Florida Basic Recruit Training Program (Chapter 12) flashcards |

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  • Traffic Crash

    A ___ is a collision, involving one or more vehicles, that causes property damage, personal injury, or death and is the result of an unintentional act.

    "Unintentional"; "Causes property damage, personal injury or death"

    The terms ___ and ___ are crucial to traffic crash.

    Driver

    A ___ is any person who drives or is in actual physical control of a vehicle on a highway or who is exercising control of a vehicle or steering a vehicle being towed by a motor vehicle.

    Pedestrian

    ___ is defined as any person afoot.

    Motor Vehicle

    (s. 316.003(21), F.S.) defined ___ as a self-propelled vehicle not operated upon rails or guideway, but not including any bicycle, motorized scooter, electric personal assistive mobility device, swamp buggy, or moped.

    Motor Vehicle

    Section 320.01(1), F.S., defines ___ as an automobile, motorcycle, truck, trailer, semitrailer, truck tractor and semitrailer combination, or any other vehicle operated on the roads of this state, used to transport persons or property, and propelled by power other than muscular power, but the term does not include traction engines, road rollers, special mobile equipment as defined in s. 316.003(48), F.S., vehicles that run only upon a track, bicycles, swamp buggies, or mopeds.

    Motor Vehicle

    Section 320.01(1), F.S., defines ___ as a recreational vehicle-type unit primarily designed as temporary living quarters for recreational, camping, or travel use, which either has its own motive power or is mounted on or drawn by another vehicle. Recreational vehicle-type units, when traveling on the public roadways of this state, must comply with the length and width provisions of s. 316.515, F.S., as that section may hereafter be amended.

    Autonomous Vehicle

    ___ is defined as any vehicle equipped with autonomous technology.

    Autonomous Technology

    ___ is defined as technology installed on a motor vehicle that has the capability to drive the vehicle on which the technology is installed without the active control or monitoring by a human operator.

    Laned Highway

    ___ is defined as a highway the roadway of which is divided into two or more clearly marked lanes for vehicular traffic.

    Limited Access Facility

    ___ is defined as a street or highway especially designed for through traffic and over, from, or to which owners or occupants of abutting land or other persons have no right or easement, or only a limited right or easement, of access, light, air, or view by reason of the fact that their property abuts upon such limited access facility or for any other reason; such highways or streets may be parkways from which trucks, buses, and other commercial vehicles are excluded; or they may be freeways open to use by all customary forms of street and highway traffic.

    Private Road or Driveway

    ______: except as otherwise provided in paragraph (53)(b), any privately owned way or place used for vehicular travel by the owner and those having express or implied permission from the owner, but not by other persons.

    State Road

    ___ is defined as any highway designated as a state-maintained road by the Department of Transportation.

    Roadway

    ___ is defined as that portion of a highway improved, designed, or ordinarily used for vehicular travel, exclusive of the berm or shoulder; in the event a highway includes two or more separate roadways, the term as used here refers to any such roadway separately, but not to all such roadways collectively.

    Street or Highway

    ___ is defined as (a) the entire width between the boundary lines of every way or place of whatever nature when any part thereof is open to the use of the public for purposes of vehicular traffic; (b) the entire width between the boundary lines of any privately owned way or place used for vehicular travel by the owner and those having express or implied permission from the owner, but not by other persons, or any limited access road owned or controlled by a special district, whenever, by written agreement entered into under ss. 316.006(2)(b) or (3)(b), a county or municipality exercises traffic control jurisdiction over said way or place; (c) any area, such as a runway, taxiway, ramp, clear zone, or parking lot, within the boundary of any airport owned by the state, a county, a municipality, or a political subdivision, which area is used for vehicular traffic but which is not open for vehicular operation by the general public; or
    (d) any way or place used for vehicular traffic on a controlled access basis within a mobile home park
    recreation district which has been created under s. 418.30, F.S., and the recreational facilities of which
    district are open to the general public

    Intersection

    ___ is defined as (a) the area embraced within the prolongation or connection of the lateral curblines; or, if none, then the lateral boundary lines of the roadways of two highways which join one another at, or approximately at, right angles; or the area within which vehicles traveling upon different highways joining at any other angle may come in conflict (b) where a highway includes two roadways 30 feet or more apart, then every crossing of each roadway of such divided highway by an intersecting highway shall be regarded as a separate intersection; in the event such intersecting highway also includes two roadways 30 feet or more apart,

    Crosswalk

    ___ is defined as (a) that part of a roadway at an intersection included within the connections of the lateral lines of the sidewalks on opposite sides of the highway, measured from the curbs or, in the absence of curbs, from the edges of the traversable roadway (b) any portion of a roadway at an intersection or elsewhere distinctly indicated for pedestrian crossing by lines or other markings on the surface.

