Critical Incidents / Review II flashcards |

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  • Acids, solvents, or other materials that may cause irreversible damage to human tissues belong in Class __________ (of hazardous materials).

    8

    Bromine or calcium hypochlorite (bleach) belong in Class __________ (of hazardous materials).

    5

    Nuclear waste, radioactive medical materials, and X-ray equipment belong in Class __________ (of hazardous materials).

    7

    Class 9 (of hazardous materials)

    miscellaneous dangerous goods

    Class 5 (of hazardous materials)

    oxidizers and organic peroxides

    Class 8 (of hazardous materials)

    corrosive substances

    Class 3 (of hazardous materials)

    flammable liquids (and combustible liquids)

    Magnesium, sulfur, and calcium carbide belong in Class __________ (of hazardous materials).

    4

    Molten sulfur, PCBs (poly-chlorinated biphenyls), and hazardous waste belong in Class __________ (of hazardous materials).

    9

    Class 1 (of hazardous materials)

    explosives

    Gasoline, diesel fuel, and acetone belong in Class __________ (of hazardous materials).

    3

    Medical waste and biological hazards belong in Class __________ (of hazardous materials).

    6

    Acetylene, hydrogen, and anhydrous ammonia belong in Class __________ (of hazardous materials).

    2

    Class 7 (of hazardous materials)

    radioactive substances

    Class 2 (of hazardous materials)

    gases

    Class 6 (of hazardous materials)

    toxic materials and infectious substances

    Emergency responders should consider all explosives to be

    extreme hazards when they are involved in or near a fire

    Dynamite, black powder, and small arms ammunition belong in Class __________ (of hazardous materials).

    1

    Commercial vehicle operators are required to carry documents, commonly referred to as

    shipping papers, that list the contents of their shipment.

    Class 4 (of hazardous materials)

    flammable solids

    One example of a facility document (which outlines the type of hazardous materials stored or manufactured on site) is the __________.

    MSDS

    MSDS are required to

    displayed in facilities where a hazardous substance is stored, manufactured, or used in the workplace.

    The __________ subsection (in the Public Safety section of the ERG) indicates when and if responders need specialized chemical protection.

    protective clothing

    Colors of placards and labels help

    identify a material's hazard classification.

    According to the NFPA's 704 marking system, the color white indicates __________.

    other (provides information on any special hazards of the material)

    Sight and sound are considered __________ identify a hazardous material.

    "low risk" and can help officers

    Identifying a hazardous material through the human senses may

    place you at an unacceptable risk for exposure.

    What are the objectives for approaching a potential hazmat situation?

    Keep people away from the scene.

    Ensure that people are upwind and out of low-lying areas.

    Isolate the area without entering it.

    DOT has established the United Nations/North American (UN/NA) __________- digit numbering system to identify materials.

    four

    The __________ has developed a standard facility marking system called the 704 system. Placed on structures or storage facilities' exteriors, the large, diamond-shaped symbol indicates products stored.

    National Fire Protection Association

    An officer may be able to identify a material using the ERG by finding any one of the following: the __________ digit number on the placard or orange panel on the container, or by the __________ or __________ of the material on the shipping papers or packaging.

    four, name, number

    The __________ section of the Emergency Response Guidebook contains information on notification, protective clothing, and evacuation.

    Public Safety

    According to the NFPA's 704 marking system, the color blue indicates __________.

    health hazards

    According to the NFPA's 704 marking system, the color yellow indicates __________.

    reactivity

    Do not allow anyone or anything to leave a potential hazmat area without

    evaluation for decontamination by properly protected, qualified personnel.

    In each area of facility markings, a number from 0 to 4 indicates the material's relative hazard, in which a 4 indicates the

    highest hazard.

    Resources that help an officer make sound decisions (regarding a hazardous materials response) include the agency's ERP and standard operating procedures (SOP), and the __________.

    ERG

    At a hazardous materials incident, what should an officer advise other responders about?

    needed resources

    emotional responses

    guide page to use

    any actions taken

    the amount of materials

    incident conditions

    materials involved

    safe approach information

    The __________ purpose is to aid in the identification of materials, outline basic actions for first responders, recommend areas of protective action, and give responders an initial safety plan.

    ERG's

    Smell, touch, and taste are considered __________ identify a hazardous material.

