When experiencing extreme anxiety, you may experience physical changes within your body. What symptoms of survival stress may occur?
increase reaction time
increase in heart rate and respiration
motor performance changes
loss of bladder and bowel control
The __________ nervous system, sometimes called the rest and digest system, is the part of the autonomic nervous system that is concerned with controlling the body during normal, routine situations. During periods of calm these systems dynamically hold each other in balance.
__________ is when blood flow is restricted from the extremities and skin. The body pulls the blood away from the arms and legs into the torso. This keeps the blood near vital organs in case of emergency and also protects the arms and legs (our weapons) from losing blood in case of injury.
When a stimulus exceeds an officer's coping mechanisms, the stimulus will now be perceived as a threat and leads to
During an encounter, subjects might become verbally and physically threatening, indicating they may resist by __________.
__________ is the officer's evaluation and assignment of challenge or threat value to a stimulus.
________ motor skills refer to the muscle control required to make small, precise movements, such as unlocking handcuffs with a key.
The __________ nervous system is the part of the autonomic nervous system that is concerned especially with preparing the body to react to situations of stress or emergency. This system activates what is often called the fight or flight response.
Officers who experience high levels of arousal may perceive a stimulus as a threat. This may cause an activation of the __________ (the parts of the brain that are especially focused on emotion and motivation) that provides a survival response to the central nervous system.
The effects (of survival stress) in the body may lead to
profound changes in physical ability and cognitive decision making.
A subject __________ when an officer gives him a command. The subject expands his chest and begins to speak loudly, shouting, "You're not taking me!" He strikes his chest with his open hands while stepping back and forth, side to side as he yells the same words over and over.
__________ is the tendency of your eyes to fixate to one location. When an officer focuses on the perceived threat, this focus may cause the officer to not see other details of the event.
Throughout periods of arousal, the __________ nervous system dominates the __________ system for the purpose of self-protection. This has the effect of calling upon the body's survival resources to ensure a positive outcome. During this period certain mind-body changes may become evident.
During an encounter, some subjects may
fight or flee while other subjects, given the same set of circumstances, may decide to submit.
________ stress is sometimes called fear-induced stress or combat stress. It is a measure of anxiety caused by an appraisal or a stimulus that leads to an extreme state of arousal.
__________ is the officer's elevated mind-body state that occurs in the presence of a perceived challenge or threat.
Due to physiological changes in the eye, vision may become distorted. This is called __________. Officers may see darkness around the edges of their vision (tunnel vision). Officers may also lose the ability to see close objects with detail (foresightnedness).
__________ is when blood flows into the larger muscle groups providing oxygen to power flight and aid in escape.
During an encounter, the officer might __________ by displaying a show of force without actually using force. The officer might choose to disengage from an overwhelming threat or decide to engage and take control of the subject.
An officer can choose to display a higher level of force by elevating voice commands and drawing an immediate weapon (___________). The subject may back down (__________) and follow the officer's verbal directions with no force used. However, if the subject does not submit to the officer's authority, his posturing may indicate that he is about to fight or is preparing to run (flee).
On scene comments and post-incident interviews may result in
an officer speaking without deliberate forethought, usually reflecting the emotional state of the officer.
In Condition __________, the officer has a general awareness of possible threats. Attention is focused, and the officer scans the environment for potential threats. Example: While on the job, an officer is in a state of relaxed awareness and notices what is going on around him or her.
In Condition __________, the threat is mismanaged, due to a panicked stress response. Survival stress functions break down. Submission or freezing may occur. Examples: The patrol officer or correctional officer panics and may not respond effectively.
An officer in Condition _________ (on the threat awareness spectrum) can quickly move to Condition Orange or Condition Red based on the appraisal of a given situation.
Officers tend to continuously speak while in an anxious state,
which may erode the officer's integrity during an internal investigation.
which can erode their command presence in front of a suspect.
_________ motor skills combine fine and gross motor skills using hand and eye coordination timed to a single event, such as driving a vehicle.
In the immediate aftermath of a critical incident (within a couple of hours), officers may engage in bragging or boastful comments motivated by the sympathetic nervous system. At times, officers who are in a state of high arousal later regret or do not recall the things they said during this period of anxiousness. This phenomenon is commonly referred to as "__________" which reflects a series of statements brought on by a euphoric feeling of accomplishment the officer experiences after prevailing in the critical incident.
If the available timeframe for making a decision decreases, the potential for error __________.
With __________ distortion, objects appear to be closer or farther than they actually are.
During periods of high arousal, cognition often changes from deliberate thoughtful analysis to a short, concise, thought process known as __________. These are mental shortcuts that allow people to solve problems and make judgments quickly and efficiently. They shorten decision-making time and allow people to function without constantly stopping to think about the next decision or course of action.
