A ___ is a collision, involving one or more vehicles, that causes property damage, personal injury, or death and is the result of an unintentional act.
"Unintentional"; "Causes property damage, personal injury or death"
The terms ___ and ___ are crucial to traffic crash.
A ___ is any person who drives or is in actual physical control of a vehicle on a highway or who is exercising control of a vehicle or steering a vehicle being towed by a motor vehicle.
(s. 316.003(21), F.S.) defined ___ as a self-propelled vehicle not operated upon rails or guideway, but not including any bicycle, motorized scooter, electric personal assistive mobility device, swamp buggy, or moped.
Section 320.01(1), F.S., defines ___ as an automobile, motorcycle, truck, trailer, semitrailer, truck tractor and semitrailer combination, or any other vehicle operated on the roads of this state, used to transport persons or property, and propelled by power other than muscular power, but the term does not include traction engines, road rollers, special mobile equipment as defined in s. 316.003(48), F.S., vehicles that run only upon a track, bicycles, swamp buggies, or mopeds.
Section 320.01(1), F.S., defines ___ as a recreational vehicle-type unit primarily designed as temporary living quarters for recreational, camping, or travel use, which either has its own motive power or is mounted on or drawn by another vehicle. Recreational vehicle-type units, when traveling on the public roadways of this state, must comply with the length and width provisions of s. 316.515, F.S., as that section may hereafter be amended.
___ is defined as technology installed on a motor vehicle that has the capability to drive the vehicle on which the technology is installed without the active control or monitoring by a human operator.
___ is defined as a highway the roadway of which is divided into two or more clearly marked lanes for vehicular traffic.
Limited Access Facility
___ is defined as a street or highway especially designed for through traffic and over, from, or to which owners or occupants of abutting land or other persons have no right or easement, or only a limited right or easement, of access, light, air, or view by reason of the fact that their property abuts upon such limited access facility or for any other reason; such highways or streets may be parkways from which trucks, buses, and other commercial vehicles are excluded; or they may be freeways open to use by all customary forms of street and highway traffic.
Private Road or Driveway
______: except as otherwise provided in paragraph (53)(b), any privately owned way or place used for vehicular travel by the owner and those having express or implied permission from the owner, but not by other persons.
___ is defined as any highway designated as a state-maintained road by the Department of Transportation.
___ is defined as that portion of a highway improved, designed, or ordinarily used for vehicular travel, exclusive of the berm or shoulder; in the event a highway includes two or more separate roadways, the term as used here refers to any such roadway separately, but not to all such roadways collectively.
Street or Highway
___ is defined as (a) the entire
width between the boundary lines of every way or place of whatever
nature when any part thereof is open to the use of the public for
purposes of vehicular traffic; (b) the entire width between the boundary
lines of any privately owned way or place used for vehicular travel by
the owner and those having express or implied permission from the owner,
but not by other persons, or any limited access road owned or
controlled by a special district, whenever, by written agreement entered
into under ss. 316.006(2)(b) or (3)(b), a county or municipality
exercises traffic control jurisdiction over said way or place; (c) any
area, such as a runway, taxiway, ramp, clear zone, or parking lot,
within the boundary of any airport owned by the state, a county, a
municipality, or a political subdivision, which area is used for
vehicular traffic but which is not open for vehicular operation by the
general public; or
(d) any way or place used for vehicular traffic on a controlled access basis within a mobile home park
recreation district which has been created under s. 418.30, F.S., and the recreational facilities of which
district are open to the general public
___ is defined as (a) the area embraced within the prolongation or connection of the lateral curblines; or, if none, then the lateral boundary lines of the roadways of two highways which join one another at, or approximately at, right angles; or the area within which vehicles traveling upon different highways joining at any other angle may come in conflict (b) where a highway includes two roadways 30 feet or more apart, then every crossing of each roadway of such divided highway by an intersecting highway shall be regarded as a separate intersection; in the event such intersecting highway also includes two roadways 30 feet or more apart,
___ is defined as (a) that part of a roadway at an intersection included within the connections of the lateral lines of the sidewalks on opposite sides of the highway, measured from the curbs or, in the absence of curbs, from the edges of the traversable roadway (b) any portion of a roadway at an intersection or elsewhere distinctly indicated for pedestrian crossing by lines or other markings on the surface.
___ is defined as that portion of a street between the curb line, or the lateral line, of a roadway and the adjacent property lines, intended for use by pedestrians.
___ any road, path, or way that is open to bicycle travel, which road, path, or way is physically separated from motorized vehicular traffic by an open space or by a barrier and is located either within the highway right-of-way or within an independent right-of-way.
Serious Bodily Injury
___ is defined as an injury to any person, including the driver, which consists of a physical condition that creates a substantial risk of death, serious personal disfigurement, or protracted loss or impairment of the function of any bodily member or organ.
