Firearms/ Study guide 2 flashcards |

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  • Law enforcement uses birdshot (shotgun ammunition) for

    training purposes only.

    An officer should not

    drop or throw ammunition-it may discharge.

    A(n) __________ is a full metal-jacketed bullet with incendiary material in the casing of its base. When fired, the round can be visually tracked by the burning material. The bullet tip is normally painted red or orange. Having the same velocity as a full metal-jacketed bullet, it is most often used by the military in fully automatic weapons.

    tracer

    An officer should use only

    factory-loaded ammunition from a reputable manufacturer.

    __________ is shotgun ammunition in which the standard 2 3/4-inch shell contains nine .33 caliber lead pellets, or a 3-inch magnum shell with twelve .32 caliber pellets. It penetrates solid wood doors, drywall, and wood walls at close range.

    Double-aught buckshot

    __________ is shotgun ammunition normally used for bird hunting or practice; this shell has a load of small diameter lead or steel shot pellets. When fired at close range, these pellets can be dangerous and can cause injury.

    Birdshot

    A(n) __________ is a lead or copper-jacketed lead with a hollow cavity in the bullet's nose. As the bullet expands upon impact, it expends its kinetic energy. Since this type expands quickly, it does not penetrate as deeply as a round-nose bullet. This design reduces ricochet. Usually of high velocity, it delivers maximum shock upon striking a surface or soft tissue.

    hollowpoint

    A(n) __________ is a round-nose lead bullet completely covered with a copper jacket. Sometimes called ball ammunition, it is normally of medium to high velocity. Used extensively by the military, it has low expansion and high penetration capabilities. The chance for ricochet is high.

    full metal jacket

    A(n) __________ is normally made of brass or copper dust held together with a resin material that disintegrates upon impact with steel or concrete. Tt can penetrate hollow core doors, drywall, or thin wood material.

    frangible

    A(n) __________ is made of solid carbon or tungsten steel coated with bright green Teflon. Tt has a considerably sharper point than most manufactured rounds. The round can pierce protective body armor or steel. In Florida, its use or possession is illegal for anyone but law enforcement.

    armor piercing

    An officer should avoid using

    solvents and lubricants when handling ammunition.

    A __________ is a single, hollow lead bullet that weighs 7/8 to 1 1/8 ounce. It is .72 caliber and penetrates most materials, but not solid steel.

    rifled slug

    __________ life is the recommended time (normally expressed in years) for which you can expect ammunition to be reliable from manufacture time to issue time.

    Shelf

    Because of the spread pattern, officers must use extreme caution when shooting __________ in populated areas.

    double-aught buckshot

    __________ life is the recommended time (normally expressed in months) for which you can expect ammunition to be reliable when used on duty.

    Duty

    It is recommended that ammunition be replaced __________.

    annually

    An officer should not use reloads for

    duty ammunition.

    It is important to write on the box the

    date you received and stored ammunition.

    Select all of the TRUE statements that apply to proper storage procedures for ammunition.

    Do not use cartridges that have been water soaked as seeping water may affect the primers.

    Follow your agency's standard operating procedure for storing ammunition.

    Respect the manufacturer's original design: Do not alter the ammunition.

    Environmental conditions affect the ammunition's shelf and duty life expectancy and may cause malfunctions when you use the cartridges.

    When storing ammunition, following the manufacturer's recommendations is crucial.

    Avoid keeping ammunition in locations where there is atmospheric heat, such as inside a closed vehicle, or where there is radiant heat (for example, inside a box in a sunny location).

    Properly storing and handling your ammunition helps prevent defects.

    Keep your ammunition in a cool place where moisture is minimal.

    To obtain proper sight alignment(for a handgun),

    look along the top of the weapon's sight plane and center the top of the front sight on a line along the top of the rear sight.

    The two-handed grip (for a handgun)

    provides maximum support while firing.

    __________, the most difficult handgun fundamental to master, often determines a shot's success.

    Trigger control

    For a two-handed grip (with a handgun), you should place your support hand's thumb

    on or just below the thumb of your shooting hand (holding the weapon firmly).

    __________ results when the trigger finger pulls the trigger straight back with increasing yet constant and stead pressure until the firearm discharges.

    Trigger control

    __________ the trigger (of a handgun) is a mental process; __________ the trigger is a physical process.

    Controlling/pulling

    Keeping both eyes open during firing (a handgun)

    has been known to improve the focus of your dominant eye and sight picture.

    to improve accuracy, while providing increased peripheral vision.

