Chapter 7/ Criminal Investigations / Study Guide/ III flashcards |

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  • To establish probable cause for __________, document that the suspect transported into this state an individual who the suspect knows, or should know, is illegally entering the United States from another country.

    human smuggling

    __________ is the exploitation of authority or the use of bribes, threats of force, or intimidation to gain cooperation or compliance.

    Coercion

    To establish probable cause for __________, document that the suspect knowingly, or in reckless disregard of the facts, engages in, or attempts to engage in, or benefits financially by receiving anything of value from participation in a venture that has subjected a person to human trafficking.

    human trafficking

    Juvenile sexual offender behavior ranges from

    non-contact sexual behavior to varying degrees of direct sexual contact.

    The victim of human trafficking can be an

    unauthorized alien or a United States citizen.

    The United States Department of State estimates that 12.3 million people are __________ worldwide annually.

    trafficked

    Transporting, soliciting, recruiting, harboring, providing, enticing, maintaining, or obtaining another person for the purposes of exploitation of that person is defined as _____________.

    human trafficking

    ___________ is an offense against the integrity

    Smuggling

    Juvenile sexual abuse is

    sexual behavior that occurs without consent, without equality, or because of coercion.

    A(n) __________ is someone who transports into this state an individual he or she knows is illegally entering the United States from another country.

    human smuggler

    A(n) __________ is a child 12 years of age or younger who is alleged to have committed a violation of sexual battery, prostitution, lewdness, indecent exposure, abuse of a child, obscenity, or any violation of law or delinquent act involving juvenile sexual abuse.

    juvenile sexual offender

    __________ minor sex trafficking occurs when children who have not attained 18 years of age are induced to perform commercial sexual acts.

    Domestic

    __________ is typically a short-term "business relationship" and may be a part of a human trafficking scheme, whereas __________ is a long-term, ongoing captivity and subjugation of victims.

    Smuggling/trafficking

    Human trafficking is a form of modern day slavery that involves holding (including minors) in compelled services for commercial ______________ or otherwise legitimate labor.

    sex trade

    In human trafficking, the suspect uses

    coercion for labor, services, or commercial sexual activity.

    For commercial sexual activity that involves a child less than 15 years of age, the offense is a __________ felony.

    first-degree

    Equality exists when

    two participants operate with the same level of power in a relationship, no control, or coercion by either party.

    You are required to present the victim of a sexual offense with a

    "Victim's Rights Brochure" and a "Sexual Battery-Victim's Rights and Services" brochure from the Florida Council Against Sexual Violence.

    Traffcking is often a

    financially based business that exploits cheap labor.

    __________ is transportation based, whereas __________ is exploitation based.

    Smuggling/trafficking

    Two threshold questions will help determine if a person is a victim of __________. First, did the suspect recruit, transport, or hold the victim in the service of another for labor or commercial sex acts? Second, did the suspect obtain or maintain the victim's service through force, threats, psychological manipulation, or confiscation of legal documents?

    human trafficking

    Things that a trafficking victim hears about other workers suffering are admissible to show a "___________", in which they were held.

    climate of fear

    Conferring legal status on victims takes a

    humanitarian approach instead of treating the victims like criminals, and it makes the victim available as witnesses.

    Select ALL of the TRUE statements that may apply to living and working conditions for human trafficking victims.

    Often there are locks on the outside of windows and doors.

    Victims may lack identification because someone else has taken possession of them as a form of control.

    Victims are forced to move frequently by traffickers.

    Victims reside in overcrowded living spaces.

    Victims may lack personal items or possessions, but may have cell phones.

    Victims are restricted or have controlled communications.

    Victims live on or near work premises.

    Victims often lack individual transportation.

    Victims often lack knowledge about how to get around in the community.

    Traffickers can be liable whether they

    actually engage in the trafficking act of recruiting, enticing, harboring, transportation, providing, or obtaining a person for commercial sex or they merely benefit financially from knowingly participating in such a venture.

