FEMA: This course is taught through two units:
1)Unit 1, IS-100.LE.b Introduction to the Incident Command System
2)Unit 2, IS-700.a National Incident
Management System (NIMS), An Introduction.
Law enforcement and other public safety organizations use ICS to
deal with many different types of large-scale incidents.
ICS has helped officers throughout Florida and
the nation handle situations such as
large vehicle crashes, hurricanes, wildfires, and large
When acting as part of the initial response to a large-scale incident, officers should obtain necessary information from dispatch and immediately:
โข Identify the type of incident or threat.
โข Determine the appropriate personal protective equipment.
โข Establish the ICS.
โข Set up a command post.
โข Determine the resources needed, including the assistance of other agencies.
โข Determine whether to shelter-in-place or evacuate (with evacuation routes and
For ongoing situations in which ICS has already been established, such as hurricanes or wildfires, officers will receive particular
assignments and attend regular briefings.
Personnel not on scene or working in a command post depend on
officers to provide regular updates as events develop.
Communication should be
plain language as different agencies may use different radio codes.
The FBI defines an active shooter as
one or more individuals participating in a random
or systematic killing spree demonstrating their intent to harm others with a firearm.
An active shooter's objective is that of mass murder, rather than
rather than committing traditional
criminal acts, such as robbery or hostage-taking.
Within the past 20 years
hundreds of active shooter attacks have occurred across the U.S., and the threat of such violent incidents remains a primary concern for all law enforcement officers.
Active shooter incidents happen in the
workplace nearly twice as often as in schools but can occur
Common active shooter motivations include
workplace retaliation, domestic
disputes, and retaliation by a current or former student.
Certain traits are common to active shooters:
shooters. The subject may be socially isolated, have
feelings of hate and anger, or have a history of mental health problems.
Very few active shooters have had previous
arrests for violent crimes, making it difficult to identify the
subject before they act.
Common catalysts or triggers for active shooters include
loss of significant relationships, changes in financial status or loss of or termination from a job, changes in living
arrangements, major adverse changes to life circumstances, and being the victim of bullying or feelings of humiliation or rejection.
Many active shooters express their intent to harm others through
social media posts, journal writings, and through statements made to others.
When confronted with an active shooter incident an officer may encounter a
chaotic situation with large numbers of injured people, fleeing crowds, and secondary hazards
such as improvised explosive devices.
The main objective of a law enforcement response to an active shooter incident has changed since the attacks at
Columbine High School in 1999.
(active shooter) Previous response options revolved around
containing a threat and awaiting the arrival
of SWAT teams.
(active shooter) Current tactics focus on
immediately locating the shooter and
neutralizing the threat before assisting the injured.
Florida's natural geography makes it prone to certain types of environmental disasters
particularly hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, and wildfires. Law enforcement officers are often called upon to assist in these situations.
(natural disaster) Planning and preparedness helps you
concentrate on your assigned duties without being distracted or worried about the well-being of your family.
(disaster) Supplies should include:
an extra uniform and change of clothes, batteries, food, water, and medication if needed.
Prior to the ONSET of a natural disaster
police assignments include facilitating evacuations and providing traffic control and direction.
In the IMMEDIATE AFTERMATH of a natural disaster
the focus of law enforcement shifts from evacuation to search and rescue, security of shelters and distribution centers, and protection of property.
The increase in domestic terrorist activity means that
law enforcement officers should be prepared to handle incidents involving weapons of mass destruction (WMD).
The Oklahoma City bombing, attacks on the World Trade Center, anthrax incidents, letters containing ricin, and the Boston Marathon bombing have made
terrorism a realistic concern for law enforcement.
Terrorists use weapons of mass destruction on
civilians as a primary means of achieving their goals.
As first responders, officers are usually trained to quickly enter the scene and help victims as soon as possible. This traditional law enforcement response and rescue approach will not work for
Rushing into a chemical, biological, or explosive scene
could result in the
first responder's death or the death of additional victims
Section 790.166, F.S., defines weapons of mass destruction as:
The manufacture, possession, sale, delivery, display, use, or attempted or threatened use
of a weapon of mass destruction or hoax weapon of mass destruction is prohibited;
(1) As used in this section, the term:
(a) "Weapon of mass destruction" means:
1. Any device or object that is designed or intended to cause death or serious
bodily injury to any human or animal, or severe emotional or mental harm
to any human, through the release, dissemination, or impact of toxic or
poisonous chemicals, or their precursors;
2. Any device or object involving a biological agent;
3. Any device or object that is designed or intended to release radiation or
radioactivity at a level dangerous to human or animal life; or
4. Any biological agent, toxin, vector, or delivery system.
It is a __________ ______ to unlawfully manufacture, possess, sell, deliver, send, mail, display, use, threaten to use, attempt to use, conspire to use, or make readily accessible to others a "weapon of mass destruction" under s. 790.166, F.S.
Under s. 790.166, F.S., it is a __________ _______to unlawfully manufacture, possess, sell, deliver, mail, send,
display, use, threaten to use, attempt to use, conspire to use, or make readily accessible to others a "hoax
weapon of mass destruction,"
hoax weapon of mass destruction is defined as:
any device or object that by its design, construction, content, or characteristics appears to be, or is falsely represented to be, an actual weapon of mass destruction.