    "high risk" and should never be used to

    After an officer __________ the immediate danger area (of a potential hazmat incident), the next step is to __________ or protect people in the downwind hazard area or within the radius of the incident. This distance can be very large depending upon the type of materials and whether the material was spilled or involved in a fire.

    isolates/evacuate

    According to the NFPA's 704 marking system, the color red indicates __________.

    flammability hazards

    The __________ subsection (in the Public Safety section of the ERG) identifies what officers must do immediately when called to a scene, such as activate agency emergency response plans and ensure help is on the way.

    notification

    An officer may be able to identify a material using the ERG by finding any one of the following: the __________ digit number on the placard or orange panel on the container, or by the __________ or __________ of the material on the shipping papers or packaging.

    ...

    MSDS are required to

    displayed in facilities where a hazardous substance is stored, manufactured, or used in the workplace.

    During the __________ phase (in the termination process of a hazmat incident), officers provide information on operational strengths and weaknesses.

    incident critique

    Meth labs may produce strong chemical odors, likened to

    rotten eggs or cat urine.

    The observation of "pre-cursors", or materials used, may be an

    indicator that a meth lab exists.

    Identify commonly found materials used in the manufacturing process of methamphetamine.

    bleach

    blenders

    cold tablets

    coffee filters

    red-tipped matches

    camp stove fuels

    lithium batteries

    two-liter bottles

    drain cleaner

    brake fluid

    An officer should __________ a hazmat area if the incident is going to last for an extended period or could potentially cause a fire or explosion.

    evacuate

    What are common methods used in the manufacturing process of methamphetamine?

    the red phosphorous method

    the one pot "Shake and Bake" method

    the "Nazi" (anhydrous ammonia) method

    During the on-scene debriefing process (of a hazardous materials incident), what advisements should officers give to all responders?

    the materials to which they have been exposed

    signs and symptoms of overexposure

    who to contact if they notice signs or symptoms of exposure

    Locations where methamphetamine is manufactured are known as __________ labs; these are not scientific laboratories in the traditional sense.

    meth

    A meth lab can be as small as a

    soda bottle or as large as a warehouse.

    Methamphetamine is manufactured by converting

    pseudoephedrine or ephedrine through a simple chemical process.

    Recommendations about protective action distances (for a hazmat incident) depend on the

    spill's size, weather conditions, and time of day.

    __________ regulations mandate a structured termination process for hazmat incidents. The three steps are on-scene debriefing, incident critique, and after-action analysis.

    OSHA

    Dangerous chemicals used in the manufacturing process of methamphetamine can be found anywhere in a

    home, vehicle, vessel, shed, motel, or other location.

    Fire creates the potential for an explosion or a(n) __________.

    BLEVE

    Which is NOT a subsection of the Emergency Response section in the ERG?

    Evacuation

    Awareness-level responders should avoid direct contact with people who present a

    significant risk of secondary contamination, due to hazardous materials.

    If exposure to a hazardous material exceeds the acceptable published limits, the officer is

    sent for medical evaluation.

    In the __________ phase (in the termination process of a hazmat incident), the agency's goal is to review any weaknesses and implement any additional or corrective training, as necessary.

    after-action analysis

    The protective __________ distance is information (in the evacuation subsection of the ERG) that gives information about how far people should stay away from a spill.

    action

    Symptoms of exposure to chemical suicide can

    vary widely depending on the degree of the contamination.

    Officers should be aware of the toxic nature of discarded byproducts of the

    methamphetamine manufacturing process.

    Do not place anything in the patrol car prior to

    decontamination of a meth incident.

    Meth labs can be

    booby-trapped.

    __________ suicide, also known as "detergent suicide", is a method of committing suicide by mixing two or more easily acquired chemicals, commonly an acid and a base.

    Chemical

    If an officer suspects a meth lab is present, he or she should

    avoid inhaling fumes.

    avoid turning anything on or off.

    It is critical that officers and the public stay clear from a vehicle or room if the indicators of a

    chemical suicide are present.

    Do not allow the removal of any items prior to

    decontamination of a meth incident.

    Officers should not attempt to enter the area of a

    chemical suicide incident.

    If an officer suspects a meth lab is present, he or she should avoid making contact with the

    chemicals.

    A chemical suicide situation should follow the

    procedures for a hazmat response, including establishing a safe perimeter.

    Always use caution when encountering a

    meth lab or suspected meth lab.

