Crime Scene to Courtroom/ Review I flashcards |

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  • When recording the victim's injuries in field notes (at a crime scene), specific information regarding the location, size, and type of injury is __________.

    required

    At a crime scene, tell the injured victim to notify law enforcement for

    further documentation if bruising intensifies.

    Photographing

    perishable, fragile, and transitory evidence ensures its documentation.

    The overall flow of crime scene photography moves from __________.

    general to specific

    What actions taken to secure the crime scene should be shared with your supervisor or investigator?

    special concerns on the scene such as biohazards, a hostile crowd, at-large suspects,and severe injuries

    how the scene is being handled and protected

    names and descriptions of victims, witnesses, and possible suspects

    plan for the continued investigation of the incident and the search for evidence

    description of the suspect's vehicle, if applicable and if known

    identity of the public information officer who is communicating with the media

    when, how, and where the incident occurred

    the scene's boundaries and protection measures

    all evidence gathered or specific items that are still the focus of a search

    descriptions of all property involved in the incident (obtained from complainants, victims, or witnesses who can identify the property)

    Photographing the crime scene allows the court and jury to obtain an accurate understanding of

    how it looked on the day the officer responded.

    Examples of __________ evidence can include blood, footwear, and tire impressions, or trace evidence such as hair or fibers.

    perishable

    When photographing a crime scene, begin at

    the perimeter of the crime scene and take sequential shots by framing a panoramic or four-corner view of the scene.

    When photographing a crime scene, ___________ view shots show the details of a specific item of evidence and must include a scale or identifier.

    close-up

    __________ evidence can include a bullet hole is glass held into place by a thin window tint. Based on the circumstances at the scene, you need to photograph this type of evidence first.

    Fragile

    When photographing a crime scene, avoid using a

    cell phone camera, because it may be impounded.

    __________ evidence is evidence that can blow or wash away.

    Transitory

    Record the names of

    medical personnel who provide services to victims at crime scenes, because the court may call any of them as a witness.

    For photographing a crime scene, keep extra batteries for both the

    camera and the flashlight.

    Use a scale or an __________ to illustrate size and other valuable information relevant to a crime scene.

    identifier

    Photos and videos provide a visual record that

    may be stored indefinitely and is readily available when needed.

    When photographing a crime scene, include a scale, ruler, or identifier in each __________ photograph you take.

    close-up

    When photographing a crime scene, use your agency digital camera __________.

    with a flash

    When photographing a crime scene, the __________ view shots show the relationship between the evidence items within the scene.

    midrange

    When a victim is injured at a crime scene, view the victim's injuries and record detailed observations in the field notes, keeping in mind that you will use these notes to create reports and refresh your recollection when __________.

    testifying

    When photographing specific items such as blood drops, weapons, or tire marks, place a scale or __________ in the photograph with the evidence to establish the original positions and draw attention to relevant objects or evidence for photographing and sketching.

    identifier

    After establishing that a crime has been committed and that it requires photographs, determine the type of __________ that can be present on the victim or witness.

    evidence

    If you leave something out of a crime scene sketch, such as a window, a piece of furniture, or a light fixture, be prepared to

    explain the omission at the deposition or trial.

    Crime scene sketches are a means of

    documentation that aid in the reconstruction, explanation, and permanent recording of an incident.

    __________ Exchange Principle contends that everyone who enters a crime scene will both bring something into and take something from it, as "Every contact leaves a trace."

    Locard's

    The crime scene sketch should show,

    room by room, the size and relationship of entrances, exits, and contents.

    __________ is the most common method of surveying (measuring and documenting) objects within the crime scene. This method measures objects from at least two fixed points, forming a triangle.

    Triangulation

    A crime scene sketch supplements an officer's

    field notes and photographs and helps with report writing.

    When diagramming the crime scene, evidence __________ help to document the relative positions of evidence items in the crime scene. Place them next to each piece of evidence within the crime scene after initially photographing the scene and developing your initial sketch.

    markers

    Photographic __________ is composing the photograph so that it depicts what you are trying to document. For example, in overall or midrange photography, overlap the photos to show the relationships of items in the crime scene.

    framing

    You will need to be able to testify that the photographs taken at a crime scene are

    a true and accurate representation of the scene, as it appeared when you took the pictures.

    Use crime scene sketches during

    interviews with witnesses, victims, and suspects to correlate testimony.

