Florida Basic Recruit Training Program (Chapter 8) flashcards |

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  • Evidence

    ___ is anything that tends to prove or disprove an alleged fact.

    Testimonial evidence; Physical evidence

    You will collect two types of evidence at a crime scene, ___ and ___.

    Testimonial Evidence

    ___ is evidence gathered from witnesses.

    Physical Evidence

    ___ consists of objects or perishable evidence such as fingerprints, blood, or tire tracks.

    Testimonial Evidence; Physical Evidence

    ___ is generally less reliable than ___ because people perceive events differently, do not remember accurately, or lie.

    Physical Evidence

    When you correctly identify, protect, collect, preserve, transport, and analyze the ___, it cannot deliver false results.

    Investigation

    An ___ occurs when you make detailed and systematic inquiries or observations.

    911 Dispatch

    In responding to a potential crime scene, you will receive pertinent information regarding the incident from the ___.

    Public Safety Telecommunicator

    911 Dispatch is also known as the ___.

    Reduce; Enlarge

    It is easier to ___ the size of a perimeter than to ___ it.

    Public property

    ___ is for the use and enjoyment of the public and is open to the public.

    Private property

    ___ belongs to an individual and is not open to the public.

    Expectation of Privacy

    A person occupying private property has an ___ that no one can violate without a search warrant or a valid exception to the warrant requirement.

    Crime Scene Log

    The ___ provides proof of security and validates the evidence collected at a crime scene.

    Size; Type

    The ___ and ___ of search dictates the number and type of personnel or resources needed for crime scene processing.

    Complainant

    A ___ is a person who alleges that a crime has been committed or can be the person who calls the police.

    Victim

    A ___ is a person harmed by a crime.

    Suspect

    A ___ is a person believed to have committed a crime or offense.

    Witness

    A ___ is a person who sees, knows, or vouches for something and may make a sworn statement about that information.

    Scale; Ruler; Identifier

    Include a ___, ___, or ___ in each close-up photograph you take.

    Heat

    Florida's climate is particularly hard on batteries, as ___ deteriorates batteries.

    Photographing

    ___ the crime scene is the first event that should take place before any detailed crime scene work begins.

    Perishable

    Examples of ___ evidence can include blood, footwear, and tire impressions, or trace evidence such as hair or fibers.

    Transitory

    ___ evidence is evidence that can blow or wash away.

    Fragile

    ___ evidence can include a bullet hole in glass held into place by a thin window tint.

    Scale; Identifier

    When photographing specific items such as blood drops, weapons, or tire marks, place a ___ or ___ in the photograph with the evidence to establish the original positions and draw attention to relevant objects or evidence for photographing and sketching.

    Midrange

    The ___ view shots show the relationship between the evidence items within the scene.

    Close up

    ___ view shots show the details of a specific item of evidence and must include a scale or identifier.

    Nine to Twelve

    Standard camera flashes will only project ___ feet.

    Flood Lighting

    Consider ___ with a flashlight or using the vehicle spotlight or headlights if the overall picture requires you to photograph the scene from more than nine to twelve feet away.

    Photographic Framing

    ___ is composing the photograph so that it depicts what you are trying to document.

    Case number, Location, Date and Time, and your Name

    Include the ___, ___, ___ and ___, and ___ when submitting photographs.

    Crime Scene Sketch

    A ___ supplements your field notes and photographs and helps with report writing.

    Crime Scene Sketch

    ___ are a means of documentation that aid in the reconstruction, explanation, and permanent recording of an incident. It can show relative positions (spatial relationships) of objects within the crime scene that are not readily visible in photographs. They can be used to document where evidence was recovered within the crime scene.

    Crime Scene Sketch

    A ___ is the second event that should take
    place after photographing the scene and before any detailed work begins.

    Bird's-eye-view; Downward Observation Perspective

    The most common method of sketching is using the ___ or ___.

    Triangulation

    ___ is the most common method of surveying (measuring and documenting) objects within the crime scene. This method measures objects from at least two fixed points, forming a triangle.

    "Not To Scale"

    Sketches should include the statement ___ unless you are prepared to testify that every item is precisely drawn to scale on the sketch.

    Evidence markers

    ___ help to document the relative positions of evidence items in the crime scene. Place them next to each piece of evidence within the crime scene after initially photographing the scene and developing your initial sketch.

    Visible

    ___ evidence can include bruises, lacerations, broken bones, gunshot wounds, and trace or transfer evidence.

    Dr. Edmond Locard

    ___ (1877-1966), a pioneer in forensic science, formulated the
    fundamental principle of forensic science: "Every contact leaves a trace."

