Defensive Tactics / Study Guide/ III flashcards |

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  • The __________ can effectively control the subject through mechanical and/or pain compliance by using the subject's shoulder and wrist. The following are instructions for this technique: Once a subject has been taken to the ground, maintain control of the arm. Maintain the bent wrist to gain compliance on the subject's controlled arm. Place your knee that is closest to the subject's head across the shoulder blade closest to you. Avoid pressure to the spinal cord and neck when placing your knee or shin on the subject's shoulder. Place your other knee on the ground close to the subject's rib area with the subject's upper arm on the front of your thigh. Remain on the balls of your feet throughout the pin to allow quick recovery to a standing position.

    three-point pin

    To use the __________, transfer your balance to the support leg. Lifting the knee, thrust the foot to one side. Strike the target with the blade or heel of the foot.

    side kick

    A(n) ________ is a distraction technique that inflicts pain and temporarily diverts a subject's attention, redirecting the physical power of the subject's attack. It can also help you escape from a body hold and can incapacitate the subject. The best target area for this is the soft tissue of the subject's face or head.

    head butt

    To use the __________, transfer your balance to the support leg. Lifting the knee, thrust the foot rearward. Strike the target with the heel of the foot.

    back kick

    A(n) ________ is a distraction technique that inflicts pain and temporarily diverts an attacking subject's attention. With this technique, you must raise your foot and apply downward pressure on the subject's shin. It does not require much effort or strength but, properly performed, it is very effective in allowing you to escape from a body hold.

    shin scrape

    To use the shoulder lock takedown (from a shoulder lock transporter), move the __________ leg rearward, rotating the hips to the outside. Drop to your __________ knee and place the subject in a prone position.

    outside/inside

    A __________ strike is used to stop or impede an attack or to distract or incapacitate a subject. You may use this strike when a subject suddenly moves toward you and reaches to grab you. To use this strike, extend the arm and bend the elbow slightly. Then rotate your body and strike the subject.

    forearm

    To use the __________ strike, thrust the hand forward striking the target area with the palm heel of the hand. Rotate your shoulders and hips to deliver the strike.

    palm heel

    Usually, during takedowns, a __________ pin is used to control the subject for handcuffing.

    three-point

    The __________ can have an incapacitating effect on a subject who begins to attack you. For maximum effectiveness, use fluid shock. This can be delivered without getting close to the subject. To use this technique, transfer your balance to the support leg. Lift the knee of the kicking leg and rotate the hip. Either snap or thrust the leg toward the target area. Strike the target with the shin, ball, or top of the foot.

    angle kick

    To use the hammer lock takedown (from a hammer lock transporter), sweep the __________ leg rearward, rotating the hips. Drop to your __________ knee and place the subject in a prone position.

    outside/inside

    A properly delivered __________ strike can often give you a tactical advantage and may incapacitate or break the concentration of the attacker. For this strike, you make a fist. Then you use the back of the fist to strike the specific target area.

    backfist

    ________ are techniques used to bring a resisting subject from a standing position to the ground making it easier to control him or her.

    Takedowns

    The __________ strike may be used as an initial or follow-up strike to incapacitate the subject and create distance when you are close to the subject. This strike is not executed with the tip of the elbow but with the area of the arm approximately one inch below or above the elbow. You make a proper fist, flex your elbow, and rotate your body and strike the subject.

    elbow

    A(n) ________ is a striking technique that inflicts pain and temporarily diverts a subject's attention, redirecting the physical power of the subject's attack. It can be used to help you escape or to apply controlling techniques. This is very effective when a subject attacks from the front or from the rear in close quarters. To use this, transfer your weight. Lift the other leg, bending at the knee. Using the heel of the foot, deliver a downward thrust to the subject's foot.

    foot stomp

    The __________ strike has multiple uses such as an escape, to open a subject's hand, for pain compliance, or as a distraction. To use this strike, make a half fist and use the foreknuckle to strike the specific target area.

    knuckle

    The __________ strike is one of the most powerful strikes you can use. A properly delivered strike combined wtih fluid shock usually causes the subject to release his grip in a situation where the subject suddenly grabs your wrist, equipment, or part of your clothing. Using this strike temporarily incapacitates the subject and allows you to escalate, de-escalate, or disengage.