    Victims of human trafficking may state they

    "owe" someone money for getting them into the United States or have ongoing debt at a "company" store-the only store they are allowed to shop at.

    The __________ Amendment to the United States Constitution provides that neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall exist on United States soil.

    13th

    A(n) __________ is a foreign national who entered the United States without inspection at a border crossing or airport, with fraudulent documents, or legally as a nonimmigrant, but then violated that status and remained without authority.

    illegal alien

    The criminal penalty for human smuggling and associated offenses are

    felonious crimes.

    Because a victim of a human trafficking crime is a slave in the United States, Congress has chosen to

    protect these crime victims by allowing them to stay in America.

    The promise of a better life, the "American Dream",

    recruits victims into human trafficking situations.

    The TVPRA ensures the criminal justice community views trafficking victims as

    victims of crime, even if they are living in the United States illegally.

    Under federal law, trafficking victims can be

    U.S. citizens or legal or illegal immigrants.

    A(n) __________ is any person who is not a United States citizen.

    alien

    The __________ enforces United States laws, including federal immigration laws and regulations. They perform computer forensics examinations and investigate smuggling, trafficking, fraud, money laundering, and narcotics trafficking cases, as well as domestic and international criminal activities occurring on or facilitated by the internet.

    Homeland Security Investigations

    Both federal and state human trafficking laws prohibit procuring persons less than

    18 years of age for prostitution.

    All Florida human trafficking crimes are

    Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization (RICO) offenses.

    Congress passed the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA) to

    update traditional slavery laws and combat trafficking in persons.

    Victims of human trafficking may be afraid to

    discuss their living or working situations.

    Both federal and state human trafficking laws do not require force, fraud, or coercion to determine

    sex trafficking of persons less than 18 years of age.

    What are some types of evidence that may be indicative of human trafficking?

    fraudulent identification or immigration documents

    signs of malnourishment

    weapons

    signs of torture (cigarette burns)

    injuries from beatings or weapons

    money wire transfers

    brands or scarring indicating ownership

    poor health of a victim

    old injuries

    For a human trafficking incident, it is critical that you weigh your options. What questions should you use to think through this complex problem?

    What are the ages of the potential victims?

    Is the victim you have identified in immediate danger?

    Are there still workers at the job site or brothel?

    What resources will you need to rescue the victim?

    Will an immediate rescue prevent the chance of rescuing others later?

    Dealing with human trafficking victims requires patience because

    victims may not speak English.

    Separate the human trafficking victim from

    his or her suspected trafficker prior to questioning, and convey a sense of safety, bringing the victim to an area of safety, away from the location where you encountered the victim.

    The conversation with a human trafficking victim should begin with what questions?

    How old are you?

    Does someone force you to perform sexual acts?

    Do you have any identification and travel documents? If not, who has your documents?

    Do you have freedom of movement?

    Is someone threatening you with deportation or law enforcement action?

    Is someone taking part of your earned money to pay off a smuggling fee?

    Did someone recruit you for one purpose and force you to engage in some other job?

    Is someone threatening you or your family with harm if you attempt to escape?

    What is your name?

    Did someone coach you on what to say to us?

    Can you freely contact your friends or family?

    Is someone paying you for sex?

    Cases involving trafficked children are the only form of child abuse that the DCF will retain jurisdiction over when the suspect __________ in a caregiver role.

    is not

    Florida Statutes require all individuals to

    report suspicion or knowledge that a child is a victim of human trafficking to the DCF by calling the Abuse Hotline.

    Look at the human trafficking victim while

    talking and avoid looking at the interpreter.

    Signs indicating human trafficking in __________ may include security intended to keep victims confined or self-contained camps with barbed wire angled in, bars on windows, bouncers, guards, and guard dogs, and excessive amounts of garbage.

    labor camps or sweatshops

    Regarding human trafficking victims, often a third party, or one person, insists on

    interpreting for an entire group or an individual.

    If you have probable cause to believe that a child is being sexually exploited, deliver the child to

    the DCF and provide a full written report to them regarding the findings.