It is a ________ ______ for a person to make a false REPORT concerning the placing or planting of a weapon of mass destruction under s. 790.163, F.S.
Primary locations for WMD attacks include
high impact targets and often focus on heavily frequented
locations.Examples include airports, subways, schools, places of worship, government buildings, or large
public gatherings such as fairs, festivals, or sporting events.
WMD include weapons that could release
biological contamination, toxic chemical agents, incendiary fires, and conventional explosives.
Each type of WMD is unique because of the
scope of death and destruction it
may cause, the insidious nature of the weapon, and the personal danger to first responders.
This surveillance can take many forms, such as
videotaping a potential target location, sketching floor plans, photographing structural features, and taking notes on security measures.
Potential terrorists have previously studied and
recorded law enforcement responses to
false alarms or other calls for service in order to develop plans to target first responders.
watch for strange chemical
canisters or drums left abandoned in an
empty field or ditch which might indicate a chemical or biological hazard
Many terrorist plots have been interrupted or thwarted through
traffic stops and other proactive patrol techniques.
is an acronym commonly used to identify types of hazards that an officer may face either as part of an accidental release or intentional use of a weapon of mass destruction.
Law enforcement officers are likely to be the _____ to arrive at the scene of an emergency involving weapons of
mass destruction or hazardous materials.
There are FIVE levels of training for response to hazardous materials.
3.Hazardous Materials Technician
4. Hazardous Materials Specialist
5. Hazardous Materials Incident Commander
First responders at the awareness level have been trained to initiate the emergency response sequence and
NOTIFY AUTHORITIES of the situation. They take no further action beyond notifying the authorities of the release.
At this level responders take DEFENSIVE ACTION to protect nearby people, property, or the environment from the effects of the release. They are trained to respond in a defensive fashion without actually trying to stop the release. Their function is to contain the release from a safe distance, keep it from spreading, and prevent exposures.
Hazardous Materials Technician
These responders take offensive
action to CONTROL A SPILL OR LEAK. They assume a more aggressive role
than a first responder at the operations level in that they will
approach the point of release in order to plug, patch
or otherwise stop the release of a hazardous substance.
Hazardous Materials Specialist
Specialists have the expert knowledge to support the hazardous materials technician, but their duties require
a more directed or specific knowledge of the various substances they may be called upon to contain. The
specialist also acts as the site liaison with federal, state, local and other government authorities in regards to
Hazardous Materials Incident Commander
These individuals assume command of the incident above the level of the first responder; they are trained to
implement the employer's EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLAN Incident commanders understand the hazards and risks of employees working in chemical protective clothing, know how to implement local, state, and federal
emergency response plans, and understand the importance of decontamination procedures.
(Immediate Actions) Approach the incident cautiously from an
upwind, uphill, and upstream position until you can safely identify and assess the CBRNE situation
Patrol officers are typically trained to respond at the awareness level and have only FOUR RESPONSIBILITIES or goals, sometimes abbreviated as RIP-NOT.
โข Recognition and identification
Recognition and Identification
Officers must be able to recognize that an incident involves WMD or hazardous materials and, if possible,
identify the materials involved. Every effort to avoid exposure should be made. Most materials can be identified
from a safe distance.
is the ability to deny or restrict access to the involved area and remove uninjured and uncontaminated
people from that area.
victim collection points (VCP)
Contaminated and uncontaminated people should be kept
separated to avoid the spread of contamination.
The VCPs allow
EMTs to easily differentiate between those who need medical treatment and those who require decontamination
involves ensuring the safety of the officer and the public through personal protective equipment and
the evacuation of nearby structures.
Officers should secure the scene in order to isolate exposed victims and the contaminated area. Tactics include;
monitoring entry to the scene, assuring public protection by evacuating or protecting an area, confining and
containing all contaminated victims, determining if the scene is or can be made safe for operations, protecting
the scene and any evidence, and coordinating with other agencies to provide security and control perimeters.
When securing the scene, priority should be given to preventing additional people from entering the area
preventing victims from exiting
In order to avoid the spread of contamination
contaminated persons should be evacuated to the VCP and be discouraged from entering vehicles, leaving the scene, or transporting themselves to a hospital.
Avoid _______ ______with potentially contaminated people and direct those individuals to a VCP where
decontamination can occur.
Notification and Communication
The fourth level is notification, in which the first responder informs the next level of responder as defined in
the agency's Emergency Response Plan. The officer should maintain continuous communication with dispatch
as the event unfolds. This ensures the proper resources are deployed.
Emergency Response Plan (ERP)
is defined as a written plan that describes the actions that an organization would take in response to various major events.
An agency ERP establishes
safe and uniform guidelines for response to incidents involving hazardous materials or weapons of mass destruction.
Tell dispatch about any
substances involved, the number of exposed victims, and, if known, what type of vehicle, container, or device is involved.
Law enforcement should consider civilian safety
by determining victims' mobility and the degree to which they have been exposed to
Are they ambulatory? Are they
contaminated? After these questions are answered, emergency responders
can decide whether to evacuate victims or protect them
on site by sheltering in place.