    hammer fist

    When an aggressive subject advances toward you, the __________ can be used to stop the subject's forward momentum. To use this, transfer your balance to the support leg. Lifting the knee, snap the foot forward. Strike the target with either the ball or bridge of the foot.

    front kick

    You can use the __________ when you are in close proximity to a resistant or combative subject. Use it to gain control or distance. To use this, drive your knee forward into the target area.

    knee strike

    The purpose of a __________ is to gain control of a situation by stunning the subject before using other techniques, such as a takedown followed by handcuffing. For this, you make a fist by rolling the fingers, tucking, and locking into the palm of the hand with thumb pressure. Then you use the knuckles to strike the specific target area.

    punch

    You can use the __________ strike to defuse a situation and gain control of a subject. This strike may be delivered to the center of the subject's chest primarily as a distraction technique or to the forehead as an incapacitating technique.

    palm heel

    __________ is a technique that interrupts the subject's concentration so that energy is redirected from the current focus.

    Distraction

    The __________ uses thigh-to-thigh contact to upset the subject's balance from an upright grappling position. To do this: Assume an appropriate position. Use your leg in a sweeping motion to direct the subject to the ground.

    leg sweep

    To escape from a front body hold over/under arms, lower your center of gravity. Perform one or more striking techniques or pressure points to the appropriate target areas. For escaping __________ the arms, create distance between you and the subject by putting the palms on the subject's hips (hip check). For escaping __________ the arms, trap the weapon side arm and follow up with the appropriate technique.

    over/under

    _______ is the use of body mechanics to leverage or control a subject.

    Grappling

    To use the __________ technique, tuck your chin into your chest. Bend your knees into a squatting position and roll backward. As your back makes contact with the ground, pull your arms in tightly, or you may swing both of your arms out at a 45-degree angle and strike the ground with the palms of both hands while exhaling.

    rear fall

    __________ is supporting the balance of the body using a limb.

    Posting

    To escape from a __________, take an extended step backward and lower your center of gravity. Raise your arms in an offensive ready position. Stop the subject's forward motion with double forearm strikes to both clavicle areas. Bend your elbow and place it on the subject's back alongside the spine at the shoulder blade. Apply downward pressure with the elbow and force the subject to the ground.

    front football tackle

    To escape from a __________, trap hands and lower your center of gravity. Perform one or more striking techniques and/or finger peel to break the subject's grip.

    rear body hold over/under arms

    To escape from a __________, turn your face into the subject's torso to establish an airway and protect vital areas of your face. Strikes and distraction techniques are effective for escaping this. A wide stance is necessary to establish good balance. Use loud, clear verbal commands throughout the application of the technique. Establish an airway, and a wide stance. Perform one or more striking techniques or pressure points to the appropriate target areas. Force the subject's head back, while giving verbal commands.

    headlock

    To perform a __________ from an upright grappling position, palce your hip into the subject's lower abdomen. Lower your center of gravity. Pull subject over the hip and direct him to the ground.

    hip roll

    To use the defend and escape from the __________ technique (from the ground defensive position), bring your left arm across and underneath the subject's neck (as the subject attacks from the right side). Push up, lifting the subject's head to gain distance. Place your right hand on the subject's left hip, blocking any hip movement. Escape by moving your hips to the left to create more distance. At the same time, place your right hand on the subject's hip to control and push away.

    side control

    To use the __________ techniques, extend your bent arms slightly in front of your chest as in a natural bracing position. Fall forward to a prone position contacting the ground with the palms, forearms and feet, keeping your mouth closed but exhaling upon impact. If falling with an unholstered weapon, make contact with the ground with just one palm.

    front fall

    To use the __________ technique (from the foundation position), push up on the reactionary foot and strong arm simultaneously. This will lift the hips off the ground. The base arm and leg will support the body weight. Use your free hand to protect the vital areas. Once distance is established, get up by moving your leg under your body and move to a standing position. Maintain an appropriate stance, and follow up with an appropriate technique(s).

    standing position

    To escape from a __________, follow these steps: Tuck your chin and lower your center of gravity. Hold the subject's arm to your chest. Maintain control of the subject's arm. Drop to your attacked side knee, pull down, and twist toward your other side. Roll the subject to the ground.

    rear chokehold

    After applying a standard vassular neck restraint, the subject should regain consciousness within approximately __________ seconds. If not, render medical aid.

