Testimonial evidence; Physical evidence
You will collect two types of evidence at a crime scene, ___ and ___.
___ consists of objects or perishable evidence such as fingerprints, blood, or tire tracks.
Testimonial Evidence; Physical Evidence
___ is generally less reliable than ___ because people perceive events differently, do not remember accurately, or lie.
When you correctly identify, protect, collect, preserve, transport, and analyze the ___, it cannot deliver false results.
In responding to a potential crime scene, you will receive pertinent information regarding the incident from the ___.
Expectation of Privacy
A person occupying private property has an ___ that no one can violate without a search warrant or a valid exception to the warrant requirement.
Crime Scene Log
The ___ provides proof of security and validates the evidence collected at a crime scene.
The ___ and ___ of search dictates the number and type of personnel or resources needed for crime scene processing.
A ___ is a person who alleges that a crime has been committed or can be the person who calls the police.
A ___ is a person who sees, knows, or vouches for something and may make a sworn statement about that information.
___ the crime scene is the first event that should take place before any detailed crime scene work begins.
Examples of ___ evidence can include blood, footwear, and tire impressions, or trace evidence such as hair or fibers.
When photographing specific items such as blood drops, weapons, or tire marks, place a ___ or ___ in the photograph with the evidence to establish the original positions and draw attention to relevant objects or evidence for photographing and sketching.
___ view shots show the details of a specific item of evidence and must include a scale or identifier.
Consider ___ with a flashlight or using the vehicle spotlight or headlights if the overall picture requires you to photograph the scene from more than nine to twelve feet away.
___ is composing the photograph so that it depicts what you are trying to document.
Case number, Location, Date and Time, and your Name
Include the ___, ___, ___ and ___, and ___ when submitting photographs.
Crime Scene Sketch
A ___ supplements your field notes and photographs and helps with report writing.
Crime Scene Sketch
___ are a means of documentation that aid in the reconstruction, explanation, and permanent recording of an incident. It can show relative positions (spatial relationships) of objects within the crime scene that are not readily visible in photographs. They can be used to document where evidence was recovered within the crime scene.
Crime Scene Sketch
A ___ is the second event that should take
place after photographing the scene and before any detailed work begins.
Bird's-eye-view; Downward Observation Perspective
The most common method of sketching is using the ___ or ___.
___ is the most common method of surveying (measuring and documenting) objects within the crime scene. This method measures objects from at least two fixed points, forming a triangle.
"Not To Scale"
Sketches should include the statement ___ unless you are prepared to testify that every item is precisely drawn to scale on the sketch.
___ help to document the relative positions of evidence items in the crime scene. Place them next to each piece of evidence within the crime scene after initially photographing the scene and developing your initial sketch.
___ evidence can include bruises, lacerations, broken bones, gunshot wounds, and trace or transfer evidence.
Dr. Edmond Locard
___ (1877-1966), a pioneer in forensic science, formulated the
fundamental principle of forensic science: "Every contact leaves a trace."
Locard's Exchange Principle
Referred to as
___, this contends that everyone who enters a crime scene will
both bring something into and take something from it.
Crime Scene Analyst
The job of a ___ is to determine what evidence at the scene belongs to the criminal and not to the victims or witnesses.
Strip/Line Search Pattern
___ is usually used outside by several people. Divide the search area into lanes. Have one or more people search each lane by moving in both directions, examining all areas.
grid search pattern
___ is often used indoors; a variation of the strip/line search pattern. Searchers overlap a series of lanes in a cross pattern, making the search more methodical and thorough.
Pie/Wheel Search Pattern
___ is entails dividing the area into a number of wedgeshaped sections, which are usually searched using the strip/line search pattern. Use this method for extremely large search areas.
Spiral Search Pattern
___ is usually used outside by one person. The searcher begins at a certain point and walks in increasingly larger circles to the outermost boundary of the search area.
Zone/Quadrant Search Pattern
___ is used for vehicle searches, outdoors, or a large area. Divide the area into four different sections and search each using one of the patterns above.
___ is the process of microscopically analyzing trace evidence, such as paint, glass, and cloth fibers, to determine a possible source or origin. It can identify and compare other materials such as textile fibers, plastics, duct tape, lamp filaments, and fractured, torn, or cut items.
Sometimes ___ transfer between
the clothes of the victim and the assailant. They can come from
clothing, carpet, rope, automobile carpeting, upholstery, or other
Medical Examiner; Forensic Specialist
Because of the nature of the evidence, a ___ or a trained ___ should see the bones
at the site as discovered.
___ prints are transferred from the friction ridges on fingers by a foreign substance (not a body residue), like blood, paint, or dirt, and are readily visible.
A ___ print is a molded or imbedded fingerprint created by touching an impressionable
surface, such as wet paint or mud that you can easily see.
___ prints are among the most valuable types of physical evidence and one of the most common types of evidence you will recover at a crime scene.
___ prints result from body residues left behind when the friction ridges of the hands or feet make contact with a surface.
The most common way to process latent fingerprints is by dusting them with one of several types of ___.
