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  • ABCs

    Airway, breathing, and circulation; assessment begins with ABCs

    AED

    Automated external defibrillator

    AIDS

    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; caused by HIV

    AVPU

    Method for identifying four levels of patient responsiveness: alert, verbal, pain, and unresponsiveness

    Abandonment

    The relinquishing of a right or interest with the intention of never again claiming it

    Abdominal evisceration

    An open wound where organs protrude from the abdominal cavity

    Abrasion

    An open wound caused by scraping, shearing away, or rubbing the outermost skin layerv

    Advanced directive

    Documents a patient's request to withhold specific medical care

    Airborne disease

    Any infection spread from person to person through the air; caused by breathing in microscopic, disease-bearing organisms called pathogens

    Amniotic sac

    The bag of fluid surrounding the fetus

    Amputation

    The gross removal of an appendage, complete or incomplete

    Anaphylaxis

    A severe allergic reaction in which air passages swell and restrict breathing; caused by insect bites or stings, pollen, medications, foods, chemicals, or other substances

    Arterial bleeding

    Bright red blood spurting from a wound, indicating a severed or damaged artery

    Asthma

    Results from the narrowing of airway passages, causing breathing difficulties

    Avulsion

    An injury characterized by a flap of skin, torn or cut, that may not be completely loose from the body

    Birth canal

    The passage the fetus is pushed through during delivery

    Body substance isolation

    Controlling infection by separating patients from each other; includes two basic behaviors: the use of medical PPE and personal behaviors that reduce risk

    Breach of duty

    The failure of an officer to act or failure to act appropriately

    Bruising

    An obvious discoloration (black and blue) of the soft tissue at the injury site

    CDC

    Center for Disease Control & Prevention

    CPR

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Capillary bleeding

    Dark red blood oozing from a wound, indicating damaged capillaries

    Carbon monoxide

    A potentially poisonous byproduct of combustion

    Cardiac muscles

    The muscles in the heart that constantly work to expand and contract it

    Central nervous system

    Located in the brain and spinal cord; components are the body's mainframe computer where all communication and control originate

    Cervix

    The neck of the uterus; contains a mucus plug

    Chemical burn

    Occurs when a burning chemical comes into contact with skin

    Circulatory system

    Pumps blood throughout the body; consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood

    Closed chest injury

    Results from blunt trauma to the chest area; damages internal organs and/or causes internal bleeding

    Closed fracture

    A fracture in which the skin at the injury site remains intact

    Contusion

    A closed injury that is discolored and painful at the injury site

    Cyanosis

    Changes in circulation causing the lips, palms, and nail beds to turn blue

    DNR DNRO

    Do Not Resuscitate or Do Not Resuscitate Order; documents the terminally or chronically ill patient's wish to refuse resuscitation

    Diabetes

    A disease in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin

    Digestive system

    Ingests and digests food and nutrients; includes the stomach, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, and small and large intestines

    Dilation

    The first stage of labor; begins with the initial contraction and continues until the fetus enters the birth canal

    Dislocation

    An injury occurring when the end of a bone comes out of its socket at the joint

    Duty to act

    The duty to take some action to prevent harm to another and for the failure of which an officer may be liable depending on the relationship of the parties and the circumstances

    Electrical burn

    Occurs when manmade or natural (lightning) electricity comes into contact with the skin and body, causing the skin or internal organs to burn

    Emergency medical services system

    Network of trained professionals linked to provide advanced, out-of-hospital care for victims of a sudden traumatic injury or illness

    Emergency medical technician

    Technicians who have advanced, specialized training that enables them to provide comprehensive care to patients

    Emergency move

    A relocation performed when a patient is in immediate danger or when the patient's location prevents providing care to him or her or another patient

    Evisceration

    An open wound where the organs protrude

    Expressed consent

    Consent that is clearly and unmistakably stated

    Expulsion

    The second stage of labor; the fetus moves through the birth canal and is delivered

    Femur

    Thighbone; the longest and strongest bone in the human body

    Flail chest

    A closed chest injury that occurs when two or more adjacent ribs are fractured in two or more places and become free floating

    Fracture

    A bone break

    Frostbite

    A localized injury from overexposure to cold

    Full thickness burn

    A third-degree burn that damages all skin layers and affects muscles and nerves; causes skin to look waxy, white, or charred

    Good Samaritan Act

    Protects physicians who render emergency care from civil suits; Florida's Good Samaritan Act also protects first aid providers

    HIPPA

    Protects the rights of patients and restricts the release of patient information

    HIV

    Bloodborne virus that attacks the immune system and causes AIDS; transmission occurs primarily during sexual contact with an infected individual, when intravenous drug users share contaminated needles, from infected mother to unborn child, and from contact with blood, certain body fluids, and tissue from an infected individual

    Heart attack

    Caused by oxygen deprivation to part of the heart, typically from a blocked blood vessel

    Hematoma

    A closed injury that evidences as a discolored lump

    Hepatitis A virus

    A highly infectious disease spread by person-to-person contact, generally through fecal contamination or oral ingestion

    Hepatitis B virus

    A highly infectious disease spread through sexual contact, sharing contaminated needles (through intravenous drug use), or through blood transfusions