    30

    To use the __________ technique (from the foundation position), tuck your chin to your chest, with your arms and hands up protecting vital areas. Your legs will be up, knees bent toward the chest, and feet slightly canted. Defend by kicking the subject in the knees, shins, or other available targets. Lift your hips off the ground and use your feet to rotate in a circular motion. Propel forward, backward, and in circular motions by using hips and feet. Follow the subject's movement while still on your back.

    ground defense position

    To use the __________ technique, tuck your chin on your chest. Bend your knees into a squatting position and roll to the rear quarter and to one side. Relax the body as you fall. Don't land flat. Dissipate the shock by rolling after hitting the ground. As your body makes contact with the ground, you may swing the same side arm and strike the ground with the palm to minimize impact. Exhale to relax your body and prevent you from having the wind knocked out of you.

    side fall

    To use the __________ technique (from lying on the back, prop the upper body off the ground [posting]). Bend the knees with feet on the ground. Keep your free hand up in a defensive position to protect vital areas.

    foundation

    To use the __________ technique, tuck your chin into your chest and roll forward onto the ground making contact with the outside edge of the bladed hand with your palms facing out and elbows flexed. Continue rolling from shoulder diagonally across to lower back.

    shoulder roll

    To escape from a __________, step straight back with the strong side leg and raise your lead side arm as you swing the lead side arm up and over the subject's arm to break the hold (windmill).

    front chokehold

    The __________ is the physical restraint compressing certain veins and arteries in the neck to cause a subject to lose consciousness for a brief period of time.

    vascular neck restraint

    To use the __________ technique (from the foundation position), tuck the chin to the chest to protect your neck and back of your head. Push off with one foot, force your hips up, and push out towards the opposite side. Your hands will simulate a pushing motion, as if pushing the subject away.

    hip escapes

    The purpose of hip escapes is to move from side to side while avoiding or defending an attack. The movement in a hip escape is also known as ____________.

    shrimping

    _________ is a tactical method of safely controlling a suspect until you physically recover or reassess the situation, or backup arrives.

    Stalling

    Even though new intermediate weapons have been developed, such as OC spray and dart-firing stun guns, the

    baton remains a standard tool for some criminal justice agencies.

    The _______ uses leverage tactics to hold the subject down while keeping you in a strategic position to prevent him from attacking critical areas such as the head, throat, or weapon.

    scarf hold

    The supine position is ________.

    lying on the back face up

    A(n) _________ is a low profile stance with the weapon held partially hidden behind the leg.

    interview stance with an impact weapon

    A(n) __________ is a high profile stance with the weapon held at a shoulder position to enable a rapid strike.

    offensive ready stance with an impact weapon

    A(n) ________ is any object used for striking. These weapons may disable or cause temporary motor dysfunction.

    impact weapon

    The expected effect (of striking the __________) will be to disable or cause temporary respiratory or motor dysfunction.

    center of the abdomen

    The _________ is the most basic of the stalling positions.

    scarf hold

    Identify the target areas (for striking with an impact weapon) which are considered to be deadly force.

    throat
    groin
    side of neck
    head

    To use the __________ technique (if the subject sits on your chest as you lie on your back), sit up and grab the subject around the waist with both arms. Depending on how the subject positions himself, you may need to use a maneuver before doing the following steps. Place your elbows on the thighs of the subject pushing down and scoot forward. Pull the subject down on top of you. Place your forehead into the chest or stomach of the subject. Move your head left or right to breathe and avoid attack. From this position, you may continue to hold the subject, escalate, or disengage.

    straddle stall

    To use the __________ technique (from the scarf hold grip), release your clasped hands while maintaining control of the subject's shoulder with your arm around his neck. Grab the subject's shoulder closest arm with your free hand palm down. Slide your bottom leg upward so that your thigh is close to the subject's shoulder. Place the triceps of the subject's arm in an extended position across your thigh. Use your chest to compress the subject's chest as you push down on the subject's wrist. You may use your leg to trap the extended arm. This gives you more control and strength and frees your hand. From this position, you may continue to hold the subject, escalate, or disengage.

    arm bar

    Identify the target areas (for striking with an impact weapon) in which the effect is to disable or cause temporary motor dysfunction.

    inside of thigh
    top of calf
    inside of forearm
    top of forearm
    outside of thigh
    front of shoulder