    The better informed the community is about

    what human trafficking is, who the victims are, and what resources victims need, the better position law enforcement will be in addressing the problem.

    Dealing with human trafficking victims requires patience

    because victims may not understand the concept of compelled service or slavery.

    because victims may not identify themselves as victims.

    A(n) _________ occurs when a suspect takes property from a person by using force, violence, or assault. The suspect places the victim in fear, with the intent to deprive the victim, permanently or temporarily, of his or her right to the property, appropriating the property of the victim to the suspect's own use, or to the use of any person not entitled to it.

    robbery

    When establishing probable cause for __________, add that the property taken was of some value and whether the suspect took the property with the intent to deprive the victim of his or her right to it or any benefit from it, permanently or temporarily. Include whether the suspect took the property to appropriate it for his or her own use or that of any person not entitled to it

    robbery

    A trusted interpreter can

    make the difference between discovering a human trafficking case and rescuing victims, or someone misguiding you.

    It is critical that you recognize and approach human trafficking cases from a __________-centered perspective.

    victim

    The need for a collaborative approach across all sectors and levels of law enforcement, ____________, and victim services is important to identify victims of human trafficking within the community.

    prosecution

    To establish probable cause for __________, document that the suspect took the money or property from the person or custody of the victim by using force, violence, and assault, or by placing the victim in fear during the course of the taking.

    robbery

    Possible enhanced penalties for robbery include

    cases where the robbery is committed while the suspect is in the possession of a firearm or other deadly weapon.

    A(n) ___________ is a theft plus violence.

    robbery

    What are several ways to determine if a person is deceased and will not respond to CPR?

    the skin may be pale, waxy, and translucent

    the body temperature adjusts to that of the surrounding environment

    signs of decomposition

    the fingernails may be pale

    the eyes may have become milky or cloudy

    signs of decapitation

    At a scene involving a dead person, the officer should perform a 360 degree visual sweep of the perimeter and determine the best path to the body so as not to ___________.

    destroy or contaminate possible evidence

    To establish probable cause for __________, document that the suspect entered the dwelling of the victim and that at the time the suspect entered the dwelling, the suspect intended to commit robbery. While inside the dwelling, the suspect did commit robbery.

    home-invasion robbery

    You __________ obtain statements from victims and/or witnesses to gather basic information regarding a robbery.

    should

    While observing a dead body, the officer should

    look for obvious signs of trauma, such as the presence of blood, cuts, gashes, or bruising.

    __________ is the postmortem cooling of the body after death.

    Algor mortis

    While observing a dead body, look for an obvious fatal injury, such as a bullet hole in the head or chest, and notify your supervisor or investigator of any signs of trauma or obvious ___________.

    fatal injury

    __________ is a robbery that occurs within the victim's dwelling while the victim is present and aware that a robbery is taking place

    Home invasion robbery

    When responding to any bank robbery, secure the scene, pending notification from the __________ as to their response.

    FBI

    At a scene involving a dead person, document .

    the names of people at the scene and any changes made to the scene

    _____________ is the color change due to settling of blood (within a dead body) according to gravity.

    Lividity

    After arriving at a scene involving a dead person, begin collecting information to make a(n) ___________ regarding the circumstances of the person's death.

    initial assessment

    What are common targets for robberies?

    banks
    situational victims
    senior citizens
    drug suspects/participants
    convenience stores
    people at home
    homeless persons
    prostitutes
    drunken people
    retail stores
    ATMs

    __________ is the robbing of a person of his or her vehicle by the use of force, violence, assault, or by putting them in fear during the course of the robbery.

    Carjacking

    ______________ is a stiffening of body muscles after death.

    Rigor mortis

    Always approach a scene involving a dead person as a

    crime scene and consider it a homicide until the information gathered consistently points to elements of a death by natural or accidental causes.

    There are three broad categories of causes of death: natural, accidental, and criminal. __________ includes suicide.