    Sidewalk

    ___ is defined as that portion of a street between the curb line, or the lateral line, of a roadway and the adjacent property lines, intended for use by pedestrians.

    Bicycle Path

    ___ any road, path, or way that is open to bicycle travel, which road, path, or way is physically separated from motorized vehicular traffic by an open space or by a barrier and is located either within the highway right-of-way or within an independent right-of-way.

    Serious Bodily Injury

    ___ is defined as an injury to any person, including the driver, which consists of a physical condition that creates a substantial risk of death, serious personal disfigurement, or protracted loss or impairment of the function of any bodily member or organ.

    Fatal Injury

    ___ is defined as an injury resulting in an individual's death within a 12-month period after the traffic crash.

    Incapacitating Injury

    ___ is defined as visible or non-visible signs of injury, such as a bleeding wound or distorted member, usually requiring transportation to a medical facility and hospitalization.

    Non-incapacitating Injury

    ___ is defined as visible or non-visible signs of injury or complaint of injury, not requiring transport from the scene.

    Traffic Crash Management

    ___ is defined as law enforcement's responsibility to control and normalize a traffic crash scene.

    Step 1: Respond to the traffic crash scene safely.
    Step 2: Assess the scene of the crash.
    Step 3: Secure a safe work environment at the crash scene.
    Step 4: Provide emergency medical assistance to injured people, if necessary.
    Step 5: Obtain pertinent information.
    Step 6: Investigate the crash to determine how and why it occurred.
    Step 7: Return the scene to normal as quickly as possible, if appropriate.
    Step 8: Complete driver exchange of information.
    Step 9: Take enforcement action.
    Step 10: Document the crash.

    The traffic crash management process involves the following ten steps:

    Respond to the traffic crash scene safely.

    What is step 1 of the traffic crash management process.

    Assess the scene of the crash.

    What is step 2 of the traffic crash management process.

    Secure a safe work environment at the crash scene.

    What is step 3 of the traffic crash management process.

    Provide emergency medical assistance to injured people, if necessary.

    What is step 4 of the traffic crash management process.

    Obtain pertinent information.

    What is step 5 of the traffic crash management process.

    Investigate the crash to determine how and why it occurred.

    What is step 6 of the traffic crash management process.

    Return the scene to normal as quickly as possible, if appropriate.

    What is step 7 of the traffic crash management process.

    Complete driver exchange of information.

    What is step 8 of the traffic crash management process.

    Take enforcement action.

    What is step 9 of the traffic crash management process.

    Document the crash.

    What is step 10 of the traffic crash management process.

    Type; Extent

    Upon approaching the crash scene, view it from a distance to determine its ___ and ___.

    Fire

    Be aware of the possible dangers and hazards that you may encounter at the crash site, ___ being one of them.

    Hazardous

    Before approaching the scene, determine if the vehicle's contents are ___.

    Department of Transportation's Emergency Response Guide (ERG)

    Before approaching the scene, determine if the vehicle's contents are hazardous. Locate the placard on the vehicle and refer to the ___ to verify the contents.

    Debris

    Crash ___, such as small pieces of metal and glass, pose additional threats to both vehicle and pedestrian traffic.

    Rubbernecking

    Traffic crashes attract motorists' attention and cause gawking or ___, which slows the traffic flow.

    Attention

    Many secondary crashes happen because of lack of ___.

    Low

    The headlights should be on ___ beam so as not to blind drivers approaching from the opposite direction.

    Patrol Vehicle

    As stated earlier, the ___ is the first available equipment that you can use to protect the crash scene.

    Public Works Department

    Agencies may access outside resources, such as their ___, to provide additional warning devices.

    Flares; Fuses

    ___ or ___ are very important warning devices at a crash scene.

    Flares

    ___ do not only serve as effective warning devices at night; they are also visible warning devices to motorists during the day.

    Environmental Conditions

    ___ may affect the placement and number of traffic warning devices.

    Roadblock

    When there is no safe way to protect the scene, place a ____.

    Roadblock

    The purpose of the ___ is to prevent injury or damage to motorists and protect the crash scene.