    Hepatitis C virus

    The most common chronic bloodborne infection; primarily transmitted through direct contact with human blood, from sharing needles or drug paraphernalia, or from an infected mother delivering her baby

    Hyperthermia

    Occurs when the body cannot recover from fluid loss

    Hypothermia

    The excessive cooling of the body's core temperature

    ICS

    Incident Command System

    Implied consent

    Consent inferred from conduct rather than from direct expression

    Informed consent

    A person's agreement to allow something to happen, made with full knowledge of the risks involved and the alternatives

    Inhalation burn

    Occurs when a patient has a burn to any part of the airway

    Insulin

    The hormone needed to convert sugar, starches, and other food into energy needed for daily life

    Involuntary muscles

    Smooth muscles that carry out many automatic body functions

    Labor

    The final phase of pregnancy; begins the birthing process

    Laceration

    An open wound in soft tissue

    Level of consciousness

    A patient's mental status due to illness or injury

    MRSA

    A type of bacteria that is highly contagious and resistant to certain antibiotics; causes a skin infection that is red, swollen, painful, or warm to the touch; may have purulent drainage or appear to be a spider bite, pimple, or boil

    Medic alert

    A bracelet, necklace, or card that alerts medical personnel to a specific medical condition

    Multiple casualty incident

    An incident that involves more than one victim

    Muscular system

    Gives the body shape, protects internal organs, and provides body movement

    Negligence

    Failure to use due or reasonable care in a situation, resulting in harm to another (Legal); failure to exercise the standard of care that a reasonably prudent person would have exercised in a similar situation; conduct that falls below the legal standard established to protect others against unreasonable risk of harm, except for conduct that is intentionally, wantonly, or willfully disregardful of other's rights

    Nervous system

    Controls voluntary and involuntary body activity, supports higher mental functions such as thought and emotion, allows the individual to be aware of and react to the environment, and keeps the rest of the body's systems working together

    Occlusive

    Airtight

    Open chest injury

    An injury that occurs when penetration opens the chest area

    Open fracture

    A fracture where the skin at the injury site is broken, and the bone may protrude through the skin

    PMS

    When examining extremities for potential injuries, indicates what to check for: pulse, and motor and sensory function

    Partial thickness burn

    Second-degree burn that damages the first two skin layers, which blister and feel very painful

    Peripheral nervous system

    Includes nerves that connect to the spinal cord and branch out to every other part of the body; serves as a two-way communication system

    Personal protective equipment

    Items that protect individuals from harmful substances, infections, or other people; includes eye protection, gloves, shields, and biohazard bags

    Placenta

    The disk-shaped inner lining of the uterus; provides nourishment and oxygen to a fetus

    Placental

    The third stage of labor during which the placenta separates from the uterine wall and moves through the birth canal for delivery

    Positional asphyxia

    Death as a result of a body position that interferes with one's ability to breathe

    Puncture wound

    The result of driving a sharp or blunt, pointed object into soft tissue

    Recovery position

    A position where the patient is rolled over (preferably onto the left side) with knees slightly bent; helps maintain an open airway if the patient vomits and may prevent positional asphyxia

    Respiratory system

    Delivers oxygen to and removes carbon dioxide from the blood

    SAMPLE

    Signs and symptoms, allergies, medications, past history, last oral intake, events; method to help an officer acquire information useful in determining causes of injury or illness

    START

    A method of triage that assesses a large number of victims rapidly using personnel with limited medical training

    STD

    Infection transmitted through sexual contact; among the most common infectious diseases

    Shock

    Failure of the heart and blood vessels (circulatory system) to maintain enough oxygen-rich blood flowing to the vital organs of the body

    Skeletal system

    The supporting framework for the body, giving it shape and protecting vital organs; attains mobility from the attached muscles and manufactures red blood cells

    Skin

    The protective covering for the inside of the body; provides a barrier against bacteria and other harmful substances and organisms; acts as a communication organ; helps regulate body temperature

    Stroke

    Damage to part of the brain due to the rupture or blockage of a blood vessel

    Sucking chest injury

    Type of open chest injury in which air and/or blood escapes into the area surrounding the lungs, creating a change in the pressure in the chest cavity

    Superficial burn

    First-degree burn that damages the first layer of skin; becomes red and feels very painful

    Swelling

    Soft tissue that is raised when blood or other body fluids pool beneath the skin at the injury site

    TB

    A highly infectious airborne disease

    Thermal burn

    A burn that occurs when an external heat source comes into contact with the skin

    Tourniquet

    A device, such as a bandage, that restricts blood flow to an extremity such as an arm or leg

    Triage

    A system of sorting and classifying of patients; determines order in which patients receive medical attention; assesses a large number of victims rapidly

    USDOT

    United States Department of Transportation

    Umbilical cord

    Connects the fetus and the mother; provides nourishment to the fetus

    Universal precautions

    Procedures designed to prevent transmission of HIV, hepatitis B virus, and other blood-borne pathogens

    Uterus

    The organ that holds the developing fetus

    Venous bleeding

    Bleeding where dark red blood flows steadily from a wound, indicating a severed or damaged vein

    Voluntary muscles

    lifting, and running Muscles used for deliberate acts, such as chewing,

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