    Criminal

    To establish probable cause for __________, document that the suspect took the money or property from the person of the victim and in the course of the taking, the victim was or became aware of the taking. The property taken was of some value and the taking was with the intent to deprive the victim or the owner, permanently or temporarily, of his or her right to the property.

    robbery by sudden snatching

    Your initial response to a robbery __________ vary depending upon whether the robbery is in progress or over with.

    will

    Secure and cordon off the

    scene of a robbery with crime scene tape to prevent contamination and to allow for evidence processing.

    At a scene involving a dead person, the officer should remember to apply universal precautions and use personal protective ___________ prior to approaching the body.

    equipment

    Approach a robbery in progress using a

    tactical deployment to keep from alerting the suspect of the presence of law enforcement and possibly preventing a hostage situation.

    What items should be included in a preliminary robbery report?

    a complete itemized list of property taken (if possible), with serial numbers

    a complete description of the weapons used

    a complete description of the suspect

    how the suspect concealed the weapons

    details regarding the suspect's treatment of victims

    how the suspect displayed the weapons

    To establish probable cause for __________, document that the suspect took the motor vehicle from the person or custody of the victim using force, violence, assault, or by placing the victim in fear during the course of the taking. The suspect took the property with the intent to deprive the victim of his or her right to the motor vehicle, temporarily or permanently, or any benefit from it. The suspect took the property to appropriate the motor vehicle of the victim to his or her own use or that of any person not entitled to it.

    carjacking

    SIDS is a

    diagnosis that should be given (for an infant death) only after all other possible causes of sudden, unexplained death have been ruled out by a thorough investigation.

    At a scene involving a dead person, you should not

    disturb the dead body until authorized by the medical examiner, pursuant to multi-agency agreements.

    Evidence of postmortem changes in a body may

    assist in estimating the time since death, although there is a wide range of individual variation.

    The tone you establish at the beginning of the preliminary SUID investigation will have a .

    direct impact on the cooperation of the persons present at the scene and the information people are willing to offer during interviews

    A complete death investigation is often the only way to make a distinction between

    SIDS and suffocation as a cause of an infant death.

    As the first officer responding to a SUID scene, it is important to

    introduce yourself and explain your role.

    Different cultures respond in

    different ways to death.

    During a preliminary SUID investigation, do not jump to

    any conclusions about the way the family is reacting to the tragedy based on your own cultural background and the way you would respond if you were in this situation.

    Begin your SUID preliminary investigation by

    ensuring scene safety, removing any environmental or physical threats, and protecting any evidence against contamination and loss.

    A missing and endangered person includes a missing child, younger than __________ years old.

    18

    During a preliminary SUID investigation, what are the essential things you should do?

    Secure the scene.
    Photograph the scene.
    Conduct preliminary interviews.
    Identify the witnesses and people about the infant's death.
    Complete thorough documentation of your findings.
    View the infant's body.

    At the scene involving a dead person, you __________ make a final determination as to the cause or manner of death.

    cannot

    At the scene involving a dead person, only a __________ can make a final determination as to the cause or manner of death, after the conclusion of his or her investigation.

    medical examiner

    A thorough written documentation of the incident, to include in your response, is the __________ step in the preliminary investigation of a sudden unexplained infant death.

    final

    __________ is one of several causes of SUID and is the most common cause of death in infants aged one month to one year in the United States.

    SIDS

    Display professionalism and respect to family members and loved ones

    at the scene of a death investigation to minimize the trauma they are experiencing.

    ______________ is the sudden and unexpected death of an infant due to natural or unnatural causes.

    SUID

    When any person dies in Florida by criminal violence, accident, suicide, suddenly in apparent good health, or through any suspicious or unusual circumstance, law enforcement must notify the __________.

    al examiner

    What are some unnatural causes of SUID to consider during the preliminary investigation of an infant death

    suffocation (asphyxia)
    hyperthermia
    homicide
    hypothermia
    carbon monoxide poisioning
    drowning
    electrocution

    During the preliminary SUID investigation, it is essential that

    you locate and evaluate the location(s) within the scene where the infant was purported to have been moved between placement and discovery.

    At a SUID scene, the position of the infant __________ crucial to the investigation.

    is

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