Chapter 9 study guide ICS flashcards |

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  • National Incident Management System

    (NIMS)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    (FEMA)

    FEMA: This course is taught through two units:

    1)Unit 1, IS-100.LE.b Introduction to the Incident Command System
    2)Unit 2, IS-700.a National Incident
    Management System (NIMS), An Introduction.

    Law enforcement and other public safety organizations use ICS to

    deal with many different types of large-scale incidents.

    ICS has helped officers throughout Florida and
    the nation handle situations such as

    large vehicle crashes, hurricanes, wildfires, and large
    political gatherings.

    When acting as part of the initial response to a large-scale incident, officers should obtain necessary information from dispatch and immediately:

    โ€ข Identify the type of incident or threat.
    โ€ข Determine the appropriate personal protective equipment.
    โ€ข Establish the ICS.
    โ€ข Set up a command post.
    โ€ข Determine the resources needed, including the assistance of other agencies.
    โ€ข Determine whether to shelter-in-place or evacuate (with evacuation routes and
    collection points).

    For ongoing situations in which ICS has already been established, such as hurricanes or wildfires, officers will receive particular

    assignments and attend regular briefings.

    Personnel not on scene or working in a command post depend on

    the responding
    officers to provide regular updates as events develop.

    Communication should be
    conducted in

    plain language as different agencies may use different radio codes.

    The FBI defines an active shooter as

    one or more individuals participating in a random
    or systematic killing spree demonstrating their intent to harm others with a firearm.

    An active shooter's objective is that of mass murder, rather than

    rather than committing traditional
    criminal acts, such as robbery or hostage-taking.

    Within the past 20 years

    hundreds of active shooter attacks have occurred across the U.S., and the threat of such violent incidents remains a primary concern for all law enforcement officers.

    Active shooter attacks are

    dynamic incidents that vary greatly.

    Approximately 95 percent of active shooters have historically been

    males and typically work alone.

    Active shooter incidents happen in the

    workplace nearly twice as often as in schools but can occur
    anywhere.

    Common active shooter motivations include

    workplace retaliation, domestic
    disputes, and retaliation by a current or former student.

    Certain traits are common to active shooters:

    shooters. The subject may be socially isolated, have
    feelings of hate and anger, or have a history of mental health problems.

    Very few active shooters have had previous

    arrests for violent crimes, making it difficult to identify the
    subject before they act.

    Common catalysts or triggers for active shooters include

    loss of significant relationships, changes in financial status or loss of or termination from a job, changes in living
    arrangements, major adverse changes to life circumstances, and being the victim of bullying or feelings of humiliation or rejection.

    Many active shooters express their intent to harm others through

    social media posts, journal writings, and through statements made to others.

    When confronted with an active shooter incident an officer may encounter a

    chaotic situation with large numbers of injured people, fleeing crowds, and secondary hazards
    such as improvised explosive devices.

    The main objective of a law enforcement response to an active shooter incident has changed since the attacks at

    Columbine High School in 1999.

    (active shooter) Previous response options revolved around

    containing a threat and awaiting the arrival
    of SWAT teams.

    (active shooter) Current tactics focus on

    immediately locating the shooter and
    neutralizing the threat before assisting the injured.

    Florida's natural geography makes it prone to certain types of environmental disasters

    particularly hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, and wildfires. Law enforcement officers are often called upon to assist in these situations.

    (natural disaster) Planning and preparedness helps you

    concentrate on your assigned duties without being distracted or worried about the well-being of your family.

    (disaster) Be sure that you have prepared a

    travel and safety kit.

    (disaster) A general rule is to include basic
    supplies needed for a

    48-hour period. -2days

    (disaster) Supplies should include:

    an extra uniform and change of clothes, batteries, food, water, and medication if needed.

    Prior to the ONSET of a natural disaster

    police assignments include facilitating evacuations and providing traffic control and direction.

    In the IMMEDIATE AFTERMATH of a natural disaster

    the focus of law enforcement shifts from evacuation to search and rescue, security of shelters and distribution centers, and protection of property.

    The increase in domestic terrorist activity means that

    law enforcement officers should be prepared to handle incidents involving weapons of mass destruction (WMD).

    weapons of mass destruction

    WMD

    The Oklahoma City bombing, attacks on the World Trade Center, anthrax incidents, letters containing ricin, and the Boston Marathon bombing have made

    terrorism a realistic concern for law enforcement.

