Defensive Tactics / Study Guide/ I flashcards |

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  • While standing, lean your left ear to your left shoulder for a count of 10 seconds. Repeat on the opposite side. Stretch chin to chest and head to rear. Perform 2-3 sets in each direction. These are instructions for which stretching exercise (suitable for defensive tactics training)?

    neck stretching

    For the __________ stretch (suitable for defensive tactics training), place both arms behind your hips (while standing). With interlocking hands, slowly raise your arms behind your back for a count of 10-20 seconds. Keep your head upright and neck relaxed.

    straight arm behind back

    Because defensive tactics training is a physical endeavor, students should

    prepare for the activities required in this course by considering some changes in their daily habits.

    A __________ session (of stretching) elevates the heart rate and increases blood circulation to the muscles, which saturates the muscles with oxygen.

    warm-up

    __________ is a system of controlled defensive and offensive body movements used by criminal justice officers to respond to a subject's aggression or resistance.

    Defensive tactics

    What do defensive tactics skills require?

    balance

    flexibility

    strength

    agility

    physical fitness

    While standing, bring both straight arms above the head with hands interlocking, palms facing up, and reach upward slowly while reaching slightly backward. Hold for 10-20 seconds. These are instructions for which stretching exercise (suitable for defensive tactics training)?

    both arms above head stretch

    Proper rest and sleep are necessary for

    reaching maximum performance and maintaining focus while engaged in physical training.

    While standing with your feet shoulder-width apart, bring your arms from an overhead position slowly towards the front of your body, while rounding the back and stretching the shoulder blades apart. Hold for 10-20 seconds. These are instructions for which stretching exercise (suitable for defensive tactics training)?

    both arms in front of chest stretch

    Cardiovascular training is any exercise that elevates the heart rate to a range between ______ percent of the maximum rate.

    60 to 85

    Defensive tactics techniques are based on a combination of martial arts, wresting, and __________.

    boxing

    The following are instructions for the __________ stretch (suitable for defensive tactics training): While standing, raise your right arm above your head and bend the right arm. The elbow will be above your head. Using the opposite hand, grasp your elbow and slowly pull towards the midline of the back, moving your hand in between your shoulder blades. Hold the stretch for 10-20 seconds and repeat on the left side.

    behind neck triceps

    While standing, bring your straight right arm across your chest with the palm up. Grasp your upper arm above the elbow with your left hand and slowly pull in towards and across your chest. Hold for 10-20 seconds and repeat with the left arm. These are instructions for which stretching exercise (suitable for defensive tactics training)?

    arm cross in front of chest

    The role of defensive tactics in law enforcement and corrections is to

    assist the officer in restraining or arresting a subject.

    Because __________ stretching exercises should be conducted every day.

    flexibility

    Stretching (for defensive tactics training) usually begins with a warm-up such as running in place, jumping jacks, push-ups, or any calisthenics exercises that last for __________ minutes to warm-up the muscles, and increase heart rate, respiration, and perspiration.

    5-7

    The __________ stretch (suitable for defensive tactics training) takes place while standing. To do this exercise, take a long step forward until your right knee is directly over your right foot. Keeping your back leg straight, your forward foot on the floor, and your hands on the front thigh, lower your hips slowly forward and down. The heel of your back foot may or may not be on the floor, depending on your flexibility. Hold the stretch for 10-20 seconds and repeat on the opposite side.

    forward lunge

    When preparing for defensive tactics training,

    you should stretch until you feel mild to moderate tension.

    Each session (for defensive tactics training) should

    begin and end with stretching exercises.

