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  • Traffic crash

    a collision, involving one or more vehicles, that causes property damage, personal injury, or death and is the result of an unintentional act

    the terms _________________, ______________ __________________ ____________ and _____________ ________ _________________ are crucial to the traffic crash definition.

    "unintentional", "causes property damage" "personal injury or death"

    if someone involved in a crash INTENDED to cause damage or injury, it would not be a crash; it would be a crime such as:

    aggravavted battery or murder.

    you should treat each traffic crash as a ______ __________ until it is determined that no criminal acts took place.

    crime scene

    officers will be able to successfully defend their crash investigations in court through the accurate recording of

    observations and the applicaton of the corresponding statue in violation

    prominent statues involving traffic crash investigations include:

    316: state uniform traffic control: definitions and violations
    318: dispositions of traffic infractions
    320: Motor vehicle license/registrations
    322: driver's license


    state uniform traffic control: definitions and violations


    dispositions of traffic infractions


    Motor vehicle license/registrations


    driver's license


    any person who DRIVES or is in actual physical control of a vehicle on a highway or who is exercising control of a vehicle or steering a vehicle being towed by a motor vehicle.


    any person AFOOT


    every device in, upon, or by which any person or property is or may be transported or drawn upon a highway, excepting devices used exclusively upon stationary rails or tracks

    motor vehicle

    a SELF-PROPELLED vehicle not operated upon rails or guideway, but not including any bicycle, motorized scooter, electric personal assistive mobility device, swamp buggy, or moped.

    autonomous vehicle

    any vehicle equipped with AUTONOMOUS TECHNOLOGY

    autonomous technology

    technology installed on a motor vehicle that has the capability to drive the vehicle on which the technology is installed w/o the active ontrol or monitoring by a HUMAN OPERATOR

    Roadways on Which a Traffic Crash May Occur (9)

    laned highway,limited access facility,private road or driveway,state road,roadway,street or highway,intersection,crosswalk,sidewalk,bicycle path

    laned highway

    a highway the roadway of which is divided into TWO or MORE clearly marked lanes for vehicular traffic.

    limited access facility

    a street or highway especially designed for through traffic and over, from, or to which owners or occupants of abutting land or other persons have no right or easement, or only a limited right or easement, of access, light, air, or view by reason of the fact that their property abuts upon such limited access facility or for any other reason; such highways or streets may be parkways from which trucks, buses, and other commercial vehicles are excluded; or they may be freeways open to use by all customary
    forms of street and highway traffic.

    private road or driveway

    except as otherwise provided in paragraph (53)(b), any
    privately owned way or place used for vehicular travel by the owner and those having express or implied
    permission from the owner, but not by other persons

    state road

    any highway designated as a state-maintained road by the Department of Transportation


    that portion of a highway improved, designed, or ordinarily used for vehicular travel, exclusive of the berm or shoulder; in the event a highway includes two or more separate roadways, the term roadway as used here refers to any such roadway separately, but not to all such roadways collectively

    street or highway

    (a) the entire width between the boundary lines of every way or place of whatever nature when any part
    thereof is open to the use of the public for purposes of vehicular traffic;
    (b) the entire width between the boundary lines of any privately owned way or place used for vehicular
    travel by the owner and those having express or implied permission from the owner, but not by other
    persons, or any limited access road owned or controlled by a special district, whenever, by written
    agreement entered into under ss. 316.006(2)(b) or (3)(b), a county or municipality exercises traffic
    control jurisdiction over said way or place;
    (c) any area, such as a runway, taxiway, ramp, clear zone, or parking lot, within the boundary of any
    airport owned by the state, a county, a municipality, or a political subdivision, which area is used for
    vehicular traffic but which is not open for vehicular operation by the general public; or
    (d) any way or place used for vehicular traffic on a controlled access basis within a mobile home park
    recreation district which has been created under s. 418.30, F.S., and the recreational facilities of which
    district are open to the general public


    (a) the area embraced within the prolongation or connection of the lateral curblines; or, if none, then the
    lateral boundary lines of the roadways of two highways which join one another at, or approximately
    at, right angles; or the area within which vehicles traveling upon different highways joining at any other
    angle may come in conflict
    (b) where a highway includes two roadways 30 feet or more apart, then every crossing of each roadway
    of such divided highway by an intersecting highway shall be regarded as a separate intersection; in the
    event such intersecting highway also includes two roadways 30 feet or more apart, then every crossing
    of two roadways of such highways shall be regarded as a separate intersection.