    Terrorists use weapons of mass destruction on

    civilians as a primary means of achieving their goals.

    As first responders, officers are usually trained to quickly enter the scene and help victims as soon as possible. This traditional law enforcement response and rescue approach will not work for

    WMD incidents

    Rushing into a chemical, biological, or explosive scene
    could result in the

    first responder's death or the death of additional victims

    Section 790.166, F.S., defines weapons of mass destruction as:

    The manufacture, possession, sale, delivery, display, use, or attempted or threatened use
    of a weapon of mass destruction or hoax weapon of mass destruction is prohibited;
    (1) As used in this section, the term:
    (a) "Weapon of mass destruction" means:
    1. Any device or object that is designed or intended to cause death or serious
    bodily injury to any human or animal, or severe emotional or mental harm
    to any human, through the release, dissemination, or impact of toxic or
    poisonous chemicals, or their precursors;
    2. Any device or object involving a biological agent;
    3. Any device or object that is designed or intended to release radiation or
    radioactivity at a level dangerous to human or animal life; or
    4. Any biological agent, toxin, vector, or delivery system.

    It is a __________ ______ to unlawfully manufacture, possess, sell, deliver, send, mail, display, use, threaten to use, attempt to use, conspire to use, or make readily accessible to others a "weapon of mass destruction" under s. 790.166, F.S.

    first-degree felony

    Under s. 790.166, F.S., it is a __________ _______to unlawfully manufacture, possess, sell, deliver, mail, send,
    display, use, threaten to use, attempt to use, conspire to use, or make readily accessible to others a "hoax
    weapon of mass destruction,"

    second-degree felony

    hoax weapon of mass destruction is defined as:

    any device or object that by its design, construction, content, or characteristics appears to be, or is falsely represented to be, an actual weapon of mass destruction.

    It is a ________ ______ for a person to make a false REPORT concerning the placing or planting of a weapon of mass destruction under s. 790.163, F.S.

    second-degree felony

    Primary locations for WMD attacks include

    high impact targets and often focus on heavily frequented
    locations.Examples include airports, subways, schools, places of worship, government buildings, or large
    public gatherings such as fairs, festivals, or sporting events.

    WMD include weapons that could release

    biological contamination, toxic chemical agents, incendiary fires, and conventional explosives.

    Each type of WMD is unique because of the

    scope of death and destruction it
    may cause, the insidious nature of the weapon, and the personal danger to first responders.

    Historically, terrorists conduct

    pre-operational surveillance before executing an attack.

    This surveillance can take many forms, such as

    videotaping a potential target location, sketching floor plans, photographing structural features, and taking notes on security measures.

    Potential terrorists have previously studied and
    recorded law enforcement responses to

    false alarms or other calls for service in order to develop plans to target first responders.

    watch for strange chemical

    canisters or drums left abandoned in an
    empty field or ditch which might indicate a chemical or biological hazard

    Many terrorist plots have been interrupted or thwarted through

    traffic stops and other proactive patrol techniques.

    CBRNE

    is an acronym commonly used to identify types of hazards that an officer may face either as part of an accidental release or intentional use of a weapon of mass destruction.

    CBRNE stands for:

    โ€ข Chemical
    โ€ข Biological
    โ€ข Radiological
    โ€ข Nuclear
    โ€ข Explosives

    (CBRNE) (C

    โ€ข Chemical

    (CBRNE) B

    โ€ข Biological

    (CBRNE) R

    โ€ข Radiological

    (CBRNE) N

    โ€ข Nuclear

    (CBRNE) E

    โ€ข Explosives

    Law enforcement officers are likely to be the _____ to arrive at the scene of an emergency involving weapons of
    mass destruction or hazardous materials.

    first

    There are FIVE levels of training for response to hazardous materials.

    1.Awareness Role
    2.Operational Role
    3.Hazardous Materials Technician
    4. Hazardous Materials Specialist
    5. Hazardous Materials Incident Commander

    Awareness Role

    First responders at the awareness level have been trained to initiate the emergency response sequence and
    NOTIFY AUTHORITIES of the situation. They take no further action beyond notifying the authorities of the release.

    Operational Role

    At this level responders take DEFENSIVE ACTION to protect nearby people, property, or the environment from the effects of the release. They are trained to respond in a defensive fashion without actually trying to stop the release. Their function is to contain the release from a safe distance, keep it from spreading, and prevent exposures.