    Stretching (for defensive tactics training) generally begins at

    the top of the body and moves to the bottom or vice versa

    A __________ session (of stretching) redistributes the blood flow, causing the metabolic rate to decrease.

    cool-down

    Cardiovascular training __________ the lungs.

    strengthens

    The courts have used the term _________ to describe the process for evaluating the appropriateness of an officer's response to a subject's resistance.

    objective reasonableness

    The officer __________ justified when necessarily committed in arresting felons fleeing from justice.

    is

    Appropriate force is the amount of force reasonably necessary to make ______.

    an arrest

    Section 776.05, F.S., addresses the issue of an officer using __________ to make an arrest.

    force

    __________ provide energy, build and repair body cells, and are part of various enzymes, hormones, and antibodies.

    Proteins

    Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, legumes (such as lentils), milk and milk products, vegetables, and grains are examples of __________.

    proteins

    Courts recognize that criminal justice officers must make split-second judgements about the amount of force needed in a particular situation under circumstances that are tense, uncertain, and ________.

    rapidly evolving

    Chapter _____, F.S. governs all use of force by criminal justice officers.

    776

    If the use of deadly force is necessary to prevent the arrest (of a fleeing felon) from being defeated by a flight from justice, and the officer reasonably believes that the fleeing felon poses a threat of death or serious physical harm to the officer or others, the officer __________ justified in the use of force.

    is

    The officer __________ justified in the use of force which he or she reasonably believes to be necessary to defend himself or herself or another from bodily harm while making the arrest.

    is

    __________ provide energy needed by the brain, nervous system, red blood cells, and other cells.

    Carbohydrates

    The Supreme Court has made clear that use of force is a seizure under the ______ Amendment.

    Fourth

    Meat, poultry, fish, milk and milk products, nuts and seeds, oils, butter, margarine, and salad dressing are examples of __________.

    fats

    If the use of deadly force is necessary to prevent the arrest (of a fleeing felon) from being defeated by a flight from justice, and the officer reasonably believes that the fleeing felon has committed a crime involving the infliction or threatened infliction of serious physical harm to another person, the officer __________ justified in the use of force.

    Is

    While Chapter __________, F.S., applies in general to all criminal justice officers (about the use of force), Chapter __________, F.S., specifically addresses the use of force by state correctional and correctional probation officers.

    776/944

    The officer __________ justified in the use of force when necessarily committed in retaking felons who have escaped.

    is

    A nutritious diet __________ necessary for optimal performance in defensive tactics training.

    is

    Breads, cereal grains, pasta, rice, fruit, vegetables, milk, and sugar are examples of __________.

    carbohydrates

    An adequate intake of water __________ necessary for optimal performance in defensive tactics training.

    is

    __________ provide energy and essential fatty acids and carry other fat-soluble nutrients (vitamins). They are part of cell membranes, membranes around nerves, hormones, and bile (for fat digestion).

    Fats

    The U.S. Supreme Court said in ________, 490 U.S. 386 (1989), that the reasonableness of a particular use of force must be judged from the perspective of how a reasonable officer on the scene would respond, rather than from the 20/20 perspective of hindsight.

    Graham v. Connor

    Chapter 776, F.S., identifies two general areas in which an officer's use of force is justified: to apprehend a subject and make an arrest, or to __________.

    defend self or others

    Chapter __________, F.S., establishes that the Department of Corrections has jurisdiction over the supervisory and protective care, custody, and control of inmates and offenders.

    945

    Section 944.35, F.S., provides an employee of the department is authorized to apply physical force upon an inmate (only when and to the extent that it reasonably appears necessary) under what circumstances?

    to defend himself or herself or another against such other imminent use of unlawful force

    to administer medical treatment only by or under the supervision of a physician or his or her designee and only when treatment is necessary to protect the health of other persons, or when treatment is offered in satisfaction of a duty to protect the inmate against self-inflicted injury or death

    to quell a disturbance

    to overcome physical resistance to a lawful command

    to prevent damage to property

    to prevent a person from escaping a state correctional institution when the officer reasonably believes that person is lawfully detained in such institution

    The _____________ Guidelines provide a framework for making decisions involving the reasonable use of force by criminal justice officers.

    Force

    Though the law grants criminal justice officers the right to use force, this right is _______ on their official authority.

    conditioned

    ___________ is the verbal and/or physical yielding to an officer's authority without apparent threat of resistance or violence.