    The defend and escape from the __________ should be used if the subject mounts your lower back and places his legs to the outside of your legs to control you. As this occurs, the subject holds you down with his body weight. From the prone position, do the following: Keep your hands around your head for protection from punches to the back of the head and the side of your face. Cover and trap either of the subject's legs. Roll towards and onto the trapped leg.

    rear mount

    Unconventional impact weapons are also known as _________.

    weapons of opportunity

    Temporary __________ dysfunction is a type of incapacitation that causes temporary impairment of muscle control, such as a charley horse.

    motor

    To use the defend and escape from the __________ technique, you begin in the prone position. If you are being choked, grap the choking arm, pull down, and attempt to establish an airway. Attempt to turn your head and pull your jaw down into empty space. Attempt to roll onto your weapon side. If you are no longer being choked and your weapon is not in danger, this may be your stalling position. If you are still being choked, attempt to brace the elbow of one arm and compress the subject's wrist on the same side to force a release. If the hold cannot be broken, use other force options. When the subject releases you, disengage, and follow up with an appropriate technique(s).

    head-to-head prone

    The defend and escape from the __________ technique should be used if the subject mounts you from the waist to the chest. From the supine position, do the following: Control the subject's wrists to prevent strikes or choke attempts. Block the subject's leg by placing your foot to the outside of the subject's leg. Control the subject's wrist on the same side. Pull the subject's arm in and hold it tight to your body. Push up with your foot and drive your hips up to a bridge. Thrust the subject forward while you roll the subject onto his back. You will end up on top and between the subject's legs.

    full mount

    To use the __________ technique, follow these steps: From a seated position where the subject is behind you, attempt to capture one or both of the subject's arms by using your arms and trapping them between your body and upper arm. Control the subject's arms above the elbow to eliminate the subject's movement. Turn your head downward to protect your throat. Perform a joint lock by capturing the arm and controlling the elbow joint. Compress it against your forearm using an arm wrap. From this position, you may continue to hold the subject, escalate, or disengage.

    seated stall

    Though intermediate weapons may cause

    death or great bodily harm, they are not fundamentally designed to do so.

    _________ are tools used when empty-handed control is ineffective, but the subject's level of resistance does not merit deadly force.

    Intermediate weapons

    Criminal justice officers primarily use two types of chemical agents to control resistant subjects: oleo-resin capsicum and/or ____________.

    orthochlorobenzal-malononitrile

    OC has the most desired effects when sprayed directly at the subject's __________.

    head

    The heat value of capsicum is measured in _____________ Heat Units.

    Scoville

    What are some types of electronic control devices?

    electronic sleeve

    electronic belt

    handheld stun gun

    electronic shield

    dart-firing stun gun (TASER)

    The current from electronic control devices is ________ voltage and __________ amperage and is considered safe when used on people.

    high/low

    If the gag reflex is activated, the chemicals of OC may cause

    gagging and even vomitting.

    Officers are required to watch each person contaminated by OC until

    the subject has recovered.

    __________, commonly called pepper spray, is a(n) inflammatory agent that causes tearing and involuntary closing of the eyes, nasal discharge, sneezing, disorientation, and a sensation of respiratory distress. The skin will turn red due to the inflammation and show mild signs of puffiness.

    OC

    To use the impact weapon __________ technique, hold the impact weapon with one or both hands. Sweep or push the impact weapon across the front of the body, defending against attack.

    blocks

    If the chemicals of OC are inhaled, they will often cause

    coughing and gasping.

    Electronic _________ devices (also called electronic immobilization devices) are weapons that use a battery-powered current of electricity.

    control

    The effects of a direct discharge of OC into the eyes has been known to cause slight ________ in the eye membranes which could lead to complications.

    tears

    The effects of oleo-resin capsicum (OC), commonly called pepper spray, will wear off generally in ________ minutes, though some case have been reported to last longer.

    20-40

    To use the impact weapon __________ technique, hold the impact weapon with one or both hands. Thrust the impact weapon into an appropriate target area.

    thrusts

    A subject's reaction to being sprayed by OC can include

    loss of coordination.
    loss of balance.