    Hazardous Materials Technician

    These responders take offensive action to CONTROL A SPILL OR LEAK. They assume a more aggressive role than a first responder at the operations level in that they will approach the point of release in order to plug, patch
    or otherwise stop the release of a hazardous substance.

    Hazardous Materials Specialist

    Specialists have the expert knowledge to support the hazardous materials technician, but their duties require
    a more directed or specific knowledge of the various substances they may be called upon to contain. The
    specialist also acts as the site liaison with federal, state, local and other government authorities in regards to
    site activities.

    Hazardous Materials Incident Commander

    These individuals assume command of the incident above the level of the first responder; they are trained to
    implement the employer's EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLAN Incident commanders understand the hazards and risks of employees working in chemical protective clothing, know how to implement local, state, and federal
    emergency response plans, and understand the importance of decontamination procedures.

    (Immediate Actions) Approach the incident cautiously from an

    upwind, uphill, and upstream position until you can safely identify and assess the CBRNE situation

    Patrol officers are typically trained to respond at the awareness level and have only FOUR RESPONSIBILITIES or goals, sometimes abbreviated as RIP-NOT.

    โ€ข Recognition and identification
    โ€ข Isolation
    โ€ข Protection
    โ€ข NOTification

    (RIP-NOT) R

    Recognition and identification

    (RIP-NOT) I

    Isolation

    (RIP-NOT) P

    Protection

    (RIP-NOT) N

    NOTification

    Recognition and Identification

    Officers must be able to recognize that an incident involves WMD or hazardous materials and, if possible,
    identify the materials involved. Every effort to avoid exposure should be made. Most materials can be identified
    from a safe distance.

    Isolation Definition:

    is the ability to deny or restrict access to the involved area and remove uninjured and uncontaminated
    people from that area.

    victim collection points (VCP)

    Contaminated and uncontaminated people should be kept
    separated to avoid the spread of contamination.

    The VCPs allow

    EMTs to easily differentiate between those who need medical treatment and those who require decontamination

    Protection

    involves ensuring the safety of the officer and the public through personal protective equipment and
    the evacuation of nearby structures.

    Officers should secure the scene in order to isolate exposed victims and the contaminated area. Tactics include;

    monitoring entry to the scene, assuring public protection by evacuating or protecting an area, confining and
    containing all contaminated victims, determining if the scene is or can be made safe for operations, protecting
    the scene and any evidence, and coordinating with other agencies to provide security and control perimeters.

    When securing the scene, priority should be given to preventing additional people from entering the area
    rather than

    preventing victims from exiting

    In order to avoid the spread of contamination

    contaminated persons should be evacuated to the VCP and be discouraged from entering vehicles, leaving the scene, or transporting themselves to a hospital.

    Attempting to stop panicked people from leaving the site could place an officer in

    personal danger

    Avoid _______ ______with potentially contaminated people and direct those individuals to a VCP where
    decontamination can occur.

    physical contact

    the use of force to detain a contaminated person may be
    __________.

    necessary

    If witnesses refuse questioning, try to obtain their

    contact information for the investigators.

    Notification and Communication is the ____ level of ________>

    fourth; responsibility.

    Notification and Communication

    The fourth level is notification, in which the first responder informs the next level of responder as defined in
    the agency's Emergency Response Plan. The officer should maintain continuous communication with dispatch
    as the event unfolds. This ensures the proper resources are deployed.

    Emergency Response Plan (ERP)

    is defined as a written plan that describes the actions that an organization would take in response to various major events.

    An agency ERP establishes

    safe and uniform guidelines for response to incidents involving hazardous materials or weapons of mass destruction.

    ERP goal is

    to protect the public and secure the scene while safeguarding responders

    If you are the first on the scene of a CBRNE incident,

    relay information to responding units

    Tell dispatch about any

    substances involved, the number of exposed victims, and, if known, what type of vehicle, container, or device is involved.

    Your first responsibility in a CBRNE situation is to

    protect yourself

    your secondary responsibility is to

    protect other people and property

    An incapacitated officer only
    elevates the

    seriousness of the situation

    Law enforcement should consider civilian safety
    by determining victims' mobility and the degree to which they have been exposed to
    materials:

    Are they ambulatory? Are they contaminated? After these questions are answered, emergency responders can decide whether to evacuate victims or protect them
    on site by sheltering in place.

    Shelter-in-place

    is defined as taking immediate shelter
    in a readily accessible location or remaining inside a structure to prevent exposure to a
    dangerous situation that exists outside of the structure.

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