A protected, well-managed crime scene allows for
the presentation of credible evidence in court that can establish the guilt or innocence of
consists of objects or perishable evidence such as
fingerprints, blood, or tire tracks.
Testimonial evidence is generally less reliable than
physical evidence because people perceive events differently, do not remember accurately,
When you correctly identify, protect, collect, preserve, transport, and analyze the physical evidence, it cannot
deliver false results.
An investigation occurs when
you make detailed and systematic inquiries or
observations.This process begins upon your arrival at the scene of a reported crime and usually ends when you file the initial report, turn the matter over to a detective or
investigator, or testify in court.
(responding to a crime scene)
While driving to the scene, formulate some
key questions that will help you assess the situation adequately: (8)
โข What is the location?
โข Are any weapons involved?
โข Has the complainant indicated the suspect's location?
โข How many individuals are involved?
โข How many officers are necessary to safely contain or control the situation?
โข Do you need additional services?
โข Do you need special equipment?
โข Are any special concerns or dangers associated with the call?
The size of the crime scene depends on the: (3)
type of crime, the type of evidence, and the location of the evidence.
Use personal observations and statements from victims and witnesses to assist in
determining the extent of a crime scene.
Attempt to locate and identify the point of the suspect's
entry to and exit from the crime scene by visually
inspecting the scene.
Once a survey of the area is completed, who (?) might decide to adjust the original boundaries or perimeter of the crime scene, based on the size and the type of structure or property they are searching?
a supervisor or investigator
Establish boundaries for the crime scene and guard against unnecessary entrance by:
cordoning off the area with crime scene tape.
Once the crime scene perimeter is established, do not allow
allow any unauthorized removal or alteration of any
will help protect the scene and the evidence it contains from unnecessary intrusion or handling.
Curious unauthorized people
can damage, contaminate, or destroy evidence at a scene. Do not allow them to enter the secured crime scene area.
Prevent intrusion by anyone who
knowingly or unknowingly approaches the crime scene perimeter by using verbal commands and directions
to enforce the perimeter.
You have the authority to arrest any individual who, after receiving a warning,
crosses an area marked by crime scene tape
in the case of an outdoor crime scene involving degradable, easily destroyed, biological, or trace evidence, protect the evidence from
weather elements such as rain, hail, lightning, or wind.
Prior to entering the crime scene to process evidence, determine if the scene location is
public or private property.
A person occupying private property has an expectation of privacy that no one can violate without a
search warrant or a valid exception to the warrant requirement.
who will designate one point of entry and exit for the
crime scene, and will assign an officer to maintain a crime scene log at that location?
The primary officer or investigator
Officers not assigned to the crime scene do not have
access just because they are law enforcement officers.
The officer posted at the access point must document these details in the crime scene log:
the name, rank, and agency of each person entering or leaving the scene, the date and time of the person's entry or exit, and the reason the person was at the scene.
If evidence is contaminated or altered in any way,
document the incident in the contamination list or your report. Include information about the original
condition of the evidence and the events leading to its damage or destruction.
who will usually coordinate duties such as evidence collection, securing the scene perimeter, and other assignments.
The supervisor or investigator
is a person who alleges that a crime has been committed or can be the person who calls the police.
is a person who sees, knows, or vouches for something and may make a sworn statement about that information.
You may not have the time or the resources to question all subjects at the scene;
determine who has the most information and knowledge of the incident.
In your field notes, document all witnesses, victims, complainants, and suspects present by
writing their names, dates of birth, addresses, sexes, races, and telephone numbers.
Witnesses are often hesitant to get involved they like to
stay around for the excitement but will often try to leave or
remain in the background when police attempt to ask them questions concerning their
knowledge of the event.
It is extremely important to keep victims, complainants, and witnesses ________ in a criminal investigation.
Blocking such communication prevents them from
discussing the incident and coordinating their accounts of what happened.
involved parties can be isolated within one large room by placing them
on opposite sides of the room with their backs to each other.