    The extended pause between breaths, called the __________ pause, is the best time to fire the shot(s) (with a handgun).

    respiratory

    __________ is the relationship of the front sight and rear sight with the shooter's eye(s).

    Sight alignment

    For a two-handed grip (with a handgun), you should wrap the fingers of your support hand

    tightly around the fingers of your shooting hand, with your thumb and index finger in proper grip position along the frame.

    __________ occurs when the top of the front sight is level with the rear sight's top edge and centered in the rear sight aperture or notch.

    Sight alignment

    To obtain proper sight alignment(for a handgun),

    look along the top of the weapon's sight plane and center the top of the front sight horizontally and vertically in the rear aperture or notch.

    The act of firing (a handgun) without disturbing sight alignment and the muzzle

    is a fundamental of markmanship.

    Keeping your eye(s) centered behind the rear and front sights

    is the most important aspect of aiming a handgun.

    Improper __________ causes more misses than any other action in the firing process (when using a handgun).

    trigger control

    __________ is important in the aiming process. If you breathe while trying to aim, the rise and fall of your chest moves the handgun vertically.

    Breath control

    If you put even slightly off-center pressure on the trigger (when using a handgun), the pressure can

    cause the firearm to move and disturb your sight alignment and muzzle.

    __________ is the relationship between the eye, front sight, rear sight, and target.

    Sight picture

    When using a handgun, you should apply pressure on the trigger with

    the trigger finger only.

    To shoot a handgun from the __________ stance, complete the following steps: 1. Stand with your feet approximately shoulder-width apart. 2. Bend your knees slightly to allow for movement. 3. Stand with your head and shoulders square to the target, body weight forward. 4. Lock your arms straight out in front, and bring the handgun to eye level.

    Isosceles

    To shoot a handgun from the __________ stance, complete the following steps: 1. Stand at a 45-degree angle to the target, with your feet shoulder-width apart. Your weapon-side foot is to the rear. 2. Bend your knees slightly so your weight is on the balls of your feet. Keep your shoulders at a 45-degree angle to the target. 3. The weapon arm should be almost fully extended while your support arm is bent at the elbow. The elbows should be fairly close together-not allowing them to flare out. 4. Push forward with your shooting hand and pull back with your support hand to create isometric tension. 5. Bring your weapon to eye level and keep your head erect.

    Weaver

    When using a handgun, you __________ control the trigger during the shot while keeping the sight alignment and sight picture correct.

    should

    To shoot a handgun from the __________ stance, complete the following steps: 1. Assume the interview stance. 2. Draw the weapon and keep your weapon-side elbow at a 90-degree angle (in an L shape). Keep your elbow against the body, slightly above the holster. Keep your forearm and wrist and the barrel of your handgun parallel to the ground and pointed at the subject. Grip the handgun a little more tightly than normal. This helps you keep your wrist straight and makes it more difficult for a subject to take your weapon. 3. Bring your support and shooting hands together in a normal two-handed grip. Hold your weapon at waist level and both elbows tightly against your body above your gun belt. Keep your forearm, hand, and weapon horizontal to the ground. 4. With both eyes open and looking at the subject, eye and hand coordination normally adjusts the weapon to the proper aim.

    two-handed hip

    By placing your trigger finger in the same position on the trigger each time (when using a handgun),

    you can move the trigger straight to the rear with the same results each time.

    You should not try to force a handgun down at the time of discharge (anticipating recoil),

    but rather keep your body and weapon in a controlled position during discharge.

    Proper stance is important when using firearms tactically or defensively,

    because it gives the shooter more stability.

    To fire a handgun from the __________, complete the following steps: 1. Begin in the standing position. 2. Draw your weapon and step forward with your opposite foot. 3. Drop your shooting side knee to the ground, keeping the muzzle of your weapon pointed downrange. Keep your finger off the trigger. As you drop your knee, bring your arms up, raising your weapon to eye level. Keep your head erect and your back straight.

    kneeling position

    You __________ focus on perfect aim as you apply trigger control.

    should

    When using a handgun, the __________ stance most closely represents the instinctive response to a threat, because it minimizes the exposed areas of the body not covered by armor.

    Isoceles

    A steady, controlled squeeze of the trigger (on a handgun) __________ yield the best result.

    will

    Jerking the trigger (on a handgun)

    disturbs your aim before the bullet leaves the barrel.

    When using a handgun, a firm handgrip

    is essential for good trigger control.

    Flinching-a human reflex caused by anticipating the firearm's recoil-

    disturbs your aim.

