a collision, involving one or more vehicles, that causes property damage, personal injury, or death and is the result of an unintentional act
the terms _________________, ______________ __________________ ____________ and _____________ ________ _________________ are crucial to the traffic crash definition.
"unintentional", "causes property damage" "personal injury or death"
if someone involved in a crash INTENDED to cause damage or injury, it would not be a crash; it would be a crime such as:
aggravavted battery or murder.
you should treat each traffic crash as a ______ __________ until it is determined that no criminal acts took place.
officers will be able to successfully defend their crash investigations in court through the accurate recording of
observations and the applicaton of the corresponding statue in violation
prominent statues involving traffic crash investigations include:
316: state uniform traffic control: definitions and violations
318: dispositions of traffic infractions
320: Motor vehicle license/registrations
322: driver's license
any person who DRIVES or is in actual physical control of a vehicle on a highway or who is exercising control of a vehicle or steering a vehicle being towed by a motor vehicle.
every device in, upon, or by which any person or property is or may be transported or drawn upon a highway, excepting devices used exclusively upon stationary rails or tracks
a SELF-PROPELLED vehicle not operated upon rails or guideway, but not including any bicycle, motorized scooter, electric personal assistive mobility device, swamp buggy, or moped.
technology installed on a motor vehicle that has the capability to drive the vehicle on which the technology is installed w/o the active ontrol or monitoring by a HUMAN OPERATOR
Roadways on Which a Traffic Crash May Occur (9)
laned highway,limited access facility,private road or driveway,state road,roadway,street or highway,intersection,crosswalk,sidewalk,bicycle path
a highway the roadway of which is divided into TWO or MORE clearly marked lanes for vehicular traffic.
limited access facility
a street or highway especially
designed for through traffic and over, from, or to which owners or
occupants of abutting land or other persons have no right or easement,
or only a limited right or easement, of access, light, air, or view by
reason of the fact that their property abuts upon such limited access
facility or for any other reason; such highways or streets may be
parkways from which trucks, buses, and other commercial vehicles are
excluded; or they may be freeways open to use by all customary
forms of street and highway traffic.
private road or driveway
except as otherwise provided in paragraph (53)(b), any
privately owned way or place used for vehicular travel by the owner and those having express or implied
permission from the owner, but not by other persons
that portion of a highway improved, designed, or ordinarily used for vehicular travel, exclusive of the berm or shoulder; in the event a highway includes two or more separate roadways, the term roadway as used here refers to any such roadway separately, but not to all such roadways collectively
street or highway
(a) the entire width between the boundary lines of every way or place of whatever nature when any part
thereof is open to the use of the public for purposes of vehicular traffic;
(b) the entire width between the boundary lines of any privately owned way or place used for vehicular
travel by the owner and those having express or implied permission from the owner, but not by other
persons, or any limited access road owned or controlled by a special district, whenever, by written
agreement entered into under ss. 316.006(2)(b) or (3)(b), a county or municipality exercises traffic
control jurisdiction over said way or place;
(c) any area, such as a runway, taxiway, ramp, clear zone, or parking lot, within the boundary of any
airport owned by the state, a county, a municipality, or a political subdivision, which area is used for
vehicular traffic but which is not open for vehicular operation by the general public; or
(d) any way or place used for vehicular traffic on a controlled access basis within a mobile home park
recreation district which has been created under s. 418.30, F.S., and the recreational facilities of which
district are open to the general public
(a) the area embraced within the prolongation or connection of the lateral curblines; or, if none, then the
lateral boundary lines of the roadways of two highways which join one another at, or approximately
at, right angles; or the area within which vehicles traveling upon different highways joining at any other
angle may come in conflict
(b) where a highway includes two roadways 30 feet or more apart, then every crossing of each roadway
of such divided highway by an intersecting highway shall be regarded as a separate intersection; in the
event such intersecting highway also includes two roadways 30 feet or more apart, then every crossing
of two roadways of such highways shall be regarded as a separate intersection.
(a) that part of a roadway at an intersection included within the connections of the lateral lines of the
sidewalks on opposite sides of the highway, measured from the curbs or, in the absence of curbs, from
the edges of the traversable roadway
(b) any portion of a roadway at an intersection or elsewhere distinctly indicated for pedestrian crossing
by lines or other markings on the surface
that portion of a street between the curb line, or the lateral line, of a roadway
and the adjacent property lines, intended for use by pedestrian
any road, path, or way that is open to bicycle travel, which road, path, or way is physically separated from motorized vehicular traffic by an open space or by a barrier and is located either within the highway right-of-way or within an independent right-of-way
Types of Injuries Sustained in a
serious bodily injury, fatal injury, incapacitating injury, non-incapacitating injury.
serious bodily injury:
an injury to any person, including the driver, which consists of a physical condition that creates a substantial risk of death, SERIOUS personal disfigurement, or protracted loss or impairment of the function of any bodily member or organ
an injury resulting in an individual's death within a (12-month period) after the traffic crash
visible or non-visible signs of
injury, such as a bleeding wound or distorted member, usually requiring
transportation to a medical facility and
visible or non-visible signs of injury or complaint of
injury, not requiring transport from the scene.
your safe arrival at the crash scene, using officer safety techniques, is crucial to the:
protection of crash victims
if a crash scene involves fire or hazardous materials, it can quickly get out of ________________
parking the patrol vehicle safely, accurately assessing the crash scene, and requesting necessary assistance helps prevent futher ____________
traffic crash management:
you must take CONTROL of a traffic crash situation and conduct the resulting investigation by quickly and efficiently getting pertinent information and determining the cause if death.
at a traffic scene it is your RESPONSBILITY to:
control,manage, normalize, and document atraffic crash as quickly as possible
The traffic crash management process involves the following TEN STEPS:
Step 1: Respond to the traffic crash scene safely.
