Relevant evidence tending to prove or disprove a material fact, with numerous exceptions specified
Chain of custody
Documentation of everyone who handled the evidence as well as when, why, and what changes, if any, were made to it
An official court proceeding in which all parties, with the exception of the defendant, provide sworn testimonies regarding the facts of the case to one of the attorneys (defense or prosecutor) prior to trial
Distinguish between prints belonging to either the victims and witnesses or the possible suspects
Any person an officer has contact with while on patrolรข"such as a concerned citizen or an anonymous complainant with a sense of civic dutyรข"who does not necessarily generate an incident report
Grid search pattern
Often used indoors; a variation of the strip line search pattern. Searchers overlap a series of lanes in a cross pattern, making the search more methodical and thorough
An officer who administers a photographic array, has no knowledge of the suspect information, and will meticulously avoid any conduct that might influence, directly or indirectly, a victimรขs or a witnessรข decision
The process of making detailed and systematic inquiries and observations about a criminal complaint
Among the most valuable types of physical evidence and one of the most common types of evidence you will recover at a crime scene. Although generally invisible to the naked eye, these prints result from body residues left behind when the friction ridges of the hands or feet make contact with a surface
Meaning mode of operating or MO, refers to how someone does something, usually repetitive in nature
Transferred from the friction ridges on fingers by a foreign substance (not a body residue), like blood, paint, or dirt, and are readily visible
Pie wheel search pattern
Entails dividing the area into a number of wedgeshaped sections, which are usually searched using the strip/line search pattern. Use this method for extremely large search areas
Molded or imbedded fingerprint created by touching an impressionable surface, such as wet paint or mud that you can easily see
Scale or Identifier
Establish the original positions and draw attention to relevant objects or evidence for photographing and sketching
Spiral search pattern
Usually used outside by one person. The searcher begins at a certain point and walks in increasingly larger circles to the outermost boundary of the search area
Strip line search pattern
Usually used outside by several people. Divide the search area into lanes. Have one or more people search each lane by moving in both directions, examining all areas
Occurs after the defense files a motion to suppress or to exclude certain testimony or evidence from the trial, alleging that your improper actions violated their clientรขs rights
The examination of facts and related law presided over by a judge or other magistrate who has the authority or jurisdiction to hear the matter
The most common method of surveying (measuring and documenting) objects within the crime scene
Zone quadrant search pattern
Used for vehicle searches, outdoors, or a large area. Divide the area into four different sections and search each using one of the patterns above
Alert officers will
protect the crime scene and the evidence it contains from unnecessary intrusion or handling.
After finding the incident's location,
address officer safety concerns and any victim or witness injuries, and secure the potential crime scene(s).
When securing a crime scene, attempt to
locate and identify the point of the suspect's entry to and exit from the scene by visually inspecting the crime scene.
Once the crime scene perimeter is established, do not allow any
unauthorized removal or altercation of any evidence.
The actions of the first responding officer on the scene have a
significant impact on the success of an investigation.
A protected, well-managed crime scene allows for the production of
credible evidence in court that can establish the guilt or innocence of a suspect.
In responding to a potential crime scene, dispatch will relay to you the
complainant's name and relationship to the crime scene location.
the nature and location of the alleged crime.
__________ evidence consists of objects or perishable evidence such as fingerprints, blood, or tire tracks.
Establish boundaries for the
crime scene and guard against unnecessary entrance by cordoning off the area with crime scene tape.
Once a survey of the crime scene is completed, a supervisor or investigator assigned to the case may
decide to adjust the original boundaries or perimeter of the crime scene.
The size of the crime scene depends on the
type of crime, the type of evidence, and the location of the evidence.
When you correctly identify, protect, collect, preserve, transport, and analyze the __________ evidence, it cannot deliver false results.
Prevent intrusion by anyone who knowingly or unknowingly approaches the crime scene perimeter by using
verbal commands and directions to enforce the perimeter.