    __________ is the posture a shooter assumes while firing a shot.

    Stance

    When you are within arm's reach (three to four feet away) of a subject, use the __________ stance (when shooting a handgun).

    hip shooting

    __________ involves maintaining sight alignment before, during, and after firing a round.

    Follow-through

    The __________ stance (for shooting a handgun) is similar to the Weaver stance, except the weapon arm is locked out straight.

    Modified Weaver

    You must be able to identify a target or threat before

    engaging it with your handgun.

    When shooting a handgun, flashlight-assisted conditions

    may alter how you see or use your sights.

    Most flashlight-assisted shooting requires

    point-shooting skills, because point shooting can be very effective when the target is in silhouette.

    The __________ technique (for shooting a handgun while using a flashlight) is thumb-to-thumb; it uses the "watchman" grip. It provides some support for firearm control and good illumination in relationship to the weapon.

    Ayoob

    You can quickly assume the __________ technique's position (when using this handgun/flashlight method) and easily identify a target.

    Ayoob

    To return to a standing position from a __________ position (with a handgun), complete the following steps: 1. Keeping the firearm pointed in a safe position, use your support hand to rise to a kneeling position. 2. Return the firearm to the holster. 3. Safely stand.

    prone

    When using a handgun with a flashlight, the Ayoob method

    helps illuminate the handgun sight.

    When firing a handgun at night, if you can't see your weapon's front sight,

    you must use the point shooting technique.

    The __________ stance may be assumed by bending your elbows while pulling the handgun straight back and holding it close to your body. In this position you should maintain a proper grip while pointing the firearm in a safe direction or towards the threat. This variation of the stance is most commonly used in close-quarter situations or when the location of the threat is not immediately known.

    tactical ready

    The __________ grip is used with a small (4-6 inch) flashlight with a rear switch and a ring around the grip to give the index and middle fingers a hold. The flashlight is held in the support hand between the index and middle fingers. The switch is pulled back against the base of the hand or the knuckles of the shooting hand, depending on the technique used.

    syringe"

    In the __________ (when shooting a handgun), you are in the standing or kneeling firing position, with your sights on the target.

    two-handed, high point position

    Ideally, you should fire your shotgun in reduced light (at night) only at close proximity because of

    the risk involved in identifying targets and threats.

    When shooting a handgun, a __________ position is a position behind cover.

    barricade

    In the __________ stance, you can see a subject's hands (when shooting a handgun).

    tactical ready

    To take the __________ (when shooting a handgun), you should assume the standing position, then lock your arms below your line of sight.

    tactical ready stance

    Always positively identify a threat before

    using deadly force.

    __________ is the technique used when you cannot see the sights on your weapon or you have no time to align the sight properly.

    Point shooting

    For the __________ grip, the flashlight is held in the support hand with the illuminating end projecting from the little finger on the side of the hand. The thumb controls a rear-mounted switch; the index finger controls a side-mounted switch near the back of the flashlight; the little or ring finger controls a side-mounted switch near the back of the flashlight.

    law enforcement" or "tactical"

    For the __________ grip, the flashlight is held in the support hand with the illuminating end projecting from the index finger side of the hand. The thumb controls the on/off switch with a side-mounted switch near the front of the flashlight; the little or ring finger controls it with a side-mounted switch near the back of the flashlight.

    watchman"

    To use the handgun/flashlight method called the __________ technique, you should hold the handgun in your shooting hand and the flashlight in your support hand. Then, you should hold your hands out in front of you with your arms extended and hands pressed together at your thumbs. The light and handgun are side by side, so the light beam and handgun are parallel and point to the same place.

    Ayoob

    Failure to allow a shotgun's trigger reset

    prevents the weapon from firing until you release and control the trigger again.

    To shoot a semiautomatic rifle from the __________ position, follow these steps: 1. From the kneeling position, lower your weight onto your weapon-side leg. 2. Turn down your ankle. 3. Sit on the inside of your ankle. (Do not sit back too far; doing so causes poor balance.) 4. Hold the semiautomatic rifle/carbine as you do in the standing position.

    low kneeling

    After firing a pump shotgun, you must bring the

    slide to the rear to extract the spent casing and return it to the forward position to chamber a new round.

    To perform the __________ technique (for shooting a handgun while using a flashlight), you should hold the flashlight in your support hand and the handgun in your shooting hand. Then, put the backs of your hands together. With your hands braced together, you have more control over the handgun.

    Harries

    When assuming the barricade position (to shoot a shotgun), you should not let your weapon

    touch the barricade's surface.