___ is defined as an injury resulting in an individual's death within a 12-month period after the traffic crash.
___ is defined as visible or non-visible signs of injury, such as a bleeding wound or distorted member, usually requiring transportation to a medical facility and hospitalization.
___ is defined as visible or non-visible signs of injury or complaint of injury, not requiring transport from the scene.
Traffic Crash Management
___ is defined as law enforcement's responsibility to control and normalize a traffic crash scene.
Step 1: Respond to the traffic crash scene safely.
Step 2: Assess the scene of the crash.
Step 3: Secure a safe work environment at the crash scene.
Step 4: Provide emergency medical assistance to injured people, if necessary.
Step 5: Obtain pertinent information.
Step 6: Investigate the crash to determine how and why it occurred.
Step 7: Return the scene to normal as quickly as possible, if appropriate.
Step 8: Complete driver exchange of information.
Step 9: Take enforcement action.
Step 10: Document the crash.
The traffic crash management process involves the following ten steps:
Secure a safe work environment at the crash scene.
What is step 3 of the traffic crash management process.
Provide emergency medical assistance to injured people, if necessary.
What is step 4 of the traffic crash management process.
Investigate the crash to determine how and why it occurred.
What is step 6 of the traffic crash management process.
Return the scene to normal as quickly as possible, if appropriate.
What is step 7 of the traffic crash management process.
Upon approaching the crash scene, view it from a distance to determine its ___ and ___.
Be aware of the possible dangers and hazards that you may encounter at the crash site, ___ being one of them.
Department of Transportation's Emergency Response Guide (ERG)
Before approaching the scene, determine if the vehicle's contents are hazardous. Locate the placard on the vehicle and refer to the ___ to verify the contents.
Crash ___, such as small pieces of metal and glass, pose additional threats to both vehicle and pedestrian traffic.
Traffic crashes attract motorists' attention and cause gawking or ___, which slows the traffic flow.
The headlights should be on ___ beam so as not to blind drivers approaching from the opposite direction.
As stated earlier, the ___ is the first available equipment that you can use to protect the crash scene.
Public Works Department
Agencies may access outside resources, such as their ___, to provide additional warning devices.
___ do not only serve as effective warning devices at night; they are also visible warning devices to motorists during the day.
The purpose of the ___ is to prevent injury or damage to motorists and protect the crash scene.
First Harmful Event
The crash should be investigated by the jurisdiction where the ___ (first damage or injury producing event) occurred.
Area of Collision (AOC)
The officer can locate the ___ by examining the location of the first harmful event.
Area of Collision (AOC)
The ___ may be indicated by crash debris, fixed property damage, broken glass, gouge marks, and scrape marks.
Pre-collision Phase; Point of Possible Perception
The ___ or the ___ is the earliest possible time the driver could have become aware of a potential danger or hazard.
___ is any action taken by the driver to alter the speed or direction of a vehicle or to avoid a pedestrian, such as applying the brakes, turning the steering wheel, or moving out of the way.
___ is the length of time between the point of possible perception and the start of the evasive action.
Point of no escape
___ is the point in time when the crash is inevitable, regardless of the evasive action taken.
___ occurs when two objects begin
to enter the same space at the same time. This is where the first
injury or damage may occur. Damage will occur when
contact is made between vehicles or objects entering the same space. Evasive action may also occur here if no contact is made between vehicles or objects.
___ is the point at which the vehicles or other objects are crushed together to the greatest extent.
The ___ (disengagement) is the point when the vehicles separate, either naturally or artificially.
Often, a second impact known as ___ occurs in chain reaction collisions or when one vehicle glances off another into the path of a third vehicle, property, or person(s).
Based on s. 320.0605, F.S., an operator of a vehicle must possess and present, upon demand of a law enforcement officer, a certificate of registration (or an alternative stated in the statute) for the vehicle he or she operates, except during the first ___ days after purchase of a vehicle.
The registration is considered current if it reflects the information for the vehicle being driven by the driver and if the effective date includes the period in which the crash occurred. Example: In Florida, a certificate of registration is issued with each renewal of the registration license tag and reflects the period of ___ year from the birth date of the owner or from January 1 for vehicles registered under s. 320.08, F.S.
However, the law enforcement agency may void the citation if the driver, within ___ hours of the crash, provides the proof of insurance which was valid at the time of the crash.
_____ is define as any damage to a vehicle resulting from the direct pressure of any object in a collision or rollover. It usually appears as scrape marks or striations on the body of the vehicle, material rub-off, such as paint from the other vehicle (called paint transfer), rubber, or tree bark, or as a puncture to or imprint on a bumper, guard rail, or other fixed object.
___ is define as any damage to a vehicle other than contact damage, often occurs as bending, breaking, crumpling, twisting, distortion, or buckling of the vehicle metal.
