Florida Basic Recruit Training Program (Chapter 11) flashcards |

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  • National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

    NHTSA stands for ____.

    DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety
    Testing course

    This chapter has been adapted from the ___ produced by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).

    Driving While Intoxicated

    DWI stands for ___.

    Driving Under the Influence

    DUI stands for ___.

    Standardized Field Sobriety Tests

    SFSTs stands for ___.

    Standardized Field Sobriety Exercises or Evaluations

    This course uses NHTSA's term, Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFSTs), even though case law and many Florida law enforcement agencies use the term _____.

    Standardized Field Sobriety Exercises or Evaluations

    SFSE stands for ____.

    25

    Some estimates indicate that about ___ percent of America's drivers at least occasionally drive while under the influence.

    80

    Offenders actually commit the offense an average of ___ times per year.

    More; Less

    While driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs, impaired drivers are ___ likely than other drivers to take excessive risks and have slowed reaction times; they are also ___ likely to wear seatbelts.

    Societal; Law Enforcement

    DUI is both a ___ and a ___ problem.

    Prevention; Education; Deterrence.

    The ultimate goal is to reduce the number of impaired drivers through ___, ___, and ___.

    Prevention

    ___ promises the ultimate, lasting solution to the DUI problem, but it will require a substantial amount of time to fully accomplish.

    Education

    ___ is an essential component of the solution.

    Deterrence

    ___ is only part of the solution.

    Behavioral change

    ___ in individuals is fundamental to prevention.

    Deterrence

    General ___ is based upon the driving public's fear of being arrested.

    Monetary fines; Imprisonment; A temporary or permanent loss of driving privileges

    The legal consequences of a DUI conviction include ___, ___, and ___.

    Non-Governmental Organizations

    NGOs stands for ___.

    Mothers Against Drunk Driving

    MADD stands for ___.

    Central Nervous System Depressant

    Alcohol falls into the drug category of ___.

    Alcohol

    ___ is the most abused drug in the United States.

    Alcohol

    ___ is the active ingredient in beer, wine, whiskey, liquors, etc.

    Absorption

    ___ is the process by which alcohol enters the bloodstream. The ___ rate of alcohol varies based on many factors, including the person's weight and gender, whether and how much food he or she has eaten, and the alcohol concentration of the substances consumed.

    Distribution

    ___ is the process by which alcohol is carried via the bloodstream to the body's tissues and organs.

    Metabolism

    ___ is the biological process by which the body breaks alcohol down into compounds that are more readily eliminated.

    Elimination

    ____ is when the body expels alcohol through exhaled breath, sweat, tears, saliva, urine, etc.

    .015

    The average alcohol elimination rate of humans is ___ percent per hour.

    Any

    ___ amount of alcohol will affect a person's ability to drive to some degree.

    Blood Alcohol Concentration

    BAC stands for ___.

    Breath Alcohol Concentration

    BrAC stands for ___.

    0.08

    Florida Statute s. 316.193 establishes that limit as ___ BAC.

    100 Milliliters

    BAC is expressed in terms of grams of alcohol in every ___ of blood.

    210 Liters

    BrAC is expressed as grams of alcohol per ___ of breath.

    Driving Under the Influence

    ___ refers to a person who is driving, who has driven, or who is in actual physical control of a vehicle while impaired by alcohol or certain substances that adversely affect the auditory, visual, or mental processes.

    Actual Physical Control

    A person may be in ___ of a vehicle even though he or she is not actually driving.

    Actual Physical Control

    ___ is defined as a person who is physically in, on, or around the vehicle and has the capability to operate the vehicle is legally in actual physical control of the vehicle and can be arrested and prosecuted for DUI.

    Vehicle

    Section 316.003(75), F.S., defines a ___ as "every device, in, upon, or by which any person or property is or may be transported or drawn upon a highway, excepting devices used exclusively upon stationary rails or tracks."

    Third District Court of Appeal

    Florida's ___ held that the term "vehicle" includes bicycles, and a person biking while under the influence of alcohol could be charged with a DUI (State v. Howard).

    Within the State

    ___ includes anywhere in Florida, whether on roadways or public or private property.

    Normal Faculties

    ___ include the ability to see, hear, walk, talk, judge distances, drive an automobile, make judgments, act in emergencies, and normally perform the mental and physical acts of daily life.