    __________ shotguns have a front and rear sight. To use these sights properly, you must align the front sight with the rear sight.

    Rifle-sighted

    As a shotgun cycles, you must allow the trigger to

    return to its forward position (reset).

    To assume the __________ position (to use when shooting a shotgun), you should perform the following steps: 1. Kneel on your strong knee. 2. Extend your support leg toward the target with your foot flat on the ground. 3. Keep your ankle straight and the toe of your shoe in contact with the ground, curled forward by your body weight. 4. Hold the shotgun as you do in the standing position.

    kneeling

    __________ shotguns have no rear sight. You must focus on the bead, and the barrel should not be visible.

    Bead-sighted

    To shoot a semiautomatic rifle/carbine from the __________ position, point the firearm in a safe direction and follow these steps: 1. Kneel on your strong knee. Keep the rifle's muzzle pointed toward the target. Keep your finger off the trigger. 2. Extend your support leg toward the target with your foot flat on the ground. 3. Hold the rifle as you do in the standing position.

    kneeling

    When assuming the barricade position (to shoot a shotgun), you should

    stand or kneel a safe distance away from the barricade and use the roll-out technique to gain maximum protection behind cover.

    Using a flashlight at any time will

    give away your position.

    To assume a __________ position, hold the shotgun's butt in the curve of your shoulder and point the barrel toward the ground at an angle of approximately 45 degrees. This helps you use your peripheral vision and quickly react to a threat.

    low ready

    Proper follow-through (for shooting a shotgun) involves

    maintaining proper grip, stance, and finger placement on the trigger.

    When using a handgun with a flashlight, the __________ technique is not a natural position to take, and requires practice. The key to this method is properly using the law enforcement or tactical grip.

    Harries

    You must acquire a sight picture each time you fire a

    shotgun.

    The trigger of a shotgun is called a __________ trigger, because the hammer is cocked each time the weapon is cycled. The trigger moves only a short distance before the sear trips and the hammer releases.

    single-action

    The __________ position is a position of readiness that allows the officer to immediately begin firing the shotgun or to take appropriate action and is used in the standing or kneeling positions.

    low ready

    When forming a cheek weld with the semiautomatic rife/carbine, place your

    cheek firmly on the stock.

    __________ refers to either the revolver or the semiautomatic pistol.

    Handgun

    To shoulder the semiautomatic rifle/carbine, you must place the rifle butt firmly into your

    shoulder pocket.

    To assume the __________ position, you should stand in the open, next to the barricade, with your semiautomatic rifle/carbine in a ready position. Upon target stimulus command, you should step back behind the barricade and assume a standing or kneeling position. Finally, remove the safety and fire the prescribed number of rounds.

    barricade

    To draw a _________ properly, start in the shooting stance, near waist level, away from your weapon. On command, disengage the safety and holster retention devices and establish a proper grip.

    handgun

    When forming a cheek weld (with the semiautomatic rifle/carbine), the firm contact between your cheek and rifle enables your

    head and weapon to recoil as one unit.

    Select ALL of the TRUE statements that apply to the barricade position (when shooting a semiautomatic rifle/carbine).

    Positioning your weapon-side leg to the rear makes you a smaller, harder-to-hit target for the aggressor.

    Stand or kneel a safe distance away from the barricade, and use the roll-out technique to gain maximum protection behind cover.

    When shooting a semiautomatic rifle/carbine, use the low ready position only in

    the standing or kneeling positions.

    To assume the __________ position (when shooting a semiautomatic rifle/carbine), perform the following steps: 1. Hold the semiautomatic rifle/carbine's butt in your shoulder pocket. 2. Point the barrel at an angle of approximately 45 degrees with the ground. This helps you use your peripheral vision and quickly react to a threat. You may also being from the port arms position, normally used when moving from one safe position to another: Hold your weapon across your chest. Keep the muzzle pointed up in a safe direction.

    low ready

    After you place your trigger finger on the trigger (of the semiautomatic rifle/carbine),

    keep it there until you fire.

    A cheek weld (with the semiautomatic rifle/carbine) aids in

    rapid recovery between rounds.

    Select ALL of the TRUE statements that apply to follow-through (with a semiautomatic rifle/carbine).

    Follow-through involves maintaining sight alignment before, during, and after firing a round.

    You must acquire a sight picture each time you fire the rifle/carbine.

    You must maintain proper grip, shooting stance, and finger placement on the trigger.

    The __________ (for shooting a semiautomatic rifle/carbine) is steadier than the standing and kneeling positions, easier to assume, and presents a lower profile.

    prone

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