Use personal observations and statements from victims and witnesses to
assist in determining the extent of a crime scene.
Prior to entering the potential crime scene to process evidence, determine if the scene location is
public or private property.
The primary officer or investigator will designate
one point of entry and exit for the crime scene, and will assign an officer to maintain a crime scene log at that location.
Officers not assigned to a crime scene
do not have access just because they are law enforcement officers.
A __________ is a person who sees, knows, or vouches for something and may make a sworn statement about that information.
If evidence at a crime scene is contaminated or altered in any way,
document the incident in the contamination list or your report.
The crime scene __________ provides proof of security and validates the evidence collected at a crime scene.
Recognizing threats to the evidence
will determine the appropriate method of protection for the crime scene.
At the scene of a crime scene incident, you must identify
all parties involved, including complainants, victims, suspects, and witnesses.
A person occupying __________ property has an expectation of privacy that no one can violate without a search warrant or a valid exception to the warrant requirement.
The size and type of search
dictates the number and type of personnel or resources needed for crime scene processing.
When protecting a crime scene, instruct people to
move behind the crime scene tape, advising that refusal may result in arrest.
What should a crime scene log include?
the reason the person was at the scene
the date and time of the person's entry or exit
the name, rank, and agency of each person entering or leaving the scene
The same person can represent more than one category at a crime scene. For example,
the victim may also be the complainant, or a person initially identified as a witness may become a suspect as the investigation progresses.
You have the authority to arrest any individual who, after receiving a warning,
crosses an area marked by crime scene tape.
A __________ is a person who alleges that a crime has been committed or can be the person who calls the police.
Ensure that while victims or witnesses are giving statements, no one can __________ them visually or verbally.
When there are injured persons at a crime scene, responding officers have
additional responsibilities such as providing first aid.
At the crime scene, ask the victim or complainant who was present during the crime or offense to name any potential __________ of the incident.
When establishing which people may have information at a crime scene, ask those present
where they were and how they were involved in the incident.
At a crime scene, ensure that there is enough __________ between the interviewees, so that they cannot have physical contact with each other.
If a suspect or another witness attempts to coerce or interfere with another witness's statement, you may need to
remove one or some people from the crime scene.
When establishing which people may have information at a crime scene, determine
their degree of direct or indirect involvement and the role each person played in the incident.
At a crime scene, witnesses should be asked if
anyone else was involved and what those additional people's roles were.
Since you may not have the time or resources to question all subjects at a crime scene, determine
who has the most information and knowledge of the incident.
Do not allow the involved parties (victims, complainants, and witnesses) to
talk to each other at a crime scene.
After you document (in your field notes) all witnesses, victims, complainants, and suspects present by writing their names, dates of birth, addresses, sexes, races, and telephone numbers, ask __________ to stay at the crime scene for interviewing.
A possible controlled area for an interview is inside a __________. However, due to space limitations only one interviewee should be placed in each one. If necessary, another officer can stay with each person to ensure control and safety.
For safety reasons, always
maintain visual contact with witnesses, complainants, and suspects at a crime scene.
__________ involved parties at a crime scene will help each of them focus on what they saw or heard, better maintaining the integrity of their statements.
If an interviewee (at the crime scene) is suffering from physical or mental trauma,
make a note to interview this person later when he or she has recovered.
Preferably, interviewees at a crime scene should be placed far enough apart that they cannot __________. If separate rooms are not available, involved parties can be isolated within one large room by placing them on opposite sides of the room with their backs to each other.
hear or see each other
If a victim of a crime scene does not require immediate first aid, ask direct, fundamental questions about how the victim sustained the injury.
Why were you hit?
When were you hit?
Where did you stand when hit?
Who hit you?
What did the suspect use to hit you?
Where were you hit?
How were you hit?
Place interviewees in separate locations,
near the crime scene area but in a place that poses no risk of contaminating evidence.
Multiple witnesses who have viewed or experienced the same event __________ recall the same details.