is the process by which alcohol enters the bloodstream. The absorption rate of alcohol varies
based on many factors, including the person's weight and gender, whether and how much food he or she has
eaten, and the alcohol concentration of the substances consumed.
is the process by which alcohol is carried via the bloodstream to the body's tissues and organs.
is the biological process by which the body breaks alcohol down into compounds that are more
n is when the body expels alcohol through exhaled breath, sweat, tears,
saliva, urine, etc. The average alcohol elimination rate of humans is .015 percent
Florida law establishes the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) or breath alcohol
concentration (BrAC) limit at which
an individual is presumed impaired and cannot
legally operate a vehicle.
Driving under the influence (DUI)
refers to a person who is driving, who has
driven, or who is in actual physical control of a vehicle while impaired by alcohol or
certain substances that adversely affect the auditory, visual, or mental processes.
A person may be in actual physical control of a vehicle even though
he or she is not actually driving. A person who is physically in, on, or around the vehicle and has the
capability to operate the vehicle is legally in actual physical control of the vehicle and
can be arrested and prosecuted for DUI.
every device, in, upon, or by which any
person or property is or may be transported or drawn upon a highway, excepting devices
used exclusively upon stationary rails or track
Within the state
includes anywhere in Florida,
whether on roadways or public or private property. A person may be
arrested for DUI even though he or she never drove
onto a road or highway.
include the ability to see, hear, walk, talk, judge distances, drive an
automobile, make judgments, act in emergencies, and normally perform the mental
and physical acts of daily life.
Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFSTs)
are a series of standardized validated psychophysical tests given by law enforcement to determine chemical impairment
describe field sobriety tests that measure a person's ability to perform both mental and physical
Any person who accepts the privilege of driving in Florida has consented to submit to
any approved chemical or physical test to determine the alcohol content or the presence
of a chemical and/or controlled substance in their breath, blood, or urine once they are
lawfully arrested for committing an offense while driving or in actual physical control
of a vehicle and under the influence.
DUI detection process generally means
the entire process of identifying and gathering
evidence accumulated to determine whether or not a subject should be arrested for a
Phase Two: Personal contact
After the vehicle stops, there usually is an
opportunity to observe and speak with the driver face-to-face
Phase Three: Pre-arrest screening
Administration of some structured
standardized field sobriety tests (SFSTs) to the driver to determine impairment.
is any substance that, when taken into the human body, can impair the ability of the person to operate a vehicle safely
using drugs from two or more drug
categories simultaneously. Examples include drinking alcohol while smoking marijuana, sprinkling PCP on marijuana joints, or injecting heroin laced with cocaine ("speedball"). Such combinations often increase impairment. Impairment could also occur
unintentionally through the use of alcohol and prescription medication.
One drug affects some indicator
of impairment, and the other drug has no effect whatsoever on that
indicator. For example, alcohol will cause
HGN, but marijuana will not cause HGN. Therefore, HGN will be present.
Drugs from two categories BOTH
affect some indicator in the same way, and these effects reinforce each
other when combined. For example, CNS
Stimulants and Hallucinogens both cause pupil dilation; therefore, pupils will be dilated
Drugs from two categories may produce SOME effects that are exactly the opposite, but, in combination, the effects are difficult to predict. For example, cocaine dilates the pupils, and heroin constricts the pupils. The eyes may be dilated, constricted, or normal.
drug recognition expert (DRE)
is specially trained and certified in investigations
involving drug-impaired drivers. He or she will be able to testify in court in great detail and provide expert opinions regarding drug impairment.
A cue is
a reminder, prompt or a signal to do something, e.g., take enforcement action or observe
the vehicle more closely
is defined as an involuntary jerking of the eyes, , which can be caused by the use of alcohol and
certain other drugs.
is an involuntary jerking of the eyes caused by movement or action to the vestibular
(inner ear) system.
is an involuntary jerking of the eyes caused by a disruption of the central nervous
Horizontal gaze nystagmus (HGN)
refers to an involuntary jerking occurring as the eyes
move toward the side
Vertical gaze nystagmus (VGN)
is an involuntary jerking of the eyes (up and down) which occurs when the eyes gaze upward at maximum elevation
is an involuntary jerking of the
eyes as they look straight ahead. Its presence usually indicates a
pathological condition or high doses of a dissociative anesthetic drug,
is an involuntary jerking of the eyes which can occur as a result of brain tumors, other brain damage, or some diseases of the inner ear. occurs fewer in people.
occurs when the gaze of the eye has moved as far as it can go toward the shoulder, and no white is visible at the outside of the eye