    Berkemer v. McCarty

    In the case ___, The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that a law enforcement officer is not required to administer Miranda warnings during the course of a traffic stop in which the officer temporarily detains a motorist in order to ask a few brief questions and issue a citation.

    Miranda warnings

    Also, ___ are not typically required prior to administering the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFSTs).

    Standardized Field Sobriety Tests

    The ____ are a series of standardized validated psychophysical tests given by law enforcement to determine chemical impairment.

    Psychophysical

    ___ tests describe field sobriety tests that measure a person's ability to perform both mental and physical tasks simultaneously.

    Implied Consent

    Based on ___, Florida law requires a lawfully arrested driver of a vehicle to take any breath, blood, or urine test requested by a law enforcement officer.

    Certified Breath Test Operator

    A ___ will administer the breath test to an arrested driver per agency policy.

    DUI Citation

    If the results of the test indicate an alcohol concentration of 0.08 or higher, the officer needs to complete a ___.

    DUI Citation

    Officers must write the breath test results on the ___.

    Uniform Traffic Citation

    If the result is below a 0.08, the officer should complete a ___ for the charge of DUI based on the probable cause for the arrest.

    Urine Test

    If a breath test result is below a 0.08 and an officer has probable cause to believe that the subject is impaired by substances other than alcohol, the officer should request a ___.

    Medical Facility

    All blood draws must be conducted at a ___, as defined by s. 316.1932(1)(c), F.S.

    Unconscious Subject

    Someone who is unable to have withdrawn consent (such as an ____) is deemed to have given consent to the test.

    Required

    A person suspected of DUI who kills or seriously injures any person, including the driver, is ___ to submit to a blood test according to s. 316.1933, F.S.

    Specified

    According to ss. 316.1932(1)(f)2.a. and 316.1933(2)(a), F.S., only ___ personnel are authorized to draw
    blood.

    State of Florida Refusal Affidavit

    The ___ must be completed in conjunction with a DUI Citation issued for a refusal to submit to a chemical test.

    Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles

    The ___ provides refusal affidavits to law enforcement agencies. You must complete this form, notarize it, and forward it to them as part of the DUI arrest report.

    Refusal to Submit to Testing

    If a subject is placed under lawful arrest for the offense of DUI, refuses to submit to a lawfully requested test of his or her breath/urine/blood, and has had his or her driving privilege suspended before for refusing to submit to a lawful test of his or her breath, urine or blood, the subject commits the offense of ___ per s. 316.1939, F.S.

    First

    The charge of a Refusal to Submit to Testing
    is a misdemeanor of the ___ degree.

    24

    A person who has any alcohol in his or her body may not drive or be in actual physical control of a commercial motor vehicle in this state. See s. 322.62(1), F.S. Any driver in violation of this section must be placed out-of service immediately for a period of ___ hours.

    1

    If a driver is arrested for a violation of s. 316.193, F.S., or is in possession of a controlled substance while operating or in actual physical control of a motor vehicle or a commercial motor vehicle, the driver may be subject to the loss of his or her commercial driver license (CDL) for a period of ___ year.

    0.04

    The driver may be subject to the loss of his or her commercial driver license (CDL) for a period of one year. This penalty also applies if the driver refuses to submit to a breath, urine, or blood test to determine alcohol concentration, or if the driver is driving a commercial motor vehicle with an alcohol concentration of ___ or higher.

    0.02

    If an officer is involved in a DUI investigation with a driver under the age of 21 and the driver's alcohol concentration level is at or above ___, or if he or she refuses to submit to a breath test, his or her driver's license privilege will be suspended.

    Portable Breath Test

    PBT stands for ___.

    Portable Breath Test

    ___ may be used for violations such as drivers under 21 years of age (0.02 violation) or for commercial motor vehicle enforcement when there is insufficient evidence of DUI.

    Blue; Transmittal

    If the subject has an alcohol concentration of 0.08 or above, or refuses chemical testing, seize his or her driver's license and attach it to the ___ or ___ copy of the DUI citation per s. 316.650, F.S.

    Uniform Traffic Citation

    The DUI Citation is very similar to the ___, except the DUI Citation is used either for a DUI with an alcohol concentration of 0.08 or higher or when the violator has refused any chemical test after being lawfully arrested.

    DUI Detection Process

    ___ generally means the entire process of identifying and gathering evidence accumulated to determine whether or not a subject should be arrested for a DUI offense.