    (a) that part of a roadway at an intersection included within the connections of the lateral lines of the
    sidewalks on opposite sides of the highway, measured from the curbs or, in the absence of curbs, from
    the edges of the traversable roadway
    (b) any portion of a roadway at an intersection or elsewhere distinctly indicated for pedestrian crossing
    by lines or other markings on the surface


    that portion of a street between the curb line, or the lateral line, of a roadway
    and the adjacent property lines, intended for use by pedestrian

    bicycle path

    any road, path, or way that is open to bicycle travel, which road, path, or way is physically separated from motorized vehicular traffic by an open space or by a barrier and is located either within the highway right-of-way or within an independent right-of-way

    Types of Injuries Sustained in a
    Traffic Crash

    serious bodily injury, fatal injury, incapacitating injury, non-incapacitating injury.

    serious bodily injury:

    an injury to any person, including the driver, which consists of a physical condition that creates a substantial risk of death, SERIOUS personal disfigurement, or protracted loss or impairment of the function of any bodily member or organ

    fatal injury:

    an injury resulting in an individual's death within a (12-month period) after the traffic crash

    incapacitating injury:

    visible or non-visible signs of injury, such as a bleeding wound or distorted member, usually requiring transportation to a medical facility and

    non-incapacitating injury:

    visible or non-visible signs of injury or complaint of
    injury, not requiring transport from the scene.

    your safe arrival at the crash scene, using officer safety techniques, is crucial to the:

    protection of crash victims

    if a crash scene involves fire or hazardous materials, it can quickly get out of ________________


    parking the patrol vehicle safely, accurately assessing the crash scene, and requesting necessary assistance helps prevent futher ____________


    traffic crash management:

    you must take CONTROL of a traffic crash situation and conduct the resulting investigation by quickly and efficiently getting pertinent information and determining the cause if death.

    at a traffic scene it is your RESPONSBILITY to:

    control,manage, normalize, and document atraffic crash as quickly as possible

    The traffic crash management process involves the following TEN STEPS:

    Step 1: Respond to the traffic crash scene safely.
    Step 2: Assess the scene of the crash.
    Step 3: Secure a safe work environment at the crash scene.
    Step 4: Provide emergency medical assistance to injured people, if necessary.
    Step 5: Obtain pertinent information.
    Step 6: Investigate the crash to determine how and why it occurred.
    Step 7: Return the scene to normal as quickly as possible, if appropriate.
    Step 8: Complete driver exchange of information.
    Step 9: Take enforcement action.
    Step 10: Document the crash

    Step 1: Respond to the Crash Scene Safely

    -After receiving the call for service, get as much information as possible about the crash
    location, such as street names, addresses, and the mile marker. It is important to respond
    to the scene safely in accordance with agency policy and state statutes. You cannot assist
    others if, while responding to the crash scene, you become involved in a crash.

    -Use all available traffic safety equipment in accordance with the Department of
    Transportation or agency policies. Any time you are working around highways,
    roadways, or construction areas, make sure to wear high-visibility safety apparel, such
    as a brightly colored vest.

    Step 2: Assess the Scene of the Crash

    Many factors will assist you to assess the crash scene. Upon approaching the crash scene, view it from a DISTANCE to determine its type and extent.

    By locating the vehicles involved and the property damaged in an incident, an officer should be able to conclude the ____________ of the actual crash scene.


    The officer can also determine the path of travel by examining the evidence ____ by the involved vehicles


    Be aware of the possible dangers and hazards that you may encounter at the crash site, _______ being one of them.