Step 2: Assess the scene of the crash.
Step 3: Secure a safe work environment at the crash scene.
Step 4: Provide emergency medical assistance to injured people, if necessary.
Step 5: Obtain pertinent information.
Step 6: Investigate the crash to determine how and why it occurred.
Step 7: Return the scene to normal as quickly as possible, if appropriate.
Step 8: Complete driver exchange of information.
Step 9: Take enforcement action.
Step 10: Document the crash
Step 1: Respond to the Crash Scene Safely
-After receiving the call for service, get as much information as possible about the crash
location, such as street names, addresses, and the mile marker. It is important to respond
to the scene safely in accordance with agency policy and state statutes. You cannot assist
others if, while responding to the crash scene, you become involved in a crash.
-Use all available traffic safety equipment in accordance with the Department of
Transportation or agency policies. Any time you are working around highways,
roadways, or construction areas, make sure to wear high-visibility safety apparel, such
as a brightly colored vest.
Step 2: Assess the Scene of the Crash
Many factors will assist you to assess the crash scene. Upon approaching the crash scene, view it from a DISTANCE to determine its type and extent.
By locating the vehicles involved and the property damaged in an incident, an officer should be able to conclude the ____________ of the actual crash scene.
The officer can also determine the path of travel by examining the evidence ____ by the involved vehicles
Be aware of the possible dangers and hazards that you may encounter at the crash site, _______ being one of them.
If the fire is SMALL enough and appropriate for the type of fire extinguisher in the patrol vehicle, use the:
fire extinguisher to put out the flames
In the event of a vehicle fire, passengers, witnesses, and non-motorists may need to be evacuated to a ________ _________________
To conduct the evacuation, use _______ ________ and _________ ________ to direct all people away from the fire toward a safe location.
verbal commands/common gestures
If a large number of people are present, use the patrol vehicle's ________ ______________ __________ to direct observers away from the scene.
public address system
When deciding on a safe location for them, consider the:
amount of traffic, the weather, and the buildings in the area that may be affected by the fire.
During scene assessment, you may discover a commercial motor vehicle involved in the traffic crash. Before approaching the scene, determine if the vehicle's contents are ___________
Locate the placard on the vehicle and refer to the Department of Transportation's _______________ _________________ ______________ to verify the contents
Emergency Response Guide (ERG)
Crash debris, such as small pieces of metal and glass, pose additional threats to both ______________ and _____________ traffic
Traffic crashes attract motorists' attention and cause gawking or "______________________" which slows the traffic flow
can be a hazard since drivers' attentions are focused on the crash scene and not ongawking or "rubbernecking,
driving around the crime scene
_____________ and __________ from the patrol vehicle distract drivers' attentions and obscure their visions
People with ________ _______ difficulties have trouble adjusting from the bright lights around a crash scene to the normal lighting from headlights or streetlights.
Conditions due to emergency vehicle lights, heavy traffic, or movement on and off the
roadway can ________ ________
Whenever possible, work _________oncoming traffic so that you will see hazardous situations as they develop
The patrol vehicle is the _________ _________ for controlling traffic, It warns motorists of the hazards at a traffic crash scene.
When positioning the patrol vehicle, find a safe location
where you can be clearly
visible to oncoming vehicles
Activating the patrol vehicle's emergency lights is ____________ recognized as a caution or alert from long distances
The headlights should be on _____ _______ so as not to blind drivers approaching from the opposite direction
the patrol vehicle is the _____ available equipment that you can use to protect the crash scene.
Additional warning devices used to alert and direct motorists include:
traffic cones, vests, flares, barricades, message boards, and signs.
Agencies may access outside resources, such as their _________ ___________ ______, to provide additional
Public Works Department
It is extremely important for officers directing traffic or investigating a crash to be ________ to oncoming traffic
Wear the reflective vest ______ your uniform so that you do not restrict access to your gun belt
A __________ with a wand attachment and reflective gloves are additional tools that will make officers more visible.
Before placing warning devices, the officer should assess the scene to determine
what type of warning devices to use, how many will be required, and their placement pattern
in order to prevent further damage or injury
The number of warning devices that an officer will use depends on the
size of the area that needs protection, or the extent of the scene, which is determined by the distance between the first harmful event and the final resting point of vehicles and debris
The size is also affected by the
number of traffic lanes and the normal speed of travel on the roadway.
To determine how far away from the crash to place the cones or flares, first consider
how fast traffic is moving. Also consider how quickly drivers can react to the traffic disturbance.
The faster the traffic is moving,
the ___________ _________ from the scene you will have to place
warnings. Posting an officer at the scene's access point is also a good
technique for preventing further crashes.
Flares or fuses are very important-
warning devices at a crash scene.They can be used to
protect the scene, and they are easy to store in the trunk of a patrol vehicle.