Chapter 5 - Fundamentals of Patrol flashcards |

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  • Public safety telecommunicators (PSTs), also known as dispatchers, are generally __________ personnel who operate the radio and telecommunications systems.

    non-sworn

    Officers use mobile electronic devices to

    access information regarding criminal records, information regarding driving history,
    submit electronic reports to a supervisor,
    allow the officer to view and receive calls for service,
    to check in and out of service.
    receive dispatch information to minimize radio traffic.

    The duties of all public safety telecommunicators include

    answering, receiving, transferring, and dispatching functions related to 911 calls.

    Throughout their shifts, officers use radios to send and receive __________ information, call for backup, or identify a suspect or wanted person.

    vital

    Proper knowledge and use of the radio

    is essential to officer safety.

    The communications or dispatch center

    is the hub of contact for patrol officers.

    Agencies may use technology such as scrambled or __________ for specialized units to increase operational security.

    encrypted

    Portable/handheld radios are used

    in the performance of a patrol officer's duty.

    Officers should conduct all radio communication in a professional manner and understand that there is no expectation of __________.

    privacy

    The 911 public safety telecommunicator uses the __________ to communicate with all officers.

    dispatch console or base station

    __________ (on portable radios) should be loud enough for you to hear but not so loud that it is disruptive.

    Volume

    Basic police radio communication generally relies on __________ types of equipment.

    three

    Public safety telecommunicators usually work in a(n) __________ area with access to telephones and other resources needed to assist sworn officers.

    centralized

    All computer activity (by officers)

    is recorded and subject to review under public records law.

    Sensitive information or criminal history details should only be transmitted by radio

    when there is an officer or public safety concern.

    When in the presence of a suspect,

    officers may use an earpiece to minimize eavesdropping.

    When using the radio, some agencies use a phonetic alphabet or uniform codes; others prefer __________ (plain English).

    clear speech

    The __________ code system uses the letters of the English alphabet only.

    phonetic-alpha

    In accordance with rules established by Florida's secretary of state, all radio transmissions that are recorded must be retained for __________ days.

    30

    You are expected to become proficient in your __________ language when using a radio to communicate.

    agency's

    What can be included in appropriate radio system use?

    facilitating calls for service

    law enforcement-related messages to other agencies within the state or another state

    vehicle, boat, and aircraft registration queries

    road condition and weather queries

    criminal records checks

    driver's license status and driver history

    hazardous material queries

    Clear radio transmissions are

    dependent on proper microphone techniques.

    The __________ code system combines letters and numbers that may include officer call signs or vehicle tags.

    alphanumeric

    When speaking on the radio,

    use a clear, concise tone and an even rate of speech.

    In stressful situations, a person's voice

    may fluctuate, which can make the radio message difficult to understand.

    Radio codes and signals save airtime and convey __________ and definite meanings.

    precise

    Radio __________ describes the customs and regulations for dealing with diplomatic formality, precedence, and etiquette when constructing and transmitting radio messages. It also includes proper use of appropriate codes and signals, which varies among agencies and regions.

    protocol

    When using a police radio, speak __________ into the microphone with an even tone of voice.

    directly

    Before making a voice transmission, listen to make sure there is no other radio traffic and then depress and hold the transmit button for approximately __________ second(s) before speaking.

    one

    police agencies can retain radio transmissions

    for longer than 30 days.

    There are __________ basic radio codes.

    four

    __________ communication is a system that uses the word "signal" to precede numbers.

    Signals

    All transmissions on the radio should only relate to __________ business.

    law enforcement

    When in the presence of a suspect, reduce the risk and dangers of exposure by using appropriate __________ on the radio.

    codes

    The __________ code system uses the number "10" to precede other numbers that represent specific activities.

    ten or numeric

    The __________ code system identifies letters in voice communication.

    phonetic-alpha

    Radio codes help maintain __________ and uniform radio communications.

    professionalism

    The __________ prohibits people who use police radios from: transmitting nonessential or excessive signals, messages, or communications; using profane, indecent, or obscene language; willfully damaging or permitting damage to radio apparatuses; maliciously interfering with another unit's radio transmission; making unidentified transmissions; transmitting before the air is clear and interfering with other transmissions; transmitting a call signal, letter, or numeral not assigned to the station or unit; adjusting, repairing, or altering a radio transmitter.