    If the fire is SMALL enough and appropriate for the type of fire extinguisher in the patrol vehicle, use the:

    fire extinguisher to put out the flames

    Crash damage may be _________ by fire and should not be overlooked.


    In the event of a vehicle fire, passengers, witnesses, and non-motorists may need to be evacuated to a ________ _________________

    safe location

    Officers must decide if the passengers in the vehicle can be ________ _______.

    removed safely

    To conduct the evacuation, use _______ ________ and _________ ________ to direct all people away from the fire toward a safe location.

    verbal commands/common gestures

    If a large number of people are present, use the patrol vehicle's ________ ______________ __________ to direct observers away from the scene.

    public address system

    When deciding on a safe location for them, consider the:

    amount of traffic, the weather, and the buildings in the area that may be affected by the fire.

    If there is a breeze, people should be directed ______ from the scene


    During scene assessment, you may discover a commercial motor vehicle involved in the traffic crash. Before approaching the scene, determine if the vehicle's contents are ___________


    Locate the placard on the vehicle and refer to the Department of Transportation's _______________ _________________ ______________ to verify the contents

    Emergency Response Guide (ERG)

    Crash debris, such as small pieces of metal and glass, pose additional threats to both ______________ and _____________ traffic


    Traffic crashes attract motorists' attention and cause gawking or "______________________" which slows the traffic flow


    can be a hazard since drivers' attentions are focused on the crash scene and not ongawking or "rubbernecking,

    driving around the crime scene

    Many secondary crashes happen
    because of _______ ___ _______________

    lack of attention

    Nighttime crash scenes compound this hazard because
    nighttime vision is _______________


    _____________ and __________ from the patrol vehicle distract drivers' attentions and obscure their visions


    People with ________ _______ difficulties have trouble adjusting from the bright lights around a crash scene to the normal lighting from headlights or streetlights.

    night vision

    Conditions due to emergency vehicle lights, heavy traffic, or movement on and off the
    roadway can ________ ________

    reduce vision

    Whenever possible, work _________oncoming traffic so that you will see hazardous situations as they develop


    The patrol vehicle is the _________ _________ for controlling traffic, It warns motorists of the hazards at a traffic crash scene.

    primary tool

    When positioning the patrol vehicle, find a safe location
    where you can be clearly

    visible to oncoming vehicles

    Activating the patrol vehicle's emergency lights is ____________ recognized as a caution or alert from long distances


    The headlights should be on _____ _______ so as not to blind drivers approaching from the opposite direction

    low beam

    The emergency lights should be on
    __________ the traffic crash management process


    the patrol vehicle is the _____ available equipment that you can use to protect the crash scene.


    Additional warning devices used to alert and direct motorists include:

    traffic cones, vests, flares, barricades, message boards, and signs.

    Agencies may access outside resources, such as their _________ ___________ ______, to provide additional
    warning devices.

    Public Works Department

    It is extremely important for officers directing traffic or investigating a crash to be ________ to oncoming traffic


    Wear the reflective vest ______ your uniform so that you do not restrict access to your gun belt


    A __________ with a wand attachment and reflective gloves are additional tools that will make officers more visible.


    Before placing warning devices, the officer should assess the scene to determine

    what type of warning devices to use, how many will be required, and their placement pattern
    in order to prevent further damage or injury

    The number of warning devices that an officer will use depends on the

    size of the area that needs protection, or the extent of the scene, which is determined by the distance between the first harmful event and the final resting point of vehicles and debris

    The size is also affected by the

    number of traffic lanes and the normal speed of travel on the roadway.

    To determine how far away from the crash to place the cones or flares, first consider

    how fast traffic is moving. Also consider how quickly drivers can react to the traffic disturbance.

    The faster the traffic is moving, the ___________ _________ from the scene you will have to place warnings. Posting an officer at the scene's access point is also a good
    technique for preventing further crashes.

    further away

    Flares or fuses are very important-

    warning devices at a crash scene.They can be used to
    protect the scene, and they are easy to store in the trunk of a patrol vehicle.

    Flares do not only serve as effective warning devices at night;

    they are also visible warning devices to motorists during the day.

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