________ motor skills are the movements of the large or major muscles of the body, which are used in tasks such as running, punching, or kicking.
On the threat awareness spectrum, the desired state of awareness and readiness of an officer while on routine duty is Condition ________. This is the optimum state of mind to remain focused while scanning the environment for potential problems.
A constriction of the vocal cords leads to a __________ pitch in the voice and sometimes cracking or garbled sounds result. This can affect the clarity of an officer's radio communications.
With __________ distortion, occurrences seem to be faster or slower than they actually are.
Officers who are exposed to an extremely stressful situation, such as an officer-involved shooting, may experience short and long-term memory loss. This is a temporary or sometimes permanent condition known as ________ amnesia.
On the threat awareness spectrum, Condition ________ and Condition __________ are not optimum states of readiness for officers on duty.
The Threat Awareness Spectrum is a color-coded illustration of how _________ stress may affect an officer's reaction to a perceived challenge or threat.
In Condition __________, the officer is unaware that a threat exists. Attention is unfocused or preoccupied, and the officer is oblivious to potential danger in his or her environment. Example: A person drives to work and does not remember the drive (automatic pilot).
In Condition __________, the officer recognizes that a threat exists. He or she has awareness of a specific threat which encourages pre-planning and more intense focus. Physical indicators of stress may become evident. Examples: A patrol officer observes a vehicle backed into a parking space at a convenience store with the engine running, considers the possibility of a robbery in progress, and begins tactical planning. A correctional officer observes an inmate with possible contraband and begins formulating a plan of action.
Cursing is emotional speech that may demonstrate that an officer is in a state of __________ arousal during or immediately following a critical incident.
During a critical incient, intense focus on some particular aspect of the event often leads to
a diminshed ability to process other information.
In Condition __________, a specific threat is identified and appropriate actions are taken. The threat is assessed and managed through intensified cognitive and physical reactions. Survival stress functions become optimum. Examples: The patrol officer
Subjects' and onlookers' reactions toward you depend on their
perceptions of how you present yourself.
Immediately after an extremely stressful incident, critical incident amnesia will often result in the
inability to remember information observed during the incident.
When confronting a subject with unusual symptoms, an officer should
immediately seek medical attention.
What can officers do to increase their coping skills and better prepare for the effects of stress?
maintain proficiency in physical and mental skills
anticipate the possibility of resistance with every subject encounter
rely on techniques that involve gross motor movements rather than fine motor skills
stay physically fit
use controlled breathing techniques
train under realistic environmental conditions designed to mirror high-stress scenarios
get adequate rest
maintain proficiency with firearms and other issued equipment
eat a nutritious diet
________ is a state of extreme mental and physiological excitement characterized by exceptional agitation and hyperactivity, overheating, excessive tearing of the eyes, hostility, superhuman strength, aggression, acute paranoia, and endurance without apparent fatigue.
________: An officer may gain control over a subject by using an incapacitation technique that causes temporary impairment of muscular control.
What are some nonverbal cues that indicate the possibility of subject aggression or posturing?
rapid, angry movements
refusal to show palms of hands
increased breathing and pulse rates
shifting of shoulders or change of stance
ignoring the officer
cessation of all movement
reddened or flushed face
expanding veins showing prominently on face and forearms
clenched fists and quivering hands
An officer's assessment of a perceived threat is critical for
safety and influences his or her actions when dealing with a situation.
A __________ memory is a brief mental visualization of a past experience, a mental "snap-shot".
________: Maintaining a balanced posture is essential in performing any defensive tactics technique. To achieve this, your head and hips must be aligned and your weight distributed evenly between your feet. If any one of these points is misaligned, you are not in balance.
A subject in a state of excited delirium could die suddenly and without explanation, a death sometimes referred to as ________. Unfortunately, the death may be wrongly attributed to the actions of an officer or his or her use of certain levels of force.
Sudden Death Syndrome
_________ is your ability to convey to subjects and onlookers that you are able and ready to take control.
Officers are most vulnerable to formal investigations and intense questioning that occur
immediately after a critical incident.
________: An officer may gain control over a subject by bending or twisting a joint in a direction that will cause pain or discomfort to the joint.
What are some verbal cues that indicate the possibility of subject aggression or posturing?
serious and specific swearing
specific verbal threats
Threats may be fluid and constantly changing, so officers should
continuously analyze situations for their threat potential.
_________: An officer may gain control over a subject by applying pressure or leverage on a joint by locking it up so that no movement of the joint is possible, causing the subject to comply with verbal direction.
_________ is using a great force against a weaker resistance. It is used in conjunction with joint manipulation and/or pain and mechanical compliance in order to gain control.
