of a subject should be done in a systematic and predetermined pattern using the ___, which is dividing the body into four sections horizontally and vertically.
During this close contact inside the danger zone, an officer is most vulnerable to a subject's ___.
Vascular Neck Restraint
The ___ is a physical restraint compressing certain veins and arteries in the neck to cause a subject to lose consciousness for a brief period of time.
___ are tools used when empty-handed control is ineffective, but the subject's level of resistance does not merit deadly force.
A strike with an impact weapon affects a subject ___ when he sees an officer use the weapon in a controlled, competent manner. It gives the impression of a well trained officer and emphasizes his or her authority and command presence.
An ___ is any object used for striking. They may disable or cause temporary motor dysfunction.
Temporary Motor Dysfunction
___ is a type of incapacitation that causes temporary impairment of muscle control, such as a charley horse.
Weapons of Opportunity
The baton is not the only impact weapon available to an officer. Any item an officer has at hand may be used as a potential impact weapon when needed, such as a broomstick, flashlight, clipboard, or radio. These unconventional impact weapons are also known as ___.
Interview stance with an impact weapon
An ___ is a low profile stance with the weapon held partially hidden behind the leg.
Offensive ready stance with an impact weapon
An ___ is a high profile stance with the weapon held at a shoulder position to enable a rapid strike.
Electronic Control Devices
___ are weapons that use a battery-powered current of electricity. The current is high voltage and low amperage and is considered safe when used on people. These devices control a subject through an artificial contraction of the muscles which may cause extreme muscular tension and complete structural dysfunction.