Ch.11 Vocab Only flashcards |

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  • Absorption

    is the process by which alcohol enters the bloodstream. The absorption rate of alcohol varies
    based on many factors, including the person's weight and gender, whether and how much food he or she has
    eaten, and the alcohol concentration of the substances consumed.


    is the process by which alcohol is carried via the bloodstream to the body's tissues and organs.


    is the biological process by which the body breaks alcohol down into compounds that are more
    readily eliminated.


    n is when the body expels alcohol through exhaled breath, sweat, tears,
    saliva, urine, etc. The average alcohol elimination rate of humans is .015 percent
    per hour.

    Florida law establishes the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) or breath alcohol
    concentration (BrAC) limit at which

    an individual is presumed impaired and cannot
    legally operate a vehicle.

    Driving under the influence (DUI)

    refers to a person who is driving, who has
    driven, or who is in actual physical control of a vehicle while impaired by alcohol or
    certain substances that adversely affect the auditory, visual, or mental processes.

    A person may be in actual physical control of a vehicle even though

    he or she is not actually driving. A person who is physically in, on, or around the vehicle and has the
    capability to operate the vehicle is legally in actual physical control of the vehicle and
    can be arrested and prosecuted for DUI.


    every device, in, upon, or by which any
    person or property is or may be transported or drawn upon a highway, excepting devices
    used exclusively upon stationary rails or track

    Within the state

    includes anywhere in Florida, whether on roadways or public or private property. A person may be arrested for DUI even though he or she never drove
    onto a road or highway.

    Normal faculties

    include the ability to see, hear, walk, talk, judge distances, drive an
    automobile, make judgments, act in emergencies, and normally perform the mental
    and physical acts of daily life.

    Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFSTs)

    are a series of standardized validated psychophysical tests given by law enforcement to determine chemical impairment

    Psychophysical tests

    describe field sobriety tests that measure a person's ability to perform both mental and physical
    tasks simultaneously.

    implied consent

    Any person who accepts the privilege of driving in Florida has consented to submit to
    any approved chemical or physical test to determine the alcohol content or the presence
    of a chemical and/or controlled substance in their breath, blood, or urine once they are
    lawfully arrested for committing an offense while driving or in actual physical control
    of a vehicle and under the influence.

    DUI detection process generally means

    the entire process of identifying and gathering
    evidence accumulated to determine whether or not a subject should be arrested for a
    DUI offense.

    Phase One: Vehicle in motion

    Observation of the driver operating the vehicle.

    Phase Two: Personal contact

    After the vehicle stops, there usually is an
    opportunity to observe and speak with the driver face-to-face

    Phase Three: Pre-arrest screening

    Administration of some structured
    standardized field sobriety tests (SFSTs) to the driver to determine impairment.


    is any substance that, when taken into the human body, can impair the ability of the person to operate a vehicle safely

    Polydrug use

    using drugs from two or more drug
    categories simultaneously. Examples include drinking alcohol while smoking marijuana, sprinkling PCP on marijuana joints, or injecting heroin laced with cocaine ("speedball"). Such combinations often increase impairment. Impairment could also occur
    unintentionally through the use of alcohol and prescription medication.


    Neither drug has an effect on the indicator.

    Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus



    One drug affects some indicator of impairment, and the other drug has no effect whatsoever on that indicator. For example, alcohol will cause
    HGN, but marijuana will not cause HGN. Therefore, HGN will be present.


    Drugs from two categories BOTH affect some indicator in the same way, and these effects reinforce each other when combined. For example, CNS
    Stimulants and Hallucinogens both cause pupil dilation; therefore, pupils will be dilated


    Drugs from two categories may produce SOME effects that are exactly the opposite, but, in combination, the effects are difficult to predict. For example, cocaine dilates the pupils, and heroin constricts the pupils. The eyes may be dilated, constricted, or normal.

    drug recognition expert (DRE)

    is specially trained and certified in investigations
    involving drug-impaired drivers. He or she will be able to testify in court in great detail and provide expert opinions regarding drug impairment.

    Divided attention

    simply means the ability to concentrate on two or more tasks at the same time.

    A cue is

    a reminder, prompt or a signal to do something, e.g., take enforcement action or observe
    the vehicle more closely


    is something that leads to the solution of a problem, such as a fingerprint or DNA evidence.


    is defined as an involuntary jerking of the eyes, , which can be caused by the use of alcohol and
    certain other drugs.

    Vestibular nystagmus

    is an involuntary jerking of the eyes caused by movement or action to the vestibular
    (inner ear) system.

    Neurological nystagmus

    is an involuntary jerking of the eyes caused by a disruption of the central nervous

    Horizontal gaze nystagmus (HGN)

    refers to an involuntary jerking occurring as the eyes
    move toward the side

    Vertical gaze nystagmus (VGN)

    is an involuntary jerking of the eyes (up and down) which occurs when the eyes gaze upward at maximum elevation

    Resting nystagmus

    is an involuntary jerking of the eyes as they look straight ahead. Its presence usually indicates a pathological condition or high doses of a dissociative anesthetic drug, such as

    Pathological nystagmus

    is an involuntary jerking of the eyes which can occur as a result of brain tumors, other brain damage, or some diseases of the inner ear. occurs fewer in people.

    Maximum deviation

    occurs when the gaze of the eye has moved as far as it can go toward the shoulder, and no white is visible at the outside of the eye

    improper turn

    If a subject removes the front foot from the line while turning, loses balance while turning, or otherwise
    turns other than directed, record as an

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