    First Harmful Event

    The crash should be investigated by the jurisdiction where the ___ (first damage or injury producing event) occurred.

    Area of Collision (AOC)

    The officer can locate the ___ by examining the location of the first harmful event.

    Area of Collision (AOC)

    The ___ may be indicated by crash debris, fixed property damage, broken glass, gouge marks, and scrape marks.

    Point of Perception

    The ____ is when the driver becomes aware of a danger or hazard.

    Pre-collision Phase; Point of Possible Perception

    The ___ or the ___ is the earliest possible time the driver could have become aware of a potential danger or hazard.

    Evasive Action

    ___ is any action taken by the driver to alter the speed or direction of a vehicle or to avoid a pedestrian, such as applying the brakes, turning the steering wheel, or moving out of the way.

    Reaction Time

    ___ is the length of time between the point of possible perception and the start of the evasive action.

    Point of no escape

    ___ is the point in time when the crash is inevitable, regardless of the evasive action taken.

    At-Collision Phase

    The ___ begins with the time of initial impact or contact.

    Encroachment

    ___ occurs when two objects begin to enter the same space at the same time. This is where the first injury or damage may occur. Damage will occur when
    contact is made between vehicles or objects entering the same space. Evasive action may also occur here if no contact is made between vehicles or objects.

    Maximum Engagement

    ___ is the point at which the vehicles or other objects are crushed together to the greatest extent.

    Post-Collision Phase

    The ___ (disengagement) is the point when the vehicles separate, either naturally or artificially.

    Disengagement

    The post-collision phase is also known as ___.

    Secondary Contact

    Often, a second impact known as ___ occurs in chain reaction collisions or when one vehicle glances off another into the path of a third vehicle, property, or person(s).

    Final Rest

    ___ is the point when all activities from the crash come to a halt.

    30

    Based on s. 320.0605, F.S., an operator of a vehicle must possess and present, upon demand of a law enforcement officer, a certificate of registration (or an alternative stated in the statute) for the vehicle he or she operates, except during the first ___ days after purchase of a vehicle.

    1

    The registration is considered current if it reflects the information for the vehicle being driven by the driver and if the effective date includes the period in which the crash occurred. Example: In Florida, a certificate of registration is issued with each renewal of the registration license tag and reflects the period of ___ year from the birth date of the owner or from January 1 for vehicles registered under s. 320.08, F.S.

    24

    However, the law enforcement agency may void the citation if the driver, within ___ hours of the crash, provides the proof of insurance which was valid at the time of the crash.

    Recorded

    Officers can use ___ statements in lieu of written statements.

    Contact; Induced; Pre-existing

    Vehicle damage falls into three types: ___, ___, and ___.

    Contact Damage

    _____ is define as any damage to a vehicle resulting from the direct pressure of any object in a collision or rollover. It usually appears as scrape marks or striations on the body of the vehicle, material rub-off, such as paint from the other vehicle (called paint transfer), rubber, or tree bark, or as a puncture to or imprint on a bumper, guard rail, or other fixed object.

    Induced Damage

    ___ is define as any damage to a vehicle other than contact damage, often occurs as bending, breaking, crumpling, twisting, distortion, or buckling of the vehicle metal.

    Pre-existing Damage

    ___ existed before the crash. This is usually identifiable as damage which does not fit the pattern of the crash and appears rusted, dirty, or weathered.

    Area of Collision (AOC)

    The ___ is the location of the first harmful event, or the first damage-producing event in a traffic crash. It shows the officer where the collision occurred.

    Gouge

    A ___ is a cut into the surface of the roadway where the surface material has been removed by some part from the vehicle.

    Trench

    An example is when a bolt on the underside of a vehicle cuts into the pavement, leaving a ___ or gouge in the road surface at the area of collision.

    Scrape

    A ___ is a broad area of a hard surface covered with many scratches, striations, or streak marks made without great pressure by a sliding metal part.

    Scrape

    A ___ can occur between the area of collision and the point of the vehicle's final rest.

    Runoffs

    ___ is a liquid pool, fluid trail, or line of flow from fluids escaping from a vehicle as a result of impact. Quite often, hard impacts will make radiators, hoses, and brake lines burst. When this occurs, the liquid will run out of the vehicle onto the roadway. Often, these liquids will leave a trail from near the area of collision to final rest.

    Runoffs

    While not pinpointing the exact location of the AOC, ___ do give the general location.