    When OC enters the eyes, it causes them to __________. The subject will feel an intense burning sensation and the capillaries of the eyes will dilate, causing the eyes to appear bloodshot.

    involuntarily close

    Oleo-resin capsicum is a natural derivative of _________, although there are some synthetic forms. The active ingredient in OC is known as capsaicin which produces the heat felt when it makes contact with human tissue.

    cayenne pepper

    Electronic control devices control a subject through an

    artificial contraction of the muscles which may cause extreme muscular tension and complete structural dysfunction.

    To use the impact weapon __________ technique, hold the impact weapon with one or both hands. Swing the impact weapon to an appropriate target area.

    swings

    __________ is a(n) irritant agent that causes burning and tearing eyes, nasal discharge, and skin and upper respiratory irritation. The chemical, when it makes contact with skin, gives the sensation of pain by activating and irritating the neural transmitters of the body. Though there is no actual burning caused by the chemical, there is the sensation of an intense burn once contaminated.

    CS

    When an officer must use a chemical agent on a suspect or encounters a person who has been accidentally contaminated, he or she should not

    leave that person unattended while the effects of the contaminant are evident.

    If the chemicals of OC are inhaled, the

    nasal cavity can swell, causing significant discharge of mucus and sneezing.

    After contamination from a chemical agent,

    the person should never wipe or rub his eyes with his fingers.

    When the __________ is grasped: Adjust stance to maintain balance. Rotate the long end of the weapon upward and from the outside to inside, releasing the subject's grip. Pull the weapon back and away.

    drawn baton

    After you are in position and make the decision to initiate a disarming technique,

    speed, intensity, and follow-through are paramount.

    There is no absolute antidote for chemical agents, but

    decontaminant solutions, such as baby shampoo, may decrease contamination effects.

    What factors affect an officer's decision to employ disarming techniques?

    the mindset and commitment to disarm the subject regardless of personal injury or initial failure

    the proximity of the officer to the subject

    the officer's belief that the subject is going to shoot him or her

    the presence of other potential victims in the immediate area

    the consideration of other reasonable options

    The minimum safe distance for an officer to be able to react to an edged weapon attack without injury is approximately __________ feet.

    25

    A person contaminated from a chemical agent should concentrate on

    breathing to draw his attention from the burning sensation the contaminant causes.

    When a subject grabs your __________: Grab the bottom of your holster and lift outward. This cants the weapon into your body and prevents removal of the weapon. In situations where duty equipment limits canting of the holster, the officer should secure the weapon by pushing the firearm into the holster. Adjust your stance to maintain balance. Deliver strikes to appropriate target areas as you twist your body and increase pressure on the subject's grip.

    holstered handgun

    _______ is forcefully blinking the eyes using all the muscles in the face, including those in the forehead. This forceful blinking helps clear the vision and activates the tear ducts. Tears help clear the eyes and wash away particles of contaminant.

    Strobing

    Scrubbing or using oil-based soaps to decontaminate (from a chemical agent) can

    cause the contaminant to adhere to the skin and prolong decontamination time

    Reaction time __________ when a subject processes two or more pieces of information at the same time.

    increases

    Disarming techniques are a last resort when an officer believes that

    the subject is going to shoot him or her.

    After strobing the eyes and breathing rhythmically, the contaminated person may

    remove contaminants from his skin which will reduce the chemical agent's effects.

    A person contaminated from a chemical agent __________ use large amounts of running water to irrigate his eyes and facial skin.

    should

    Officers should deploy empty-handed techniques against edged weapon attacks only when

    there are no other options available.

    To initiate a handgun disarming technique, the subject's handgun must be

    within arm's reach.

    When you enter the danger zone to deal with a subject, you are the initiator; therefore, the subject must

    react to your threat.

    Your primary objective (for disarming a long gun) is to get the

    muzzle pointed in a different direction than toward you.

    When employing a disarming technique, do not

    telegraph to the subject that you plan to counterattack.

    _________ is small eye, hand, or foot movements in the direction that you plan to move.

    Telegraphing

    The best defense against a subject grabbing your __________ is to maintain the reactionary gap. For this technique, cover the subject's hand with your hand and maintain downward pressure. Adjust your stance to maintain balance. Deliver strikes to appropriate target areas.

    intermediate weapon

    Empty-hand techniques become deadly force when they have the

    capability of causing great bodily harm or even death.