    Compliance

    Once an officer achieves control or compliance, he or she must _________ the use of force.

    de-escalate

    Once an officer achieves control or compliance, he or she must de-escalate the use of force. Under certain circumstances, __________ may be the best tactical option, for example, when the officer is waiting for backup, when the officer is injured or outnumbered, or when the suspect has superior firepower.

    disengagement

    Officers should try to resolve a situation with

    the least amount of force necessary.

    __________ resistance is a subject's attacking movements toward an officer that may cause injury but are not likely to cause death or great bodily harm to the officer or others.

    Aggressive

    Which of the following are examples of active resistance?

    The subject attempts to run when the officer touches or attempts to grab the subject's arm or shoulder.

    The subject braces or pulls away from the officer when the officer grips the subject's arm.

    The subject physically anchors himself to a person or object to prevent himself from being removed.

    __________ resistance is a subject's verbal and/or physical refusal to comply with an officer's lawful direction causing the officer to use physical techniques to establish control.

    Passive

    ________ resistance is a subject's use of physically evasive movements directed toward the officer such as bracing, tensing, pushing, or pulling to prevent the officer from establishing control over the subject.

    Active

    _________ is discontinuing a command or physical use of force, for example, by breaking away from a subject.

    Disengagement

    Officers are legally permitted to __________ their use of force as the subject __________ his or her level of resistance. The officer's choices are determined by the subject's actions and the risk of physical harm posed to the officer or others.

    escalate/escalates

    Which one of the following is NOT an example of deadly force resistance?

    A subject grabs any part of the officer's body.

    Command presence and verbal communication often

    will defuse many volatile situations.

    ________ is decreasing the use of force or resistance.

    De-escalation

    A law enforcement officer's authority to use force is established by the officer's reasonable belief that a crime has been, is being, or is about to be committed. Absent this belief, known as _________, a law enforcement officer has no authority over a subject, and thus no permission to use any amount of force at all.

    reasonable suspicion

    Which one of the following is NOT an example of passive resistance?

    The subject braces or pulls away from the officer when the officer grips the subject's arm.

    _________ resistance is a subject's hostile, attacking movements with or without a weapon that create a reasonable perception by the officer that the subject intends to cause and has the capability of causing death or great bodily harm to the officer or others.

    Deadly force

    Much litigation against criminal justice officers is not about the amount of force used, but

    whether the use of force was permitted at all.

    Which of the following are examples of aggressive resistance?

    The subject grabs any part of the officer's body.

    The subject pushes the officer back as the officer tries to take the subject into custody.

    The subject balls up his fist and approaches the officer.

    The structure of the __________ Guidelines is based on constitutional considerations and case law and describes appropriate decision making in a fluid and dynamic situation. The Guidelines consider the relationship between subject resistance and various situational factors in determining the officer's response options.

    Force

    Correctional officers must consider that use of force may violate the __________ Amendment's prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment.

    Eighth

    _________ is increasing the use of force or resistance.

    Escalation

    An officer's agency may establish the specific techniques, tactics, and applications that

    an officer may use in an encounter with a resistant subject.

    A correctional officer or other law enforcement officer is justified in the use of force, including deadly force, which he or she reasonably believes to be necessary to

    prevent the escape from a penal institution of a person whom the officer reasonably believes to be lawfully detained in such institution under sentence for an offense or awaiting trial or commitment for an offense.

    __________ is achieving compliance or custody through the use of empty-hand or leverage-enhanced techniques, such as pain compliance, transporters, restraint devices, takedowns, and striking techniques.

    Physical control

    The term "_________" means force that is likely to cause death or great bodily harm.

    deadly force

    Officers need not apply force in gradually increasing steps in order to

    justify physical control or even deadly force.

    Deadly force can cause

    great bodily harm or no harm at all.