    Phase One: Vehicle in Motion; Phase Two: Personal Contact; Phase Three: Pre-arrest screening

    The typical DUI investigation involves three phases: ___

    1

    Phase ___ is the observation of the driver operating the vehicle.

    2

    Phase ___ occurs after the vehicle stops, there usually is an opportunity to observe and speak with the driver face-to-face.

    3

    Administration of some structured standardized field sobriety tests (SFSTs) to the driver to determine impairment is done in Phase ___.

    Yesโ€”Do It Now; Waitโ€”Look for Additional Evidence; Noโ€”Don't Do It.

    At the conclusion of each phase an officer will make a major decision in the DUI investigation. The decision can have one of three different outcomes: ___

    Standardized Field Sobriety Tests

    For many years, law enforcement officers have utilized ___ to determine the impairment of a person's driving due to alcohol influence.

    Southern California Research Institute

    SCRI stands for ___.

    โ€ข Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus (HGN)
    โ€ข Walk-and-Turn (WAT)
    โ€ข One-Leg Stand (OLS)

    Laboratory research indicated three tests that, when administered in a standardized manner, were the most
    accurate and reliable battery of tests for distinguishing alcohol impairment: ___

    93

    The Colorado SFST validation study was the first full field study that utilized law enforcement personnel experienced in the use of SFSTs. Correct arrest decisions were made ___ percent of the time based on the three-test battery (HGN, WAT, OLS). These results were substantially higher than the initial study results.

    95

    The Florida SFST field validation study was undertaken in order to answer the question of whether SFSTs are valid and reliable indices of the presence of alcohol when used under present day traffic and law enforcement conditions. Correct decisions to arrest were made ___ percent of the time based on the three test battery (HGN, WAT, OLS).

    91

    The 1998 San Diego SFST validation field study was undertaken because of the nationwide trend towards lowering the alcohol concentration limits to 0.08. Correct arrest decisions were made ___ percent of the time based on the three-test battery (HGN, WAT, OLS).

    Drug

    A ___ is any substance that, when taken into the human body, can impair the ability of the person to operate a vehicle safely.

    Seven

    There are ___ broad categories of drugs that
    may impair drivers.

    Observable Indicators; Symptoms they produce

    These drugs are classified by category based on the ___ and ___.

    Drug Recognition Expert

    DRE stands for ___.

    Polydrug

    ___ use is using drugs from two or more drug categories simultaneously.

    "Speedball"

    Heroin laced with cocaine is known as a ___.

    Null

    ____: Neither drug has an effect on the indicator. For example, neither a Central Nervous System Stimulant nor a Narcotic Analgesic will cause Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus (HGN); therefore, HGN will not be present.

    Overlapping

    ____: One drug affects some indicator of impairment, and the other drug has no effect whatsoever on that indicator. For example, alcohol will cause HGN, but marijuana will not cause HGN. Therefore, HGN will be present.

    Additive

    ____ : Drugs from two categories both affect some indicator in the same way, and these effects reinforce each other when combined. For example, CNS Stimulants and Hallucinogens both cause pupil dilation; therefore, pupils will be dilated.

    Antagonistic

    ____: Drugs from two categories may produce some effects that are exactly the opposite, but, in combination, the effects are difficult to predict. For example, cocaine dilates the pupils, and heroin constricts the pupils. The eyes may be dilated, constricted, or normal.

    Drug Recognition Expert

    A ___ is specially trained and certified in investigations involving drug-impaired drivers. He or she will be able to testify in court in great detail and provide expert opinions regarding drug impairment.

    Divided Attention

    ___ simply means the ability to concentrate on two or more tasks at the same time.

    Impaired

    An ___ driver may have difficulty in steering, controlling the accelerator, signaling, and making decisions (whether to stop, turn, speed up, slow down, etc.).

    Slowed Reaction

    Common Symptoms of Alcohol Influence at a Blood Alcohol Concentration level of 0.03 is ___.

    Increased Risk Taking

    Common Symptoms of Alcohol Influence at a Blood Alcohol Concentration level of 0.05 is ___.

    Impaired Vision

    Common Symptoms of Alcohol Influence at a Blood Alcohol Concentration level of 0.08 is ___.

    Poor Coordination

    Common Symptoms of Alcohol Influence at a Blood Alcohol Concentration level of 0.10 is ___.