    Crime scene __________ can show relative positions (spatial relationships) of objects within the crime scene that are not readily visible in __________.

    sketches/photographs

    The most common method of crime scene sketching is using the __________ perspective or downward observation perspective.

    bird's-eye-view

    Crime scene sketches should include the statement "not to scale" unless you are

    prepared to testify that every item is precisely drawn to scale on the sketch.

    Select all of the correct items used to conduct a crime scene sketch

    a blank sheet of paper or graph paper

    tape measure

    a template or a ruler

    pen or pencil

    When photographing a crime scene, consider flood lighting with a flashlight or using the vehicle spotlight or headlights if the overall picture requires you to photograph the scene from more than __________ to twelve feet away.

    nine

    Crime scene sketches can be used to document

    where evidence was recovered within the crime scene.

    All objects pictured in a crime scene photograph must

    be material or relevant to the scene.

    When photographing a crime scene, look at each close-up photograph after taking the picture to

    ensure that both the objects you are photographing and the scale or identifier are in focus.

    The photographing officer at a crime scene should include the

    case number, location, date and time, and his or her name when submitting photographs.

    If you are going to diagram the crime scene, this should take place __________ photographing the scene and __________ any detailed work begins.

    after/before

    What are some examples of electronic evidence?

    answering machines, digital recording devices

    CDs, DVDs, VHS tapes

    digital cameras

    PDA

    thumb drives

    cell phones

    computers

    external hard drives

    The job of a crime scene analyst is to

    determine what evidence at the scene belongs to the criminal and not to the victims or witnesses.

    Which one is NOT an example of trace evidence?

    fingerprints

    What are some examples of firearms evidence?

    tool marks

    database information

    weapons

    projectiles

    gunshot residue

    PDA

    cartridge cases

    A __________ search pattern is usually used outside by several people. Divide the search area into lanes. Have one or more people search each lane by moving in both directions, examining all areas.

    strip/line

    Which one is NOT an example of biological evidence?

    bite marks

    A __________ search pattern is used for vehicle searches, outdoors, or a large area. Divide the area into four different sections and search each using one of the other search patterns.

    zone/quadrant

    What are some examples of questioned documents evidence?

    checks

    photographs or cameras

    photo copies

    phone bills

    credit cards

    address books

    bank statements

    wire transfers

    To avoid contamination,

    change gloves between collecting each piece of evidence for DNA analysis.

    When searching a crime scene for evidence, use a systematic approach or a(n) __________ pattern.

    established

    Which one is NOT an example of impression evidence?

    teeth

    What are some examples of chemistry or toxicological evidence?

    poisons

    blood alcohol levels

    drugs

    __________ is the process of microscopically analyzing trace evidence, such as paint, glass, and cloth fibers, to determine a possible source or origin.

    Microanalysis

    A __________ search pattern entails dividing the area into a number of wedge-shaped sections. This method is used for extremely large search areas.

    pie/wheel

    Proper tools, equipment, and appropriate containers and packaging help

    prevent contamination and degradation issues for each particular type of evidence found at a crime scene.

    A __________ search pattern is often used indoors. Searches overlap a series of lanes in a cross pattern, making the search more methodical and thorough.

    grid

    __________ will protect crime scene evidence from contamination and protect the officer from exposure to dangerous substances.

    PPE

    __________ must be used whenever evidence is handled or collected at a crime scene.

    PPE

    An officer should try to identify

    possible sources of evidence found at a crime scene.

    Place evidence collected for DNA analysis in

    its own, separate container.

    A __________ search pattern is usually used outside by one person. The searcher begins at a certain point and walks in increasingly larger circles to the outermost boundary of the search area.

    spiral

    When searching a scene for evidence, study the whole scene before

    dictating the type of search pattern, keeping in mind that the relationships of the items' positions may be important.

    When you recover evidence of any kind from a crime scene, a

    chain of custody for the evidence has begun.

    __________ prints are among the most valuable types of physical evidence and one of the most common types of evidence an officer will recover at a crime scene.

    Latent

    Lifting a latent print is often a

    "one shot" opportunity and should be treated as such.

    If a cell phone is found at a crime scene, you cannot access information in it unless you have a

    search warrant.

    Before lifting latent prints, refer to

    your agency's policies and procedures regarding the available equipment and familiarize yourself with that equipment.

    An analysis by the toxicology section of a laboratory is usually performed in cases that involve investigations of

    DUI, sexual assault, and death.

    All objects at a crime scene should be considered

    possible sources of fingerprints.

    When lifting latent prints, the found prints are lifted from the original surface with

    clear or frosted tape, which is then attached to a small note card.