    Meth labs may have surrounding areas of

    dead vegetation.

    indicators of a chemical suicide?

    a vehicle's inside door handles removed

    a bag over the subject's head

    household cleaning or pesticide containers

    warning sign(s) taped to doors or windows

    tape or towels sealing a door or air vents

    yellow-green or white residue on vehicle seats, dashboard, or windows

    buckets for mixing chemicals

    unusual odors such as rotten eggs, sulfur, or burnt almonds

    an unresponsive or sleeping person in a vehicle

    pennies in the area tarnished with residue

    suicide note inside the vehicle

    __________ exposure to chemicals (used in chemical suicide) can irritate the eyes, nose, and throat.

    Mild

    Ingredients used to produce methamphetamine are

    typically flammable, volatile chemicals under pressure or in the process of being heated.

    When an incident involves a meth lab, the occupants should

    be evacuated.

    When an incident involves a meth lab, the officer should

    leave the premises immediately after evacuating the occupants.

    Use caution when making contact with

    any person exposed to a meth lab.

    Examples of __________ WMD include nerve agents, such as sarin, and choking agents, such as chlorine.

    chemical

    When __________ is ingested, symptoms begin within a few hours; they include abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. Within several days, sufferers experience severe dehydration, decreased urination, and decreased blood pressure.

    ricin

    __________ agents can be dispersed through food and water supplies by using aerosols, liquid droplets, solid dispersion (such as powder), and by using creatures such as fleas, ticks, or other insects to spread the agent.

    Biological

    A key indicator of exposure to __________ agents is the delayed onset of symptoms. Symptoms may appear within a few hours, or may develop over a period of days.

    biological

    Chemical weapons are capable of causing mass casualties because a __________ amount of agent can be spread over a __________ area.

    small/large

    Use of chemical weapons can result in

    the destruction of food crops.

    the death of animals.

    After an incubation period of seven to seventeen days (with __________), symptoms such as a pox-like rash, raised bumps, fever, muscle rigidity, shivering, malaise, headaches, and vomiting occur.

    smallpox

    Weaponized forms of __________ can be introduced to the body through ingestion, inhalation, or absorption. Symptoms include difficulty seeing, speaking, and swallowing and having double vision, drooping eyelids, slurred speech, dry mouth, and muscle weakness. These symptoms occur within 12 to 80 hours of exposure.

    botulinum toxin

    A primary indicator of chemical exposure is the

    rapid onset of symptoms, which can be present within minutes or hours.

    Symptoms of __________ exposure to chemicals (used in chemical suicide) include severe respiratory irritation, severe eye irritation, convulsions, coma, and death.

    high

    Symptoms of exposure to __________ agents (which are examples of __________ weapons) include respiratory distress, burning of the lungs and airways, choking, and coughing.

    choking/chemical

    What are some possible indicators of a biological agents?

    abandoned spray or dispersion devices

    unusual numbers of sick or dying people or animals

    an unusually high prevalence of respiratory involvement in diseases that typically cause a non-pulmonary syndrome

    abnormal swarms of insects

    written or verbal threats

    casualty distribution aligned with wind direction

    unscheduled or unusual spraying or fogging

    the appearance of containers from laboratory or biological supply houses or biohazard cultures

    unexplained damage and ruin to crops and agricultural products

    First responders to a biological incident may

    unknowingly become carriers and spread the agent before symptoms are present.

    Symptoms to exposure of __________ agents (which are examples of __________ weapons) include blurred vision, uncontrolled twitching, convulsions, seizures, or respiratory distress.

    nerve/chemical

    Symptoms of __________ exposure to chemicals (used in chemical suicide) include headaches, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, coughing, and difficulty breathing.

    moderate

    __________ is a naturally occurring bacterium. The primary routes of exposure to it are skin exposure and inhalation. If exposure occurs through the skin, symptoms include a rash and lesions that begin small but grow over a period of days. If it is inhaled, flu-like symptoms, such as respiratory distress, vomiting, and fever, occur several days after exposure.

    Anthrax

    __________ is a contagious infectious disease that can be transmitted by prolonged face-to-face contact with an infected person, direct contact with infected bodily fluids, and direct contact with infected objects such as clothes.

    Smallpox

    When a person inhales __________, symptoms begin 18-24 hours after exposure and include fever, chest tightness, cough, nausea, and joint pain. Severe respiratory distress and death can occur in 36-72 hours.

    ricin

    __________ weapons contain living organisms and are unpredictable and uncontrollable when released.

    Biological

    Use of chemical weapons can result in the

    contamination of water sources.

    __________ is a highly toxic poison found in seeds of the castor bean plant. The primary routes of exposure to it are ingestion and inhalation.

    Ricin

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