    An officer must determine whether the subject has the necessary means to cause death or great bodily harm to the officer or others. This refers to the subject's __________.

    ability

    A ________ weapon is a weapon that is not fundamentally designed to cause death or great bodily harm.

    nonlethal

    _______ refers to the subject having the means to carry out his or her intent to cause death or great bodily harm.

    Ability

    ________ force is force that is likely to cause death or great bodily harm.

    Deadly

    Physical force __________ physical control.

    includes

    The officer must base his or her decision to use deadly force

    as a defensive tactic on a clear, reasonable belief that he or she, a fellow officer, or another person, faces imminent danger of death or great bodily harm.

    Use of deadly force may be an officer's first and only appropriate response to

    a perceived threat.

    Deadly force includes, but is not limited to

    the firing of a firearm in the direction of the person to be arrested, even though no intent exists to kill or inflict great bodily harm.

    the firing of a firearm at a vehicle in which the person to be arrested is riding.

    What are some examples of deadly force?

    use of a firearm
    empty-hand strikes to the throat
    eye gouges
    impact-weapon strikes to the side of the neck

    Physical force __________ deadly force.

    includes

    Sometimes command presence and verbal communication are not enough to defuse a volatile situation, or officers may not have an opportunity to use them. An officer may have to use __________ to gain control of the situation.

    physical force

    Officers use three criteria for making _______ decisions ability, opportunity, and intent.

    deadly force

    A subject must only have the apparent ability to carry out his or her intention; therefore,

    a weapon is not required for the officer to respond to the subject's ability.

    What are some examples of nonlethal weapons?

    dart-firing stun guns such as a TASER

    expandable batons

    flashlights

    electronic control devices (ECD)

    chemical agent sprays

    Officers need to respond with

    all the force reasonably necessary for the circumstances in each specific situation.

    Identify some situational factors the court uses to analyze the totality of circumstances.

    subject's violent history, if known to the officer

    subject's access to weapons

    innocent bystanders who could be harmed

    severity of the crime

    number of subjects versus number of officers

    subject is an immediate threat

    subject's combative skills

    officer's size, age, weight, physical condition, and defensive tactics expertise

    duration of confrontation

    environmental factors, such as physical terrain, weather conditions, etc.

    subject's size, age, weight, and physical condition

    subject's mental or psychiatric history, if known to the officer

    The totality of circumstances includes

    all reasonably perceived situational factors that may have an effect on the situation.

    Officers should be careful to include every factor used in their use of force decision (on reports) since

    factors added later will be viewed with suspicion.

    ________ means the subject is capable of carrying out a plan to cause death or great bodily harm to the officer or others.

    Opportunity

    A 6'4", 250-lb. muscular man threatening to do bodily harm to an officer does not necessarily need a weapon. By virtue of his size and physical condition, he has the apparent ________.

    ability

    The ______ will look at the totality of circumstances in determining whether the officer's decision to use force was objectively reasonable and, therefore, legally justified.

    courts

    Many agencies require an additional report anytime an officer uses

    force to control a subject.

    If a subject seems physically able to cause death or great bodily harm, then he has the _______.

    ability

    __________ is a perception derived from the totality of the circumstances.

    Intent

    Officers should use the amount of force necessary and reasonable for

    the situation.

    Can I physically control the subject? Could I use a nonlethal weapon not meant to cause death or great bodily harm? Is deadly force the appropriate option to prevent death or great bodily harm to myself or others? These are questions that a police officer must ask himself/herself to help determine _________ force guidelines (in the decision making process).

    officer's response

    ________ is a reasonably perceived, imminent threat to an officer or another person based on the subject's actions, behaviors, words, or other indicators.

    Intent

    Is the subject verbally or physically resisting my lawful authority? Is the subject making attacking movements that are not likely to cause death or great bodily harm? Is the subject making attacking movements that are likely to cause death or great bodily harm? These are questions that a police officer must ask himself/herself to help determine _________ force guidelines (in the decision making process).

    subject resistance

    If ability, opportunity, and intent are present and the officer cannot control the threat using lesser means, then

    deadly force is justified.