___ prints allow fingerprint analysts to distinguish between prints belonging to either the victims and witnesses or the possible suspects.
chain of custody
A ___ is a documentation of everyone who handled the evidence as well as
when, why, and what changes, if any, were made to it.
Florida Statute s. ___ states that it is a felony to alter, destroy, conceal, or remove any record, document, or thing with the purpose to impair its truth or availability in a criminal trial or investigation.
An ___ is the process of making detailed and systematic inquiries and observations about a criminal complaint. The purpose is to recreate what happened during the incident, identify and locate the suspect, and develop enough evidence to establish probable cause to make an arrest.
The ___ investigation focuses on establishing whether a criminal act has been committed and, if so, what type and when and where it was committed.
After reviewing the report, a ___ investigation can include contacting witnesses, victims, and suspects, reviewing evidence, locating additional evidence, and writing a capias request, arrest affidavit, or arrest warrant.
A ___ is a legal order for an arrest issued by the clerk of courts at the request of the state attorney's office.
Moving; Stationary; Electronic
There are several ways to perform surveillance on a suspect's location: ___, ___, and ___
___ surveillance is following a person of interest on foot or in a police vehicle. It requires a safe distance, more than one police officer, more than one police vehicle, and a coordinated approach, none of which can draw undue attention to the officers' presence.
A ___ at a specific location involves an officer behaving as though passing by this area is just a part of a normal driving routine.
___ surveillance involves parking your vehicle some distance away in a location that allows an approach to the area on foot in a covert manner.
___ surveillance involves monitoring a person of interest through tracking devicesโcell phone or credit card useโwhich typically requires a court order.
Modus operandi, meaning mode of operating or MO, refers to how someone does
something, usually repetitive in nature. People are creatures of habit. If something works
one time, they tend to think it should work the next time. This thinking often shows
up in criminal activity. The same person or group may well have committed similar
crimes that exhibit a pattern, or the same or similar MO.
A ___ occurs when an officer presents a victim or witness with a single suspect for identification, during the same time as the initial investigation.
A photographic array is a group of photographs used in a photographic line-up. A photographic array can
be more efficient than a live line-up because the agency can reprint existing photographs. Photographic arrays
can increase the possibility that an adequate number of similar photographs are available for identification.
A photographic line-up is the process of showing a photographic array to a victim or witness, one at a time,
to allow for the identification or elimination of suspects.
An ___ is an officer who administers a photographic array, has no knowledge of the suspect information, and will meticulously avoid any conduct that might influence, directly or indirectly, a victim's or a witness' decision.
___ presentation occurs when the independent administrator presents a group of photographs to the victim or witness all at once, at the same time.
Sequential presentation occurs when an independent administrator presents individual photographs to the
victim or witness one at a time
records of privately owned businesses or organizations, including privately owned
utilities, are not open to the public, including law enforcement, and require court orders
to access them.
___ records of government entities and publicly owned utilities are records that, with few exceptions, you may access on demand. The records from federal, state, county, and city databases can provide additional information regarding the suspect's address, employment information, and other essential facts.
Records pertaining to ___ arrests and incidents with law enforcement are restricted from the public by Florida law.
Computer Aided Dispatch (CAD) is a computerized logging system in which dispatch
records every event reported and every instruction given chronologically by date
A ___ is any person an officer has contact with while on patrolโsuch as a concerned citizen or an anonymous complainant with a sense of civic dutyโwho does not necessarily generate an incident report. They are often instrumental to solving a case.
___ are people who furnish police with information about crimes, primarily because of the expectation of some personal benefit or advantage, and rarely out of a sense of civic duty.
According to Florida law, the first appearance hearing must occur within ___ hours of the
A ___ is an official court
proceeding in which all parties, with the exception of the defendant, provide sworn testimonies regarding the
facts of the case to one of the attorneys (defense or prosecutor) prior to trial. It is the attorneys' chance to
assess the case further and document your verbal testimony before a trial or hearing.
A ___ occurs after the defense files a motion to suppress or to exclude certain testimony or evidence from the trial, alleging that your improper actions violated their client's rights. This hearing usually occurs before the trial but also may occur during the trial. The court will call on you to testify to your actions related to the stop, detention, arrest, search, seizure, statements, confessions, or evidence that the defense is trying to suppress.
Florida Statutes defines ___ evidence as relevant evidence tending to prove or disprove a material fact, with numerous exceptions specified.
A ___ is the examination of facts and related law presided over by a judge or other magistrate who has the authority or jurisdiction to hear the matter.
Florida Statutes, s. 90.616, addresses the rule of sequestration, which states that you must follow the judges' orders completely when he or she invokes the rule. You must not be in the courtroom when other witnesses are giving testimony. Violating the rule of sequestration may mean the judge will penalize or punish the witness. The judge may instruct the jury to disregard the testimony of the witness or strike it from the record. The judge could even declare a mistrial. Whether or not the judge invokes the rule, you must never communicate with a juror or known potential juror, except as directed by the court. If you observe a possible violation, report it immediately to the courtroom bailiff or the presiding judge.
Follow agency guidelines concerning confidential informants, as outlined in ___ Law, s. 914.28, F.S.