    Locard's Exchange Principle

    Referred to as
    ___, this contends that everyone who enters a crime scene will
    both bring something into and take something from it.

    Crime Scene Analyst

    The job of a ___ is to determine what evidence at the scene belongs to the criminal and not to the victims or witnesses.

    Personal Protective Equipment

    Use ___ whenever you handle or collect evidence.

    Strip/Line Search Pattern

    ___ is usually used outside by several people. Divide the search area into lanes. Have one or more people search each lane by moving in both directions, examining all areas.

    grid search pattern

    ___ is often used indoors; a variation of the strip/line search pattern. Searchers overlap a series of lanes in a cross pattern, making the search more methodical and thorough.

    Pie/Wheel Search Pattern

    ___ is entails dividing the area into a number of wedgeshaped sections, which are usually searched using the strip/line search pattern. Use this method for extremely large search areas.

    Spiral Search Pattern

    ___ is usually used outside by one person. The searcher begins at a certain point and walks in increasingly larger circles to the outermost boundary of the search area.

    Zone/Quadrant Search Pattern

    ___ is used for vehicle searches, outdoors, or a large area. Divide the area into four different sections and search each using one of the patterns above.

    Microanalysis

    ___ is the process of microscopically analyzing trace evidence, such as paint, glass, and cloth fibers, to determine a possible source or origin. It can identify and compare other materials such as textile fibers, plastics, duct tape, lamp filaments, and fractured, torn, or cut items.

    Fibers

    Sometimes ___ transfer between the clothes of the victim and the assailant. They can come from clothing, carpet, rope, automobile carpeting, upholstery, or other common
    articles.

    Paint

    ___ transfer can provide useful evidence in solving crimes such as a hit-and-run crash.

    Biological

    ___ evidence left at crime scenes may contain DNA.

    Medical Examiner; Forensic Specialist

    Because of the nature of the evidence, a ___ or a trained ___ should see the bones
    at the site as discovered.

    Patent

    ___ prints are transferred from the friction ridges on fingers by a foreign substance (not a body residue), like blood, paint, or dirt, and are readily visible.

    Plastic

    A ___ print is a molded or imbedded fingerprint created by touching an impressionable
    surface, such as wet paint or mud that you can easily see.

    Latent

    ___ prints are among the most valuable types of physical evidence and one of the most common types of evidence you will recover at a crime scene.

    Latent

    ___ prints are generally invisible to the naked eye.

    Latent

    ___ prints result from body residues left behind when the friction ridges of the hands or feet make contact with a surface.

    powder

    The most common way to process latent fingerprints is by dusting them with one of several types of ___.

    Elimination

    ___ prints allow fingerprint analysts to distinguish between prints belonging to either the victims and witnesses or the possible suspects.

    chain of custody

    A ___ is a documentation of everyone who handled the evidence as well as
    when, why, and what changes, if any, were made to it.

    918.13

    Florida Statute s. ___ states that it is a felony to alter, destroy, conceal, or remove any record, document, or thing with the purpose to impair its truth or availability in a criminal trial or investigation.

    investigation

    An ___ is the process of making detailed and systematic inquiries and observations about a criminal complaint. The purpose is to recreate what happened during the incident, identify and locate the suspect, and develop enough evidence to establish probable cause to make an arrest.

    preliminary

    The ___ investigation focuses on establishing whether a criminal act has been committed and, if so, what type and when and where it was committed.

    Follow-up

    After reviewing the report, a ___ investigation can include contacting witnesses, victims, and suspects, reviewing evidence, locating additional evidence, and writing a capias request, arrest affidavit, or arrest warrant.

    capias

    A ___ is a legal order for an arrest issued by the clerk of courts at the request of the state attorney's office.

    Moving; Stationary; Electronic

    There are several ways to perform surveillance on a suspect's location: ___, ___, and ___

    Moving

    ___ surveillance is following a person of interest on foot or in a police vehicle. It requires a safe distance, more than one police officer, more than one police vehicle, and a coordinated approach, none of which can draw undue attention to the officers' presence.

    Drive-by

    A ___ at a specific location involves an officer behaving as though passing by this area is just a part of a normal driving routine.

    Moving

    A patrol officer looking for a wanted person often performs this surveillance.

    Stationary

    ___ surveillance involves parking your vehicle some distance away in a location that allows an approach to the area on foot in a covert manner.

    Electronic

    ___ surveillance involves monitoring a person of interest through tracking devicesโ€”cell phone or credit card useโ€”which typically requires a court order.

    leads

    ___ can provide information that will further your investigation.

    Canvass

    A ___ is a door-to-door inquiry of all possible sources of information in a given area.

    ...