Another possible interview controlled area is
inside a patrol car. However, due to space limitations only place one person in each car.
Ensure that while victims or witnesses are giving statements, no one can
intimidate them visually or verbally.
Some involved parties may have an unknown motive to mislead officers; These type of people
may want to help the suspect by diverting any possible evidence of involvement away from them.
People who feel intimidated by you or
others may say
little or nothing so that they can leave the scene quickly
Involved parties may also try to pass
evidence, such as
a weapon or contraband, to each other in order to hide it.
If an interviewee is suffering from physical or mental
make a note to interview this person later when he or she has recovered.
If the victim does not require immediate first aid, ask direct, fundamental questions about how the victim sustained the injury, such as the following:
โข Who hit you?
โข What did the suspect use to hit you?
โข When were you hit?
โข Where were you hit?
โข Where were you standing when being hit?
โข How were you hit?
โข Why were you hit?
Record the names of medical personnel who provide services to the victim, because
the court may call any of them as a witness.
Brief Chain of Command: Share information with your supervisor or investigator to include the following:
โข when the incident occurred
โข how the incident occurred
โข where the incident occurred
โข all evidence gathered or specific items that are still the focus of a search
โข descriptions of all property involved in the incident (obtained from complainants, victims, or witnesses
who can identify the property)
โข names and descriptions of victims, witnesses, and possible suspects
โข description of the suspect's vehicle, if applicable and if known
โข special concerns on the scene such as biohazards, a hostile crowd, at-large suspects, and severe injuries
โข how the scene is being handled and protected
โข the scene's boundaries and protection measures
โข plan for the continued investigation of the incident and the search for evidence
โข identity of the public information officer who is communicating with the media (When dealing with
the media or designating an assigned authorized spokesperson on the scene, refer to agency policies
Keep extra batteries for both the camera and the flashlight. Florida's climate is particularly hard on
batteries, as ___ deteriorates batteries.
Photographing the crime scene allows the
court and the jury to obtain an accurate understanding of how it looked on the day you responded.
Photos and videos provide a
visual record that may be stored indefinitely and is readily available when needed.
Photographing the crime scene is the ____ event that should take place before any detailed crime scene work begins.
perishable evidence can include
blood, footwear, and tire impressions, or trace evidence such as hair or fibers.
When photographing specific items such as blood drops, weapons, or tire marks, place a
scale or identifier in the
photograph with the evidence to establish the original positions and
draw attention to relevant objects or evidence for photographing and
Other examples of scales or identifiers are
Miranda cards, dollar bills, coins, or rulers that you
can use as a standard of measurement.
The overall flow of crime scene photography moves from
general to specific; use overall, midrange, and then close-up photography.
Begin at the perimeter of the crime scene and
take sequential shots by
framing a panoramic or four-corner view of the scene.
Close-up view shots
show the details of a specific item of evidence and must include a scale or identifier.
Proper lighting provides
good exposure for the photograph, so that it is neither too dark nor too light for the visibility of detail.
Consider flood lighting with a flashlight or using the vehicle spotlight or headlights if the overall picture requires you to photograph the scene from
more than nine to twelve feet away.
is composing the photograph so that it depicts what you are trying to document.
*For example, in overall or midrange photography, overlap the photos to show the relationships of items in the crime scene.
Avoid including,_____, ____ ______, ____ _______ , or___ in crime scene photographs.
bystanders, other officers, your equipment, or pets
Crime scene sketches are a means of
documentation that aid in the reconstruction, explanation, and permanent recording of an incident.
Sketches can show
relative positions (spatial relationships) of objects within the crime scene that are not readily
visible in photographs.
Items used to construct a sketch include a
blank sheet of paper or graph paper, pen or
pencil, tape measure, and a template or a ruler
If you are going to diagram the crime scene, this is the _______ event that should take place after photographing the scene and before any detailed work begins.
is the method that measures objects from at least two fixed points, forming a triangle