For personal safety, an officer should perform ___ before and after every use of the vehicle.
An officer creates potential for ___ if something happens because of a vehicle problem, especially if inspection and correction could have prevented that problem.
Pounds Per Square Inch
Proper tire inflation ensures tires are inflated at or above the manufacturer's recommended PSI. PSI stands for ___.
If the ___ tire fails, the vehicle may lose traction. The officer may have difficulty steering, feel vibration in the steering wheel, and feel the vehicle pulling in the direction of the affected tire. If the ___ tire fails, the vehicle may also lose traction and pull in an unpredictable direction
___ is define as ability to judge distance and perceive space to determine how far away an object is.
___ is define as ability to see above, below, and to the sides (A person who is in a stationary vehicle and who has good ___ can see about 180 degrees from side to side.)
Officers should be aware that a fire can start if the vehicle is left running while parked over a grassy area for an extended period of time. This is usually caused by the extreme heat from a ___.
When an officer cannot avoid striking or driving over obstacles, the officer should strike it at a ___ (when possible) with free rolling tires.
The ___ rule establishes a minimum safe following distance for all vehicles and provides space and time for the driver to react to potential hazards. This rule applies at the posted speed limit when weather and road conditions are good.
___ occurs during acceleration or braking and causes the transfer of a vehicle's weight from front to rear or rear to front.
___ is the transfer of a vehicle's weight causing an end-for-end motion resulting in the vehicle turning 180 degrees on a horizontal plane.
A ___ is the distance from the center of a circle to the outside of the circle. A turn or curve is a portion of a circle.
An ___ is a turn that gets wider during the turn much like a circle getting larger.
A ___ is a turn that gets tighter during the turn much like a circle getting smaller.
A ___ is a turn that remains the same throughout, getting neither wider.
The ___ technique is when the vehicle is steered so it is closest to the inside of the curve before reaching the apex. This technique increases centrifugal force and can cause loss of control.
The ___ technique is when the vehicle is steered so it passes closest to the inside of the curve after reaching the apex. This technique decreases centrifugal force, reducing the potential for loss of control.
The ___ technique, in most cases,
is the best cornering or turning method. It allows the most room for driver error.
Centripetal Force; Centrifugal Force
The two general forces that act upon a vehicle as it turns a corner are ___ and ___ .
___ (tire traction) is the force that is necessary to keep a vehicle moving in a curved path and is directed inward toward the center of rotation.
___ is the force enacted on a vehicle moving in a curved path that acts outwardly away from the center of rotation.
___ is the tendency of a vehicle to turn less sharply than the driver intends. The cause of this may be a combination of excessive speed, lack of traction on the steering tires, and improper braking in a turn or curve. A combination of two or more of these errors can cause an officer to lose control.
___ is the tendency of a vehicle to steer into a sharper turn than the driver intends, sometimes with a loss of traction of the rear to the outside. This generally occurs at higher speeds when the rear tires lose traction and excessive braking occurs in a turn or curve.
___ is an occurrence that causes the rear wheels to follow a tighter path than the path the front wheels traveled in a turn.
8 and 4 O'Clock
It is recommended officers place their hands at the ___ position. This hand position provides quicker response, reduces fatigue and reduces injury if the air bag deploys. The design of some steering wheels may require a slightly different hand position.
The ___ is the forward motion that causes a vehicle to straighten from a turn when releasing the steering wheel.
___ is looking in the desired direction of travel to avoid an obstacle and
steering in that direction.
An ___ happens just before the tires lose traction during braking. The tires lock, causing loss of steering control and a skid.
Anti-lock Braking System
Enhancement to the conventional braking system called ___ is now standard equipment on late model vehicles. This type of motor vehicle braking system electronically monitors and controls each of the wheels during braking to keep them from locking.
An ___ occurs just before the drive tires lose traction during acceleration. (The drive tires are the front tires on a front-wheel drive vehicle or rear tires on a rearwheel drive vehicle.)
The best traction is___, which is when the tires constantly rotate on the road surface without losing contact.
A ___ results when the wheels lock and do not turn while the vehicle is moving. Both rolling friction and traction are lost.
A ___ also results from loss of both rolling friction and traction. During this, the wheels still rotate, but they do not control the vehicle's movement.
A ___ happens when a driver over-accelerates, and the tires spin; the wheels are not locked, but the driver has lost traction. That is why the vehicle is not accelerating forward.
___ is define as turning the vehicle's front tires in the desired direction to regain traction.
___ requires entering an intersection safely and properly at normal driving speeds and making a 90-degree turn to the right or left. Proper braking is an important element of negotiating a turn.
Although only ___ of all driving is done at night, more than half of all fatal crashes occur during hours of darkness.
According to F.S. s. 316.237, vehicle headlights should reveal a person ___ feet away with the high beams and a distance of ___ feet with the low beams.
According to F.S. s. 316.271(6), Every authorized emergency vehicle shall be equipped with a siren, whistle, or bell capable of emitting sound audible under normal conditions from a distance of not less than ___ feet and of a type approved by the department, but such siren, whistle, or bell shall not be used except when the vehicle is operated in response to an emergency call or in the immediate pursuit of an actual or suspected violator of the law, in which event the driver of the vehicle shall sound the siren, whistle, or bell when reasonably necessary to warn pedestrians and other drivers of the approach thereof.
Responding to an emergency call causes stress, which can lead to many ___ and ___ reactions.
The ___ stress of an emergency call may cause you to exceed your ability or your vehicle's ability in trying to catch the offender at any cost or get there before anyone else.
___ effects are the measurable changes to normal body functions. These include tunnel vision, selective hearing, increased heart rate, time distortion, and loss of spatial awareness or fine motor skills.
An officer should always offset his or her vehicle to the ___ of the available roadway but within his or her lane.
___ is an active attempt by an officer, driving an authorized emergency vehicle (with emergency equipment activated), to apprehend occupants of a moving vehicle if the offender increases vehicle speed, takes other evasive actions, or refuses to stop in an apparent attempt to avoid apprehension.
DeShaney v. Winnebago County Department of Social Services
In ___, 489 U.S.189 (1989), the U.S. Supreme Court stated that an officer or agency has no duty to guarantee a person's safety unless a special relationship exists between the police and that person.
City of Inellas Park v. Brown,
According to the Florida case ___ 604 So.2d 1222 (Fla. 1990), law enforcement has a duty to protect the public when choosing to continue a pursuit.
Brower v. Inyo County
In ___, 489 U.S. 593 (1989), the U.S. Supreme Court addressed the issue of deadly force in a police pursuit. In that case, the court held that certain pursuit tactics might result in a claim of a constitutional violation as a seizure by deadly force.
1. The violator stops voluntarily, and the pursuit ends.
2. The violator is stopped involuntarily, resulting in the violator's apprehension or death.
3. The officer ends the pursuit without apprehending the violator, permitting the violator to escape,
at least temporarily.
4. The violator crashes.
5. The officer crashes.
A pursuit has five possible conclusions:
A ___ is the use of vehicles, barricades, cones, or other objects to block traffic flow completely. Its purpose is to demonstrate overwhelming police superiority and position so that the violator will stop and surrender.