    What subject factors influence this situation? Weapon? Physical size? Demeanor? Others? What officer factors influence this situation? Training? Experience? Physical size? Others? What environmental factors influence this situation? Weather? Location? Presence of others? These are questions that a police officer must ask himself/herself to help determine _________ force guidelines (in the decision making process).

    situational factors

    Officers need to clearly articulate the specific basis for their decisions regarding the use of force. For example, if deadly force was used, the officer should state exactly what the subject did that created the perception of the subject's ability, opportunity, and intent to cause death or great bodily harm. Simply stating, "The suspect threatened me" _________ sufficient.

    is not

    The subject's weapon often determines

    opportunity.

    The totality of circumstances includes

    consideration of the subject's form of resistance.

    all reasonably perceived situational factors that may have an effect on the situation.

    response options available to the officer.

    Were my actions reasonable based on the subject's resistance and the totality of the circumstances? Am I able to articulate the reasons for my actions? Was I in compliance with constitutional and state laws, agency policy, and training? These are questions that a police officer must ask himself/herself to help determine _________ force guidelines (in the decision making process).

    justification

    A suspect armed with a knife may not be an immediate threat to an officer standing far away. However, the same person standing closer or carrying a firearm certainly has the __________ to carry out his intent to cause death or great bodily harm.

    opportunity

    Many agencies require an

    additional report anytime an officer uses force to control a subject.

    6'4", 250-lb. muscular man threatening to do bodily harm to an officer does not necessarily need a weapon. By virtue of his size and physical condition, he has the apparent ________.

    ability

    The __________ position is lying on the stomach facing down.

    prone

    A __________ is a government intrusion into a place in which a person has a reasonable expectation of privacy.

    search

    The ________ transporter is a good controlling technique because of the position in which you put the subject's arm. This transporter incorporates pain compliance, joint manipulation, and balance displacement.

    shoulder lock

    A ________ is a physical frisk of a subject conducted in a pre-determinate pattern to locate weapons.

    pat down

    Because inmates and probationers have a significantly reduced expectation of privacy, searches by corrections and probation officers are much less limited by __________ Amendment concerns.

    Fourth

    ________ are temporary restraining devices used frequently to control a subject.

    Handcuffs

    Applying handcuffs places the officer inside the

    reactionary gap or the danger zone.

    The following instructions are for using the __________ technique: Make contact with the subject's arm by controlling the upper arm just above the elbow and wrist simultaneously. Mirror the controlled hand and rotate the subject's controlled hand while sweeping the subject's hand behind his back. Maintain control by bending the wrist. Control or move the subject, or follow up with an appropriate technique(s).

    hammer lock transporter

    When applying __________, control the subject by handcuffing him and placing him in the prone position. Your partner will control the subject's upper body, either with a three-point pin or a wrist compression.

    flexible leg restraints

    Under the _________ doctrine, the officer may seize any object "whose contour or mass" he or she identifies as apparent contraband. An officer may only pat down the outside of the clothing for weapons.

    plain feel

    Applying flexible leg restraints is best performed by

    more than one officer.

    To properly holster or load handcuffs, the single strands should point __________, with chain links or hinge __________.

    forward/downward

    The _____________ transporter is a useful technique applied when a subject tries to pull away from the escort position or a bent wrist or finger lock transporter. This technique uses pain compliance and mechanical compliance with the subject's arm behind his back.

    hammer lock

    _________ are tools designed to temporarily restrain a subject's movements, such as handcuffs.

    Restraint devices

    When applying leg restraints to a subject, hold the restraints with the double bar facing the subject's legs. This will ensure that the key holes are facing __________.

    down

    Before a law enforcement officer may conduct a pat down, he or she must have reasonable suspicion that the subject is

    armed.

    ____________ is facts or circumstances which reasonably indicate that the person has committed, is committing, or is about to commit a violation of the law.

    Reasonable suspicion

    To properly holster or load handcuffs, preset the single strands through the pawl, folding __________ together.

    key ways

    Before tightening __________, place an index finger against the subject's wrist and tighten the restraint device(s) to your index finger and the wrist. Remove your index finger and ensure the restraint device(s) are not cutting off blood circulation.

    flexible cuffs

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