___ existed before the crash. This is usually identifiable as damage which does not fit the pattern of the crash and appears rusted, dirty, or weathered.
Area of Collision (AOC)
The ___ is the location of the first harmful event, or the first damage-producing event in a traffic crash. It shows the officer where the collision occurred.
A ___ is a cut into the surface of the roadway where the surface material has been removed by some part from the vehicle.
An example is when a bolt on the underside of a vehicle cuts into the pavement, leaving a ___ or gouge in the road surface at the area of collision.
A ___ is a broad area of a hard surface covered with many scratches, striations, or streak marks made without great pressure by a sliding metal part.
___ is a liquid pool, fluid trail, or line of flow from fluids escaping from a vehicle as a result of impact. Quite often, hard impacts will make radiators, hoses, and brake lines burst. When this occurs, the liquid will run out of the vehicle onto the roadway. Often, these liquids will leave a trail from near the area of collision to final rest.
___ is loose material strewn about the road as the result of a traffic collision and can be composed of dirt, liquids, vehicle parts, and other materials from the involved vehicles. Checking the scene for debris on the roadway may help to indicate the AOC. Finding where the debris started may help to locate the area of initial collision.
Glass on the roadway for some time has a tendency to become ___ on the edges. New glass, on the other hand, has ___, well-defined edges.
___ in relation to a crash: the
officer can consider the movement of vehicles during and after collision
when determining the path of travel and assisting in locating the area
of collision. Basic physics teaches that an object in motion continues
to remain in motion until acted upon by an external force. In a crash
investigation, external force is normally another moving vehicle or a stationary object such as a tree or building.
Skid marks tend to be straight, although they can exhibit some curvature due to ___ (not all brake pads lock simultaneously) or due to the crown of the road.
Front tire skid marks tend to be darker than rear tire marks (officers should remember that when braking, weight shifts toward the ___ of the vehicle) and the outside edges of the mark may be darker than the inside area, due to over deflection of the tire (weight shift, again).
Incipient Skid; Impending Skid
This beginning point of braking leaves a light
discoloration, or shadow mark, on the roadway called an ___ or ___. This is the portion of the skid mark representing the most efficient braking of the wheel. This is also the type of skid mark left by anti-lock braking system (ABS).
Mark Loading Point
The beginning of this part of the
skid is called the skid ___ . It is the start of the skid mark and
should be measured. It is usually hard to see unless closely observed.
It is also temporary and may no longer
be visible 15 to 20 minutes after the marks are made.
Intermittent Skid Marks
___ are a series of skid marks with long gaps (more than 15 feet) between heavy skid marks. This pattern is caused by rapidly applying and releasing the brakes.
Skip Skid Marks
___ are a series of skid marks usually short in length with irregular intervals between them. This pattern appears when a vehicle has a sudden load shift while braking hard. The weight shift causes a bouncing, which results in the skip skid mark. This is more typical of trailer vehicles. A car skidding on a bumpy road also makes this mark.
___ are skid marks indicating an
abrupt change in the direction of a tire due to collision forces. The
only item of evidence that pinpoints the exact AOC on the roadway is
offset skid marks. It is the direct result
of the movement of the vehicle by the force of collision and occurs at the moment of collision.
Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) scuff marks
___ are the patterns left by a vehicle with anti-lock brakes when a driver brakes hard. These marks do not resemble the solid skid marks. The function of the ABS is to prevent the wheels from locking by rapidly applying and releasing the brake and thereby allowing the driver to remain in control of the steering. Vehicles equipped with ABS may leave faint, intermittent, visible skid marks. These are also limited in time and will no longer be visible 15 to 20 minutes after they are made.
A ___ is a strip of dry pavement remaining after a vehicle skids on a wet roadway. The locked tire
acts similarly to a window squeegee by removing water from the skid path. Due to the way these marks are
made, they disappear quickly and are temporary evidence.
A ___ is a type of trench dug by
locked tires moving across a soft surface such as gravel, sand, grass,
or dirt. The furrow is shallow at the beginning of the skid and deepens
with a piling of the surface material in
front of the tire at the place where the vehicle finally rests.
Scuff or Yaw Mark
A ___ occurs when a vehicle loses tire traction as a result of entering a curve too fast or over steering. The tires in this case continue rotating but slide sideways at the same time. Marks are left from the tires slipping across the roadway once the adhesion limit of the tires is exceeded. The tires produce a screeching sound and leave rubber marks on the roadway. The scuff or yaw marks may be evidence of when the driver began to lose control of the vehicle. They will always be curved and will show a sideways striping or striation from the side motion of the tires.
Acceleration Scuff Marks
___ result from rapid acceleration and a sudden stop, causing the tires to produce gradually fading dark tire marks.
A ___ is a mark left by a tire rolling over a soft material such as sand, dirt, or a liquid on a hard surface, such as oil, and which leaves an identifiable pattern matching the tread of the tire.