Officers who have experienced an extremely stressful situation, such as an officer-involved shooting, may later show signs of
post-traumatic stress disorder.
Due to the inability to accurately remember information (from an extremely stressful incident),
officers are more vulnerable to false memories and unintentional fabrications that they use to link flash memories of the critical incident.
________ is a controlling technique used to break the subject's balance through the use of leverage principles.
_________: For maximum effectiveness, most strikes are delivered utilizing penetration so that the striking object stays on or indented in the target for an instant allowing for energy transfer. When a major muscle mass is struck this way, it displaces the water content in the muscle and penetrates the nerves within, creating a shock wave. The effect on the subject will be greatly multiplied. When delivering a strike, an officer strikes a muscle so that the striking object penetrates the muscle and nerves of the target area. This is a full transfer of kinetic energy that increases the power of the strike.
Fluid shock principle
________: It is a subject's response to a combination of pain and verbal commands to stop resisting.
_________ presence is the way you carry yourself. Your presence can determine whether a subject's resistance escalates or de-escalates.
_________ is the exchange of information through verbal and nonverbal methods which provides valuable insight into the likelihood of cooperation and compliance of a subject.
_________ is a controlled, non-emotional communication between an officer and a subject aimed at problem solving and communication. Used as a strategy, it is intentionally designed to gain rapport and exchange information.
When preparing to approach a subject, an officer must place him- or herself in the safest possible position. _________ describes an officer's position in relation to the subject.
_________ refers to how you approach a subject or enter a scene. The manner and direction from which you approach a subject and the distance you maintain from the subject throughout the interaction are based on your assessment of the threat and potential harm present.
Stand with head, hips, and feet aligned. Place your feet shoulder-width apart with the knees slightly bent. Angle your body to the subject with the strong side away. Place your hands above waist level. These are instructions for __________.
the interview stance
The distance you must keep between you and the subject in order to react effectively against a sudden threat is the ________ gap.
The following instructions are for the __________ technique: Use loud, clear verbal commands throughout the application of the technique. Assume the offensive ready stance. Sidestep the direct line of attack to either the strong or supporting side. As the subject passes, redirect the subject by pushing the subject away and off balance. Striking the upper back or side of the subject's shoulder will cause the subject to spin off balance. Maintain an offensive ready stance. Follow up with an appropriate technique(s).
What are some movements and gestures that are clues to escalating aggression?
Important aspects of __________ presence include personal appearance (uniform and personal grooming), erect posture, and alertness and attention to surroundings.
Stand with your head, hips, and feet aligned. Plant your feet slightly wider than shoulder-width apart with the knees in a deep crouch. Your body is angled to the subject with the strong side away. Place your hands at your face level and towards your center. These are instuctions for __________.
the offensive ready stance
When approaching a subject, you may use the following __________ technique: Maintain an appropriate reactionary gap. Visually scan the area for potential threats. Assume an appropriate stance. Identify yourself as an officer, if appropriate. Use clear, concise verbal commands. Tell the subject to expose both palms.
__________ principle is the amount of time it takes for the brain to process a physical threat and the body to respond. During this process, the officer sees the threat, figures out what to do, and then takes action.
Maintain a balanced stance with head, hips, and feet aligned. Step with your lead foot. Slide your trailing foot forward. Keep your feet shoulder-width apart. These are instructions for the __________ step.
_______ of the hands is the ability to see both the subject's hands and to know that those hands hold no weapons.
_________ is the use of proper, clear, and concise commands to let a subject know what you need or expect him or her to do.
The _______ step is used when preparing to engage or disengage from a subject in close proximity.
The area within the reactionary gap is the _________ zone. Anytime an officer is in this zone, the potential for physical harm increases.
Applying pressure to the sensitive area in the hollow behind the __________ is a good technique to use on a seated or prone subject or a subject who is holding onto a fixed object.
The ________ position is a technique used to move a subject from one point to another without using pain compliance. It provides minimal control of the subject through leverage.
The following are instructions for performing the __________ pressure point technique: Approach the subject safely. Use loud, repetitive verbal commands to let the subject know what you want him to do. Stabilize the subject's head and locate the pressure point in the vicinity of the hollow behind the ear. Apply pressure inward and toward the nose until compliance. Decrease the pressure when the subject complies. Do not release control, just the pressure. If the subject begins to resist again, reapply the pressure. Follow up with an appropriate technique(s).
hollow behind the ear
_________ is nonthreatening, noncustodial physical contact and can be used to support or emphasize a verbal command. It can be effective to enhance your communication; however, you must evaluate carefully so as not to escalate a subject's resistance.
Make contact with the subject's arm by controlling the upper arm just above the elbow and wrist simultaneously. Turn the subject's palm so that it is facing you. Move the subject, or follow up with an appropriate technique(s). These are instructions to use the __________ technique.