    Debris

    ___ is loose material strewn about the road as the result of a traffic collision and can be composed of dirt, liquids, vehicle parts, and other materials from the involved vehicles. Checking the scene for debris on the roadway may help to indicate the AOC. Finding where the debris started may help to locate the area of initial collision.

    Rounded; Sharp

    Glass on the roadway for some time has a tendency to become ___ on the edges. New glass, on the other hand, has ___, well-defined edges.

    Vehicle Dynamics

    ___ in relation to a crash: the officer can consider the movement of vehicles during and after collision when determining the path of travel and assisting in locating the area of collision. Basic physics teaches that an object in motion continues to remain in motion until acted upon by an external force. In a crash
    investigation, external force is normally another moving vehicle or a stationary object such as a tree or building.

    Surface Marks

    The term ___ refer to the marks created by vehicle's tires at a crash scene.

    Skid Mark

    A ___ is the black mark left by a tire sliding while not free to rotate.

    Asymmetrical Braking

    Skid marks tend to be straight, although they can exhibit some curvature due to ___ (not all brake pads lock simultaneously) or due to the crown of the road.

    Front

    Front tire skid marks tend to be darker than rear tire marks (officers should remember that when braking, weight shifts toward the ___ of the vehicle) and the outside edges of the mark may be darker than the inside area, due to over deflection of the tire (weight shift, again).

    Incipient Skid; Impending Skid

    This beginning point of braking leaves a light
    discoloration, or shadow mark, on the roadway called an ___ or ___. This is the portion of the skid mark representing the most efficient braking of the wheel. This is also the type of skid mark left by anti-lock braking system (ABS).

    Mark Loading Point

    The beginning of this part of the skid is called the skid ___ . It is the start of the skid mark and should be measured. It is usually hard to see unless closely observed. It is also temporary and may no longer
    be visible 15 to 20 minutes after the marks are made.

    Intermittent Skid Marks

    ___ are a series of skid marks with long gaps (more than 15 feet) between heavy skid marks. This pattern is caused by rapidly applying and releasing the brakes.

    Skip Skid Marks

    ___ are a series of skid marks usually short in length with irregular intervals between them. This pattern appears when a vehicle has a sudden load shift while braking hard. The weight shift causes a bouncing, which results in the skip skid mark. This is more typical of trailer vehicles. A car skidding on a bumpy road also makes this mark.

    Offset Marks

    ___ are skid marks indicating an abrupt change in the direction of a tire due to collision forces. The only item of evidence that pinpoints the exact AOC on the roadway is offset skid marks. It is the direct result
    of the movement of the vehicle by the force of collision and occurs at the moment of collision.

    Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) scuff marks

    ___ are the patterns left by a vehicle with anti-lock brakes when a driver brakes hard. These marks do not resemble the solid skid marks. The function of the ABS is to prevent the wheels from locking by rapidly applying and releasing the brake and thereby allowing the driver to remain in control of the steering. Vehicles equipped with ABS may leave faint, intermittent, visible skid marks. These are also limited in time and will no longer be visible 15 to 20 minutes after they are made.

    Squeegee Mark

    A ___ is a strip of dry pavement remaining after a vehicle skids on a wet roadway. The locked tire
    acts similarly to a window squeegee by removing water from the skid path. Due to the way these marks are
    made, they disappear quickly and are temporary evidence.

    Furrow Mark

    A ___ is a type of trench dug by locked tires moving across a soft surface such as gravel, sand, grass, or dirt. The furrow is shallow at the beginning of the skid and deepens with a piling of the surface material in
    front of the tire at the place where the vehicle finally rests.

    Scuff or Yaw Mark

    A ___ occurs when a vehicle loses tire traction as a result of entering a curve too fast or over steering. The tires in this case continue rotating but slide sideways at the same time. Marks are left from the tires slipping across the roadway once the adhesion limit of the tires is exceeded. The tires produce a screeching sound and leave rubber marks on the roadway. The scuff or yaw marks may be evidence of when the driver began to lose control of the vehicle. They will always be curved and will show a sideways striping or striation from the side motion of the tires.

    Acceleration Scuff Marks

    ___ result from rapid acceleration and a sudden stop, causing the tires to produce gradually fading dark tire marks.

    Tire Print

    A ___ is a mark left by a tire rolling over a soft material such as sand, dirt, or a liquid on a hard surface, such as oil, and which leaves an identifiable pattern matching the tread of the tire.

    Primary Factor; Primary Collision Factor

    The ___, or ___, is what the first injury element or driving action was. It describes the main or primary cause of the crash.

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