    __________ prints are molded or embedded fingerprints created by touching an impressionable surface, such as wet paint or mud that you can easily see.

    Plastic

    __________ prints are generally invisible to the naked eye and result from body residues left behind when the friction ridges of the hands or feet make contact with a surface.

    Latent

    Lifting latent prints is a

    basic skill of law enforcement, and the ability to lift a latent print directly relates to an officer's attention to detail.

    When collecting drug paraphernalia from a crime scene, an officer should

    package sharp objects such as needles or syringes in puncture-proof packages clearly labeled with the words WARNING: SHARPS.

    Inked fingerprints must be taken from

    innocent parties who may have been at the crime scene, in order to eliminate their prints from the scene.

    __________ prints are transferred from the friction ridges on fingers by a foreign substance (not a body residue), like blood, paint, or dirt, and are readily visible.

    Patent

    A __________ is documentation of everyone who handled the evidence at a crime scene, as well as when, why, and what changes, if any, were made to it.

    chain of custody

    __________ prints allow fingerprint analysts to distinguish between prints belonging to either the victims and witnesses or the possible suspects.

    Elimination

    An officer who encounters electronic evidence at a crime scene must

    not touch any part of the equipment to avoid possible damage to it.

    When handling money taken from crime scenes or seized from suspects, an officer should

    be very careful to avoid any appearance of impropriety.

    The most common way to process latent fingerprints is by

    dusting with one of several types of powder, which develops the print and makes it visible.

    A __________ is anything containing a mark to convey a message.

    document

    The purpose of an investigation is to recreate what happened during the incident, identify and locate the suspect, and develop enough evidence to establish _________ to make an arrest.

    probable cause

    From the preliminary incident report of an investigation, you should be able to recreate the ________ investigative steps taken at the crime scene.

    initial

    A chain of custody documentation proves that

    the evidence submitted in court is the same evidence that was collected at the crime scene.

    __________ surveillance involves parking your vehicle some distance away in a location that allows an approach to the area on foot in a covert manner.

    Stationary

    Exercise caution during a canvass, as you may actually knock on the __________ door.

    suspect's

    The __________ investigation focuses on establishing whether a criminal act has been committed and, if so, what type and when and where it was committed.

    preliminary

    A lead is __________ when it corroborates or disproves the physical evidence, statements, and/or confessions.

    valuable

    While canvassing, be aware of any animals that may be present and consider the time of day when approaching occupants, and, if warranted, __________.

    apologize for the intrusion

    If you find that you are missing a report or document from a preliminary investigation, should contact the_________ and obtain a copy.

    agency's records section

    To initiate a __________ investigation for a previously reported incident, locate and review the records of the incident.

    follow-up

    A(n) __________ is the process of making detailed and systematic inquiries and observations about a criminal complaint.

    investigation

    A(n) ________ is a door-to-door inquiry of all possible sources of information in a given area.

    canvass

    During a canvass, document what witnesses were able to say about the crime, even if a person reports knowing nothing about the crime, it will be important if the person ____________.

    later claims to have been a witness

    __________ surveillance involves monitoring a person of interest through tracking devices-cell phone or credit card use-which typically requires a court order.

    Electronic

    The first steps in a __________ investigation are establishing a case file, reviewing the information gathered during the __________ investigation, and identifying and pursuing leads.

    follow-up/preliminary

    __________ surveillance is following a person of interest on foot or in a police vehicle. It requires a safe distance, more than one police officer, more than one police vehicle, and a coordinated approach, none of which can draw undue attention to the officers' presence.

    Moving

    A __________ investigation gathers information subsequent to the initial report to establish a cause.

    follow-up

    When determining the value of additional leads (during a follow-up investigation),

    investigate leads that may develop probable cause for an arrest first.

    After reviewing the preliminary incident report, a follow-up investigation can include contacting witnesses, victims and suspects, reviewing evidence, locating additional evidence, and writing a capias request, ____________, or arrest warrant.

    arrest affidavit

    Canvassing an area in proximity to the incident or crime scene may

    yield additional witnesses, possibly new victims, a suspect or suspects, and evidence.

    During a follow-up investigation, ___________ determine how far you can investigate to prove a case.

    agency policies and procedures

    An officer should follow agency policy and procedure regarding

    documenting the chain of custody to help eliminate ethical and legal concerns about the handling and preservation of evidence at a crime scene.

    When involved in surveillance, do not

    enter an area which a person has a reasonable expectation of privacy, such as the curtilage surrounding a residence.

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