    FCC

    Individual agencies might not use the radio codes reviewed in the textbook

    but will train their officers to use the language they use.

    When officers go on or off duty,

    they must notify dispatch.

    When constructing a radio message, delivering accurate information in a __________ , concise manner is extremely important.

    clear

    When you receive a call from dispatch, you should

    record the information provided by the dispatcher.
    you should respond with your assigned identification.
    you should respond with your current location

    Officers should monitor radio transmissions from other units at all times in the event that other units may require __________.

    backup

    Officers working high priority calls may request dispatch to

    designate a radio channel for emergency traffic only.

    Do not leave __________ to memory when you receive information that dispatch provides.

    anything

    Officers must maintain a professional demeanor

    on the radio at all times.

    The Florida Crime Information Center (FCIC) is connected to the __________.

    National Crime Information Center

    You should advise dispatch

    upon your arrival at the call and request backup or any additional resources that are needed.

    When an officer takes self-initiated action during patrol, what information should be transmitted to dispatch?

    description of vehicle

    description of involved parties

    other assistance needed (backup, ambulance, tow truck, etc.)

    type of action (vehicle crash, fire, disturbance, etc.)

    officer's identification and location

    You should

    plan messages before transmitting them on the police radio.

    communicate with dispatch throughout your shift.

    Radio messages should provide essential information, such as

    officer identification, current location, the reason for the call, and information specific to the situation.

    The __________ system contains information from records of stolen, abandoned, and recovered property and wanted and missing person files for all 50 states, Canada, the U.S. Virgin Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia.

    National Crime Information Center

    __________ is gathering information for law enforcement purposes; also includes entering, running, vehicle check, records check, wants and warrants check, criminal justice database check, and FCIC/NCIC Department of Safety and Motor Vehicle database check.

    Querrying

    Dispatch will alert other officers to

    refrain from transmitting on the designated channel (unless an emergency occurs) when an officer is dealing with a high priority case.

    The Florida Crime Information Center (FCIC) is housed at the Florida Department of Law Enforcement (FDLE) in __________.

    Tallahassee Florida

    If you experience radio failure,

    establish another means of communication, which could require switching to another channel or calling dispatch to report the failure.

    The __________ is a database house at the FDLE that provides statewide information on people and property, driver's licenses and registration information, wanted and missing people, stolen guns, vehicles, and other property, and a person's status files and computerized criminal histories.

    FCIC

    Law enforcement officers often have to obtain information quickly through their communications database called the __________.

    Florida Crime Information Center

    The __________ is a system maintained by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).

    NCIC

    The National Crime Information Center (NCIC) is maintained by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in __________.

    Clarksburg, West Virginia

    A computerized criminal history (CCH)

    is created when the booking agency submits the fingerprints and arrest information for an arrested person.

    The entering agency is responsible for

    the accuracy, timeliness, and completeness of the records entered (into the FCIC/NCIC systems) and the removal of the information when it is no longer valid.

    When an agency enters data into the FCIC/NCIC,

    the officer must provide the original report and supplemental documentation to the person at the agency responsible for making such data entries.

    The __________ Hazardous Materials file provides users with online information about hazardous materials. Officers can make inquiries using the four-digit number normally found on the placard of a vehicle such as a railroad car or semi-trailer.

    NLETS

    A connection between the FCIC/NCIC and the __________ provides records of vehicles or vessels registered in Florida and driver's licenses or provides Florida identification card information. Auto insurance information is also available through this system.

    Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles

    Computerized criminal history (CCH) information

    constantly changes.

    When officers finish using retrieved CCH information,

    they should destroy it by shredding or burning.

    Due to the sensitive nature and sheer volume of information included in the FCIC/NCIC systems,

    officers must strictly follow agency policies when conducting a records check.

    The __________ response to a hazardous materials inquiry contains a variety of information such as the chemical name, personal safety precautions, general handling procedures, disposal methods, the degree of hazard to public health, and the availability of countermeasure materials. The Office of Hazardous Materials Safety, part of the U.S. Department of Transportation, supplies this information.

    NLETS

    The __________ maintains seven property files containing records of stolen articles, boats, guns, license plates, parts, securities, and vehicles.

    NCIC

    The Florida Crime Information Center and the National Crime Information Center enable officers to gather criminal__________ or stolen property information so they can appropriately deal with many incidents.

    history

    Using the FCIC, law enforcement agencies may enter data about

    stolen property and wanted and missing persons.

    The FCIC connects to the __________, an international justice and public safety information-sharing network.

    NLETS

    The National Crime Information Center (NCIC) and the Florida Crime Information Center (FCIC) systems are available __________.

    24/7

    Most information entered into the Florida Crime Information Center (FCIC)

    is also recorded into the National Crime Information Center (NCIC).

    Additional charges, arrests, dispositions, and other information in the computerized criminal history (CCH) will be added by the state attorney's office, the Clerk of the Court, and the __________.

    Department of Corrections

    It is extremely important that information included in arrest reports or on fingerprint cards (entered in the FCIC)

    is correct, from the spelling of suspects' names to the laws they violated.

    A high-speed, nationwide message-switching communications network (located in Phoenix, Arizona), __________allows for interstate and interagency information exchange.

    NLETS

    The reliability of an FCIC record

    depends on the agency's accuracy when entering the information.

    __________ the record of the computerized criminal history (CCH) is created, the FDLE first must process and verify the information by fingerprint review.

    Before

    Only agencies that maintain a 24-hours a day, seven-days-a-week operation

    are allowed to make entries into the FCIC/NCIC systems.

    __________ has the capability to receive, store, and forward messages to and from its user agencies. It supports inquiries into out-of-state motor vehicle and driver's license files, criminal histories, including those from Canada, agency identification information, aircraft tracking and registration, and out-of-state weather information.

    NLETS

    The __________ contains the National Sex Offender Registry, the files of people on supervised release, protection orders, foreign fugitives, immigration violators, and known or suspected terrorists or gang members.

    NCIC

    The only __________ to give information obtained through the FCIC/NCIC systems is that registration and lien information may be given to towing companies per s. 713.78(4)(b), Florida Statutes.

    exception

    Through __________, officers can request a driver's license re-examination or medical review for a specific driver.

    DAVID

    __________ is the first of its kind, as it provides all information about a motorist (driver/vehicle owner) in one program. The Florida Highway Patrol (FHP), in partnership with FDLE, provides this database to authorized users for enforcement and investigative purposes only via the Criminal Justice Network (CJNet).

    DAVID

    Employing agencies are liable for their officers'

    misuses of criminal justice information.

    The hit confirmation process (in the FCIC/NCIC database) ensures that system information remains valid and is __________ to the person or property of interest to the officer.

    identical

    All FCIC/NCIC transactions are

    logged and can be electronically retrieved upon request.

    The hit confirmation process (in the FCIC/NCIC database) prevents arrests based on outdated or invalid __________.

    warrants

    Misuse of the FCIC/NCIC system can result in serious consequences, such as

    disciplinary action, decertification, or criminal charges.

    An exact match in the FCIC/NCIC database, called a __________, must be confirmed before an officer arrests a wanted person or recovers a missing person or stolen property. To confirm this, contact the agency that entered the information into the database to verify the information is valid.

    hit

    The FCIC/NCIC logs are used for

    system compliance, criminal investigations, suspected system misuse, public records requests, and administrative purposes.