    24

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration sponsored research to identify the most common and reliable initial indicators of DUI. This research identified ___ cues, each with a high probability that the driver exhibiting the cue is impaired.

    Cue

    A ___ is a reminder, prompt or a signal to do something, e.g., take enforcement action or observe the vehicle more closely.

    Weaving

    ___ occurs when the vehicle alternately moves toward one side of the roadway and then the other, creating a zigzag course. The pattern of lateral movement is relatively regular as one steering correction is closely followed by another.

    Weaving Across Lane Lines

    Extreme cases of weaving occur when the vehicle's wheels cross the lane lines before correction is made which is known as ___.

    Straddling a Lane Line

    The vehicle is moving straight ahead with the center or lane marker between the left-hand and right-hand wheels.

    Swerving

    ___ is an abrupt turn away from a generally straight course. It might occur after a period of drifting when the driver discovers the approach of traffic in an oncoming lane or discovers that the vehicle is going off the road. It may also occur as the driver executes an abrupt turn to return the vehicle to the traffic lane.

    Turning with Wide Radius

    During a turn, the radius defined by the distance between the turning vehicle and the center of the turn is greater than normal. The vehicle may drive wide in a curve.

    Drifting

    ____ is a straight-line movement of the vehicle at a slight angle to the roadway. As the driver approaches a marker or boundary (lane marker, center line, edge of the roadway), the direction of drift might change. It can occur within a single lane, across lanes, across the center line, or onto the shoulder.

    Almost Striking Object or Vehicle

    The observed vehicle almost strikes a stationary object or another moving vehicle.

    Stopping Problems

    ___ may include stopping abruptly or too far from a curb, at an inappropriate angle, too short or beyond the intersection limit line, or with a jerking motion.

    Accelerating or Decelerating Rapidly

    This cue encompasses any acceleration or deceleration that is significantly more rapid than that required by the traffic conditions. Rapid acceleration might be accompanied by breaking traction; rapid deceleration might be accompanied by an abrupt stop.

    Varying Speed

    A driver may alternate between speeding up and slowing down.

    Slow Speed

    The observed vehicle is traveling at a speed that is 10 mph or more below the speed limit.

    Driving in Opposing Lanes or Wrong Way on a One-way Street

    The vehicle is heading into opposing or crossing traffic by driving in the opposing lane, backing into traffic, failing to yield the right-of-way, or driving the wrong way on a one-way street.

    Slow Response to Traffic Signals

    The observed vehicle exhibits a longer than normal response to a change in traffic signal.

    Slow or Failure to Respond to Officer's Signals

    The driver is unusually slow to respond to an officer's lights, siren, or hand signals.

    Stopping in Lane for No Apparent Reason

    The critical element in this cue is that there is no observable justification for the vehicle to stop in the traffic lane.

    Driving Without Headlights

    The observed vehicle is being driven without headlights during a period of the day when headlights are required.

    Failure to Signal or Signal Inconsistent with Action

    This cue occurs when you observe inconsistencies such as failing to signal a turn or a lane change, signaling opposite to the turn or lane change executed, signaling constantly with no accompanying driving action, and driving with four-way hazard flashers on.

    Following Too Closely

    The vehicle is following another vehicle while not maintaining the legal minimum separation.

    Improper or Unsafe Lane Change

    The driver takes risks or endangers others by frequently or abruptly changing lanes without regard to other motorists.

    Illegal or Improper Turn

    The driver executes any turn that is abnormally abrupt or is illegal, such as turning with excessive speed, turning sharply from the wrong lane, or making an illegal U-turn.

    Driving on Other than a Designated Roadway

    The driver maneuvers onto an area other than the designated roadway. Examples include driving at the edge of the roadway, on the shoulder, off the roadway entirely, or straight through turn-only lanes or areas.

    Stopping Inappropriately in Response to an Officer

    The vehicle stops in an inappropriate location, such as a prohibited zone, crosswalk, intersection, or sidewalk, or under inappropriate conditions such as a green or flashing yellow traffic signal.

    Inappropriate or Unusual Behavior

    The driver or occupants display inappropriate or unusual behavior such as throwing objects from the vehicle, drinking in the vehicle, or urinating on the roadside.