__________ points are techniques used to control resistant behavior by utilizing pain compliance.
The __________ pressure point technique should be used when you want a standing subject to sit, lie down, or move to another location. You can employ this technique from either the front or the side of the subject.
hollow behind the collarbone
________, sometimes called come-along holds, are techniques used to move a subject from one point to another with pain compliance and/or mechanical compliance.
The ability to give __________ is usually the first step in controlling the subject's actions. Establish yourself as a criminal justice officer. Give clear and concise commands. Make sure that your commands are loud enough for the subject to hear.
_________ is touching the location of a nerve or sensitive area and applying continual, uninterrupted pressure with the tip of the finger(s) or thumb until the subject complies.
On all pressure point techniques, applying pressure longer than ___________seconds without a response may result in an adrenaline sure. This may cause the subject to exhibit symptoms similar to survival responses, inability to feel pain, extraordinary strength, or auditory exclusion.
The _________ is usually effective because you hyperextend the subject's fingers, bending them in a direction they are not meant to go. The subject's pain usually leads to compliance.
finger lock transporter
When using the hollow of the neck (pressure point) technique, apply pressure inward and __________ toward the back of the neck for gag reflex.
When using the hollow of the neck technique, locate the pressure point in the hollow of the __________ of the neck, just __________ the sternum.
The __________ pressure point technique works well to bring a seated, kneeling, or prone subject to a standing position.
under the jaw
A(n) ______________ position may be your first physical contact with a subject. You apply pressure or leverage on a joint to lock it and the subject complies.
The following are instructions for performing the __________ pressure point technique: Approach the subject safely. Use loud, repetitive verbal commands to let the subject know what you want him to do. Stabilize the subject. Locate the pressure point under the base of the nose. Apply pressure upward toward the center of the brain until compliance. Decrease the pressure when the subject complies. Do not release control, just the pressure. If the subject begins to resist again, reapply the pressure. Follow up with an appropriate technique(s).
under the nose
The __________ transporter transitions from the escort position when the subject tries to resist by pulling his arm away. Effective joint manipulation causes pain compliance, making the subject move in the direction you are leading.
The __________ pressure point technique is usually used for thwarting an attack by balance displacement.
hollow of the neck
When using the hollow of the neck (pressure point) technique, apply pressure inward and downward toward the stomach for __________.
For the __________ area block, the arm should be used in a motion to deflect a strike to the neckline up to the top of the head.
A custodial search of a subject should be done in a systematic and predetermined pattern using the __________ approach, which is dividing the body into four sections horizontally and vertically.
Striking the side of the neck with an empty hand can cause
incapacitation and/or temporary motor dysfunction.
The center of the abdomen can be struck with an empty hand. The expected effect when striking this area will be to disable or cause __________ or temporary motor dysfunction.
temporary respiration dysfunction
For the __________ area block, the arm should be used in a motion to deflect a strike to the center chest/stomach area and the face.
For the __________ area block, the arm and/or leg should be used in a motion to deflect a strike to the area below the beltline.
The chest area can be struck with an empty hand. The expected effect when striking this area with an empty hand will be to __________.
incapacitate the subject
Clothed searches of inmates can be conducted at random by officers during the course of
their daily routine.
Select ALL of the TRUE statements that apply to conducting a pat down.
Conduct the pat down in a predetermined manner.
Use loud, clear verbal commands throughout the application of the technique.
Have the subject lift his arms to tighten clothing so you can visually search potential concealment areas.
Have the subject place his hands in a way so they can be controlled.
Visually scan the subject while assuming the interview stance.
If you find a weapon, take possession of it and place it beyond the subject's reach in a safe location.
Be aware of verbal and nonverbal cues that indicate the probability of aggressive behavior.
Physically control the subject's hands.
A(n) ________ technique is any impact technique using hands, arms, elbows, feet, legs, knees, or head to strike a subject in an offensive or defensive situation.
A strike using a _________ delivery method is retracted very quickly, thus enabling multiple strikes, creating distance, setting up the next techniques, and causing distraction to the subject.
Striking the eyes is an act of __________ force, and gouging the eyes is an act of __________ force.
After every block, an officer should be prepared to
counter with an appropriate technique designed to end the attack.
A __________ technique is used when a subject is taken into custody in an unsecured environment. Unlike the pat down, this is a complete search of the subject.
Identify the target areas (for empty-hand strikes) in which the effect is to disable or cause temporary motor dysfunction.
top of calf
outside of thigh
inside of forearm
inside of thigh
front of shoulder
top of forearm
_______ are reactionary techniques using the arms, legs, or body to deflect or redirect an impending strike from a subject to areas of the body.