    If the FCIC/NCIC database contains data that is the same as or similar to the information submitted,

    a list of possible matches will be returned.

    System users of the FCIC/NCIC systems must attend the __________ certification class and pass the certification exam.

    Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS)

    Users authorized by statute can access __________ to view: driver images and signatures, state-issued identification cards, applications for driver's licenses, driving history, vehicle history for motorists, and identification documents used by non-citizens.

    DAVID

    __________ is a secure internet site used by the Florida criminal justice community as a portal to many beneficial information databases. These include InSite, Florida's Integrated Criminal History System (FALCON), Child Abduction Response Team (CART), and Florida Offender Registration and Tracking Services (FORTS).

    CJNet

    The __________ issues concealed weapon permits. Officers can make database inquiries on concealed weapons permits through dispatch.

    DOACS

    The __________ database contains records of vehicles or boats registered in Florida and driver's license information. Insurance information is available through this system.

    DHSMV

    __________ is a search/report system that effectively cross-matches fingerprints and criminal histories; contains photographs (including faces and tattoos); searches national and other criminal justice databases; and allows for instant updates of criminal justice information systems.

    FALCON

    An agency involved in the misuse of the FCIC/NCIC systems

    can lose its certification as an FCIC terminal site.

    When performing a query (through the FCIC/NCIC) on __________ , officers should provide the required information, which is name, race, date of birth, and sex.

    a person

    The Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles maintains an online inquiry database known as the ___________.

    Driver and Vehicle Information Database (DAVID)

    System users of the FCIC/NCIC systems must submit a state and national fingerprinted-based background check within __________ days of employment or being assigned to a terminal.

    30

    All information obtained from criminal justice databases is for

    law enforcement purposes only.

    An identical hit in the FCIC/NCIC database provides more details about the action the entering agency wants taken depending on the location of the __________.

    person or property

    The __________ Model provides a tool for officers to find proactive solutions to community issues.

    SARA

    Stress is a

    physical or emotional reaction to an event or situation.

    Herman Goldstein

    first developed and advanced the concept of problem-oriented policing (POP) in 1979, which is now called community-oriented policing (COP).

    What are some factors which may cause stress?

    a perceived threat
    real threat
    psychological response to a demanding situation or change
    physiological response to a demanding situation or change

    Drawing on the deterrent value of highly visible traffic enforcement and the knowledge that crimes often involve motor vehicles, the goal of __________ is to reduce crime, crashes, and traffic violations.

    DDACTS

    The key elements in the SARA Model are: __________.

    Scanning
    Analysis
    Response
    Assessment

    Community partnerships

    allow law enforcement agencies to develop long-term, proactive programs and strategies to address local problems.

    not all stress

    is negative.

    Community partnerships exist

    to inform law enforcement agencies about pertinent crime-related issues in the community, while establishing a rapport and understanding with the public about the agencies' methods to deter crime.

    __________ can raise awareness of a potentially dangerous situation and prepare an officer to react, such as in the case of the fight or flight response.

    Stress

    The SARA model is a

    continuous cycle that reassesses and solves problems within the community.

    Scanning takes a broad, intensive view of a particular area or series of events to describe community problems accurately. Often, you can state these descriptions as answers to which of the following questions?

    How do you perceive the problem?

    How do those outside law enforcement perceive the problem?

    Have you identified a problem?

    Is the problem a law enforcement issue?

    How serious is the problem?

    Community-oriented policing is a philosophy that promotes community partnerships to address the __________ of crime and other community issues.

    causes

    With __________, agencies compile statistical data from various sources such as incident reports, field contacts, calls for service, and interagency information sharing. Agencies analyze the data to map and forecast crime trends that allow the effective allocation of resources.

    intelligence-led policing

    __________ policing is the integration of community policing and law enforcement intelligence.

    Intelligence-led

    __________ is the integration of location-based crime and traffic crash data that determines the most effective methods for deploying law enforcement and other resources.