    Modus operandi, meaning mode of operating or MO, refers to how someone does
    something, usually repetitive in nature. People are creatures of habit. If something works
    one time, they tend to think it should work the next time. This thinking often shows
    up in criminal activity. The same person or group may well have committed similar
    crimes that exhibit a pattern, or the same or similar MO.

    Show-up

    A ___ occurs when an officer presents a victim or witness with a single suspect for identification, during the same time as the initial investigation.

    ...

    A photographic array is a group of photographs used in a photographic line-up. A photographic array can
    be more efficient than a live line-up because the agency can reprint existing photographs. Photographic arrays
    can increase the possibility that an adequate number of similar photographs are available for identification.

    ...

    A photographic array consists of a minimum of six photographs

    ...

    Filler photographs are photographs of people,
    other than the suspect, that complete the array.

    ...

    A photographic line-up is the process of showing a photographic array to a victim or witness, one at a time,
    to allow for the identification or elimination of suspects.

    Independent Administrator

    An ___ is an officer who administers a photographic array, has no knowledge of the suspect information, and will meticulously avoid any conduct that might influence, directly or indirectly, a victim's or a witness' decision.

    Simultaneous

    ___ presentation occurs when the independent administrator presents a group of photographs to the victim or witness all at once, at the same time.

    ...

    Sequential presentation occurs when an independent administrator presents individual photographs to the
    victim or witness one at a time

    Public Records; Private Records

    There are two main types of informationโ€”___ and ___.

    ...

    Private
    records of privately owned businesses or organizations, including privately owned
    utilities, are not open to the public, including law enforcement, and require court orders
    to access them.

    Public

    ___ records of government entities and publicly owned utilities are records that, with few exceptions, you may access on demand. The records from federal, state, county, and city databases can provide additional information regarding the suspect's address, employment information, and other essential facts.

    Juvenile

    Records pertaining to ___ arrests and incidents with law enforcement are restricted from the public by Florida law.

    ...

    Checking for a driver's license is one of the most common ways to locate an individual.

    ...

    Computer Aided Dispatch (CAD) is a computerized logging system in which dispatch
    records every event reported and every instruction given chronologically by date
    and time.

    Field Contact

    A ___ is any person an officer has contact with while on patrolโ€”such as a concerned citizen or an anonymous complainant with a sense of civic dutyโ€”who does not necessarily generate an incident report. They are often instrumental to solving a case.

    Confidential Informants

    ___ are people who furnish police with information about crimes, primarily because of the expectation of some personal benefit or advantage, and rarely out of a sense of civic duty.

    24

    According to Florida law, the first appearance hearing must occur within ___ hours of the
    arrest.

    deposition

    A ___ is an official court
    proceeding in which all parties, with the exception of the defendant, provide sworn testimonies regarding the
    facts of the case to one of the attorneys (defense or prosecutor) prior to trial. It is the attorneys' chance to
    assess the case further and document your verbal testimony before a trial or hearing.

    "Off the record"

    ___ refers to
    information not recorded in an official document.

    Suppression Hearing

    A ___ occurs after the defense files a motion to suppress or to exclude certain testimony or evidence from the trial, alleging that your improper actions violated their client's rights. This hearing usually occurs before the trial but also may occur during the trial. The court will call on you to testify to your actions related to the stop, detention, arrest, search, seizure, statements, confessions, or evidence that the defense is trying to suppress.

    admissible

    Florida Statutes defines ___ evidence as relevant evidence tending to prove or disprove a material fact, with numerous exceptions specified.

    trial

    A ___ is the examination of facts and related law presided over by a judge or other magistrate who has the authority or jurisdiction to hear the matter.

    ...

    Florida Statutes, s. 90.616, addresses the rule of sequestration, which states that you must follow the judges' orders completely when he or she invokes the rule. You must not be in the courtroom when other witnesses are giving testimony. Violating the rule of sequestration may mean the judge will penalize or punish the witness. The judge may instruct the jury to disregard the testimony of the witness or strike it from the record. The judge could even declare a mistrial. Whether or not the judge invokes the rule, you must never communicate with a juror or known potential juror, except as directed by the court. If you observe a possible violation, report it immediately to the courtroom bailiff or the presiding judge.

    Rachel's

    Follow agency guidelines concerning confidential informants, as outlined in ___ Law, s. 914.28, F.S.

    subpoena

    Before trial, you may receive a ___ or notice to give a deposition.

    Impression
    Evidence

    tool marks

    Trace Evidence

    hairs

    document

    A ___ is anything containing a mark to convey a message.

    paper bags

    wet evidence, such as items soaked with bodily fluids or living plant material, must either be air-dried, packaged in breathable containers such as ___, or both.

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