    Appearing to Be Impaired

    This cue is actually one or more indicators related to the personal behavior or appearance of the driver. Examples of specific indicators might include eye fixation, tightly gripping the steering wheel, slouching in the seat, gesturing erratically or obscenely, holding face close to the windshield, or protruding head from the vehicle.

    Sight; Hearing; Smell

    Face-to-face observation and interview of the driver allow you to use three senses to gather evidence of alcohol and other drug influence: ___, ___, and ___.

    Clues

    ___ are something that leads to the solution of a problem, such as a fingerprint or DNA evidence.

    Clues

    ___ are also the behaviors observed during the performance of the standardized field sobriety tests.

    Dementia; Alzheimer's

    Cognitive problems includes ___ or ___.

    Diabetic

    A ___ driver's behavior may be impacted, for instance, when sugar levels are too high. At this time, his or her breath could emit an odor similar to that of an alcoholic beverage or the driver could demonstrate a comprehension or awareness problem.

    Eyes

    A driver's ___ can be examined for medical impairment.

    Tracking ability

    ___ is the ability of the eyes to track together when the subject attempts to follow a stimulus moving side-to-side.

    Alphabet

    This test requires the subject to recite a part of the alphabet. Instruct the subject to recite the alphabet beginning with a letter other than A and stopping at a letter other than Z.

    Count Down

    This test requires the subject to count out loud 15 or more numbers in reverse sequence.

    Finger Count

    To conduct this test, ask the subject to touch the tip of his or her thumb in turn to the tip of each finger on the same hand while simultaneously counting up one, two, three, four; then reverse direction on the fingers while simultaneously counting down four, three, two, one.

    Probable Cause

    Even though that suspicion may be very strong, ___ is required to make a DUI arrest.

    Safety

    ___ considerations take precedence over all other considerations.

    Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus; Walk-and-Turn; One-Leg Stand

    The three scientifically standardized and validated psychophysical (field) sobriety tests are the ___, ___, and ___.

    Nystagmus

    ___ is defined as an involuntary jerking of the eyes, which can be caused by the use of alcohol and certain other drugs.

    Vestibular

    ___ nystagmus is an involuntary jerking of the eyes caused by movement or action to the inner ear system.

    Rotational

    ___ nystagmus occurs when the person is spun around or rotated rapidly, causing the fluid in the inner ear to be disturbed. If it were possible to observe the eyes of a rotating person, you would be able to see them jerk.

    Post-Rotational

    ___ nystagmus is closely related to rotational nystagmus. When a person stops spinning, the fluid in the inner ear remains disturbed for a short period of time and the eyes continue to jerk.

    Caloric

    ___ nystagmus occurs when the fluid motion in the canals of the vestibular system is stimulated by temperature, as by putting warm water in one ear and cold in the other.

    Positional Alcohol Nystagmus (PAN)

    ___ occurs when a foreign fluid, such as alcohol, that alters the specific gravity of the blood is in unequal concentrations in the blood and the vestibular system.

    Neurological

    ___ nystagmus is an involuntary jerking of the eyes caused by a disruption of the central nervous
    system.

    Optokinetic

    ___ nystagmus occurs when the eyes fixate on an object that suddenly moves out of sight, or when the eyes watch sharply contrasting moving images. Examples include watching rotating lights or rapidly moving traffic in close proximity. The horizontal gaze nystagmus test will not be influenced by this nystagmus when administered properly.

    Physiological

    ___ nystagmus is a natural nystagmus that keeps the sensory cells of the eye from tiring. It is the most common type of nystagmus. It happens to all of us, all the time. This type of nystagmus produces extremely minor tremors or jerks of the eyes. These tremors are generally too small to be seen with the naked eye. This nystagmus will have no impact on the HGN test because its tremors are generally invisible.

    Gaze

    ___ nystagmus occurs as the eyes are focused on a stimulus and move from the center position.

    Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus (HGN); Vertical gaze Nystagmus (VGN); Resting Nystagmus

    Gaze nystagmus is separated into three types:

    Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus (HGN)

    ___ refers to an involuntary jerking occurring as the eyes
    move toward the side.

    Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus (HGN)

    Although this type of nystagmus is most accurate for determining alcohol impairment, its presence may also indicate use of certain other drugs.

    Vertical Gaze Nystagmus (VGN)

    ____ is an involuntary jerking of the eyes (up and down) which occurs when the eyes gaze upward at maximum elevation.

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