    DDACTS

    Community partnerships __________ understanding and trust between law enforcement agencies and community members.

    increase

    The keys to community-oriented policing are the creative and long-term solutions resulting from thorough data collection and analysis put into practice during the __________ phase.

    response

    Possible community partners can include

    law enforcement representatives, government representatives, and community representatives.

    Community-oriented policing has two core components: __________ and __________.

    community partnerships and problem solving

    __________ stress is short-lived and is similar to what people experience before taking a test or testifying in court.

    Acute

    __________ stress responses include temporary increases in anxiety, tension, and irritability.

    Short-term

    __________ stress responses may include erratic work habits and decreased productivity.

    Job performance-related

    Negative stress can

    make an officer question his or her decisions.
    can cloud an officer's judgment
    can slow reaction time.

    __________ stress continues over an extended period, such as the stress of a field training program or working with a difficult co-worker or supervisor.

    Chronic

    The National Study of Police Suicide (NSOPS) states that

    the suicide rate among criminal justice professionals is higher than the amount of officers shot and killed in the line of duty.

    __________ stress responses related to personality may include psychosis, chronic depression, or suicidal thoughts. Those stress responses related to health may include chronic disease, high blood pressure, ulcers, and coronary heart disease. Other health problems that could occur include asthma attacks, diabetes, alcoholism, and substance abuse.

    Long-term

    __________ stress involves elements of an officer's job that cause physical or emotional distress. Some may be from forces outside the officer's agency. Stress may also come from daily patrolling and may include the danger of patrolling, the boredom contrasted with the need to be alert, and the responsibility for the safety and welfare of the public.

    Work-related

    __________ stress responses may include headaches, blood pressure changes, loss of sleep, and excessive eating.

    Health-related

    __________ stress affects an individual's perception of situations and events. Causes are very specific to the individual and include personal attitudes towards work, perceptions of others, and work-related goals.

    Self-induced

    __________ is an enhanced state of awareness or "being on guard" that impedes one's ability to relax and disengage from a stressful situation.

    Hypervigilance

    Factors that contribute to __________ stress include trauma related to injury or death, or to financial or family difficulties.

    personal

    __________ stress involves elements of an officer's surroundings, such as the weather or high noise levels that could add mental or physical strain.

    Environmental

    Some officers who are unable to manage stress and depression

    may be at higher risk for suicide.

    __________ stress lies dormant for a period of time and then resurfaces. For example, an officer works a traumatic traffic fatality and ignores the stress of the situation. Later, a family member is involved in a traffic crash and the officer associates this event with the previous fatality; it triggers this kind of stress.

    Delayed

    The __________ response is the body's preparation to either get far away from a dangerous situation or be physically prepared to face it head on.

    fight or flight

    __________ stress results from a variety of sources over time. For example, an individual has domestic, financial, and career problems.

    Cumulative or routine

    __________ is a psychological disorder that occurs after a person experiences a highly stressful event such as war, physical violence, or a natural disaster. Sufferers may display symptoms such as depression, anxiety, recurring nightmares, and flashbacks.

    Post-traumatic stress disorder

    People experiencing __________ are always on alert, constantly scanning their environment for anticipated danger or threats. Because they are unable to let go of the sense of being on duty, officers who experience this may lose connections with family and friends.

    hypervigilance

    __________ stress may cause relationship problems, displacement of anger towards family and friends, and withdrawal from domestic and social activities.

    Domestic

    When observing situations,

    do not be distracted by a few elements; observe the entire scene before making a judgment.

    __________ is the individual's way of interpreting, organizing, and attaching meaning to observations and information obtained through the senses.

    Perception

    What are some examples of concealment?

    shrubs

    display cases

    fences

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