    During an edged weapon attack, __________ is using your hands to move the subject away.

    redirection

    To use the defense technique against a(n) ___________ with an edged weapon, do the following: As the subject strikes with the weapon, step to the inside of the attacking arm. Simultaneously overlap your hands forming a V to grab and control the subject's wrist. Step back and pivot to the rear while forcing the subject's attacking arm downward. Rotate the subject's arm elbow up. Control the subject's arm with downward pressure on the elbow. Keep the subject's arm straight with his wrist above his shoulder. Take the subject down by forcing his chest to the ground. Apply pressure to the back of the subject's wrist to facilitate the weapon's release. Secure the edged weapon.

    forehand slash

    _______ is a defensive movement (used to defend against a spontaneous, close-quarter, edged weapon attack) in which you capture the weapon arm and secure it.

    Secure

    To use the defense technique against a(n) __________ with an edged weapon, do the following: As the subject strikes with the weapon, step to the outside of the attacking arm. With both hands, simultaneously grab and control the subject's wrist as you move your hips back. At the same time, push the weapon away from your body. Use striking techniques if safe to do so. Pivot to the outside while trapping the subject's arm between your arm and body with the subject's elbow up. Control the subject's arm with downward pressure on the elbow. Keep the subject's arm straight with his wrist above his shoulder. Use a takedown to put the subject to the ground. Apply pressure to the back of the subject's wrist to facilitate the weapon's release. Secure the edged weapon.

    straight/underhand thrust

    Select ALL of the TRUE statements that apply to performing redirection techniques (during an edged weapon attack).

    Simultaneously bring both hands up in front of your face to protect vital areas.

    Move away from the subject at an angle or circle.

    As the subject attacks, pivot backward to evade forward movements.

    Push or slap at the subject's upper arm or shoulder to create distance.

    Use loud, clear verbal commands throughout the application of the technique.

    In a deadly force encounter, your fingers or spear hand can be used to

    strike or rake the attacker's eyes.

    When redirecting (from an edged weapon attack), move in an

    angle or circle away from the attacker.

    In a deadly force encounter, an empty-hand technique may

    help stop or disable your attacker if you cannot access a weapon.

    What are some target areas for a deadly force elbow strike?

    temple

    side of jaw

    bridge of nose

    back of the head

    throat

    _______ is a defensive movement (used to defend against a spontaneous, close-quarter, edged weapon attack) in which you use a takedown to put the subject in a prone position (lying on the stomach face down), disarm, and use a restraint device.

    Control

    The deadly force __________ strike uses the tip of the elbow to target a specific area where great bodily harm may result.

    elbow

    It is the use of an item that qualifies the item as a

    weapon.

    To use the defense technique against a(n) __________ with an edged weapon, do the following: Palm strike the subject's upper chest near his shoulder with both hands to stop the movement of the weapon arm. Using your arm closest to the subject's weapon arm, capture and secure his arm by encircling it. At the same time, srike the throat or face with your other hand or elbow. Use multiple strikes until the subject is disarmed and under control or until you can safely disengage. Use a takedown to put the subject in a prone handcuffing position.

    overhead stab or a forehand slash

    __________ is a defensive movement (used to defend against a spontaneous, close-quarter, edged weapon attack) in which you move or pivot away from the attacker.

    Evade

    _______ is a defensive movement (used to defend against a spontaneous, close-quarter, edged weapon attack) in which you redirect the weapon arm.

    Redirect

    Any item an officer has at hand may be used as a

    potential weapon in a time of need.

    Some empty-hand techniques can become

    deadly force if applied to a specific target area of the body that is likely to result in great bodily harm or death.

    During an edged weapon attack, __________ is simply shifting your body or side stepping to avoid the attack.

    evasion

    To use the defense technique against a(n) __________ with an edged weapon, do the following: As the subject strikes down with the weapon, step to the outside of the attacking arm. Simultaneously overlap your hands forming a V to grab and control the subject's wrist. Step back and pivot to the rear while forcing the subject's attacking arm downward. Rotate the subject's arm elbow up. Control the subject's arm with downward pressure on the elbow. Keep the subject's arm straight with his wrist above his shoulder. Take the subject down as in a straight arm takedown or outside wrist takedown. Apply pressure to the back of the subject's wrist to facilitate the weapon's release. Secure the edged weapon.

    overhead stab or a backhand slash

    The throat and eyes are two examples of

    effective target areas for a deadly force thumb strike.

    A deadly weapon is any item used to cause

    death or great bodily harm.

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